华为最新版Massive MIMO技术白皮书

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2018年3月初,华为发布最新版的Massive MIMO技术白皮书,指出Massive MIMO是5G的核心技术之一,全球多个领先型运营商已经将FDD Massive MIMO在2018年列入其商用计划,构筑极致用户体验。可以预见, Massive MIMO的商用将成为2018年运营商的“弄潮儿”,风风火火行走全球各地。2018年是Massive MIMO技术的不断演进的一年,更是TM9(模式9)规模商用的一年。
Contents 01 Executive Summary 02 LTE Demands for continuous growth of Network Capacity 03 LTE Evolving towards Multiple-Antenna Technology for Improved Capacity 6 04 TM9 is Essential to enable fdd narrow Beam in Multiple-Antenna Network 8 05 Gains offered by tm9 5.1 TM9 MU-MiMo to Achieve 3 to 5 fold Capacity Gains 5.2 TM9 SU-MIMO to Improve User Experi- 12 enced Data Rate by 30% to 50% 5.3 TM9 DL CoMP to Improve CEU Experience 13 by20%to40% 06 TM9 Industry status 15 07 Appendix 16 7.1 Glossary ----16 7.2 Reference 17 Executive 01 summary The introduction of TMg eliminates restrictions previously imposed by reference signal overhead on LTE multiple-antenna evolution and is a prerequisite for FDD beamforming and coordination features. tm9-based multiple-antenna technology significantly expands cell capacity and improves the experienced data rate and cell edge user experience. TM9 multiple-antenna technology is a major LTE evolution feature, and similar technologies will be used in future 5G era network. The TM9 industry has quickly matured, and large-scale commercial deployments will occur in 2018 LTE Demands for 0 Continuous Growth of Network Capacity After deployment during nearly a decade, LTE now carries approximately 80% of the MBB traffic and has become the fundamental network to provide mBB services. Over the next decade. the number of lte users will continue to significantly grow GSMA estimates that there will be a net increase of around 3 billion Lte users by 2025. Meanwhile, traffic demand keeps growing from web browsing to HD video. The data of usage(DOU)in some countries already exceeds 10 GB/month DOU (GB/Month) 20.1 15.5 989.29848477-7.572 139383837 Source: Huawei The 5G non-standalone(NSA)NR specifications have been frozen on December 21, 2017. These specifications define LTE as a basic bearer of 5G NSA. LTE technologies will evolve along with 5G Nr to fulfill the requirements of 5G users for consistent service experience 2018 2019 Rel-15 Rel-16 G□ NSANR SANR Full IMT-2020NR LTE Evolution Benefiting from a wide network coverage, a huge base of users, and a large number of UE models, LTE will still remain the major network technology providing MBB services over the next decade. In addition, LTE traffic is expected to grow several folds. Hence, improving LTE capacity is critical Global cellular data traffic by network generation a 30 250 ■3G 200 ■2G 2010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022 Source: Strategy Analytics LTE Evolving towards Multiple-Antenna Y Technology for Improved Capacity Various technologies and solutions have been developed to meet the growing demand for more capacity, such as bandwidth expansion and site densification However, these approaches have limitations. For example, bandwidth cannot be expanded indefinitely, and site acquisition is getting more arduous Multiple-antenna technology has been introduced to make a new way to ensure smooth capacity expansion Multiple-antenna technology, also known as MIMo (multiple-input multiple-output), uses multiple transmit and receive antennas and spatial multiplexing technology to significantly achieve coverage and capacity gains resulting in improved user experience without additional spectrum required The following figure shows an MXN MIMO system consisting of M transmit antennas and n receive antennas Transmitter Receiver #1 #N MXN MIMO 4-antenna technology has been introduced since the initial stage of Lte development. 4X4 MIMO supports simultaneous transmission of up to four data streams, almost doubling the peak rate of 2X2 MIMO mpressed by the large gains offered by 4T4R, there are already around 150 4T4R networks deployed globally up to now Even if UEs have only two antennas, which means maximum data stream number transferred to this ue cannot exceed two, 4x2 MIMo can still achieve a much higher average throughput than 2X 2 MIMO. This is because a 4-antenna e Nodeb obtains more accurate channel measurement results and feedback and produces more spatial diversity gains Average perceived throughput gains offered by 4x2 MIMO in contrast with 2x2 MIMO 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 75.5% 30% 20% 46.1% 10% 16.1% 0% 4×2MMo/ light load4×2MMo/ medium load4×2M|Mo/ heavy load (10%) (50%) (70%) More antenna ports multiply the peak Ue throughput and cell capacity Multiple-antenna evolution has consequently become a major LTE evolution qed TM9 is Essential to Enable Fdd Narrow Beam O in Multiple-Antenna Network As discussed previously, the increase of eNode B antenna numbers significantly improves user data rates and capacity. However, eNode Bs compliant with 3GPP Releases older than Release 10 only support a maximum of four antennas due to the restriction of reference signals For 3GPP specifications before Release 10, eNode Bs only support one type of cell-level reference signals, the so-called"cell-specific reference signal (CRS)" CRS handles channel measurement, feedback, and data demodulation over the LTE air interface, CRS transmission causes extra overhead over air interface The more air interface resources consumed by CSs, the fewer air interface resources are available for data transmission Signals of different antennas are transmitted in different paths. Each antenna port requires a group of reference signals for accurate channel status measurement More antenna ports lead to more overhead in terms of air interface resources For a 2-port antenna, CRSs consume 9.5%of air interface resources. This overhead increases to 14. 3% for a 4-port transmission configuration lf the number of ports increases to eight, the overhead will be even worse, and this will annihilate the gain resulting from the additional ports. As a consequence, the maximum number of antenna ports supported by CRS is only four Overhead by Reference Signals 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 14.3% 5.0% 9.5% 0% -po To address these limitations 3GPP Release 10 introduced TM9 (Transmission Mode), a new reference signal design and channel feedback solution TM9 eliminates reference signal limitations of multiple-antenna technology and allows for configurations with more than four antenna ports 3GPP Evolution 2007 2010 2013 2015 2016 2017 2018 Rel-8 Rel-10 Rel-12 Rel-13 Rel-15 4 Ports 8 Ports 12-16 Ports 20-32 Ports TM3/TM4 TM9/TM10 TM9 uses different reference signals for channel measurement/feed back and data demodulation. CSI reference signals(CSl-RSs)are used for channel measurement and feedback, while demodulation reference signals(DMRSs)are used for data demodulation. The advantage of this new reference signal design is that CSl RSs consume fewer air interface resources to perform channel measurement/feedback, and that dmrSs are transmitted along with data and can be allocated on demand, in 3GPP release 14. the maximum number of antenna ports has increased to 32 In addition different sets of csi-RSs can be allocated to different ues to form directional beams. crSs are cell-level common reference signals and can be transmitted using only wide beams and cannot well support coordination features or beamforming. However, TM9 can allocate user-specific narrow beams by using CSI-RS and dMRS to enable beamforming and coordination features

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