Coupled CFD-DEM modeling to multiphase flows

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多相流的CFD-DEM耦合(Coupled CFD-DEM modeling _ formulation, implementation and applications to multiphase flows-John Wiley & Sons (2016)-Mostoufi, Navid_ Norouzi, Hamid Reza_ Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rahmat_ Zarghami, Reza)
COUPLED CFD-DEM MODELING FORMULATION. IMPLEMENTATION AND APPLICATION TO MULTIPHASE FLOWS Hamid reza norouzi Reza zarghami Rahmat Sotudeh-Gharebagh Navid mostofi School of chemical engineering College of engineering University of Tehran, Tehran, iran WILEY This edition first published 2016 o 2016 John Wiley Sons, Ltd First Edition published in 2016 Registered Office John Wiley sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, Po19 8sQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission toreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwww.wiley.com The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and patents Act 1988 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the uk Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic book Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book Limit of liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of competent professional should be sought Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Norouzi, Hamid Reza, 1985-author I Zarghami, Reza, 1973-author. I Sotudeh-Gharebagh Rahmat. 1964 author. I Mostoufi Navid author Title: Coupled CFD-DEM modeling: formulation, implementation and application to multiphase flows Hamid Reza norouzi, Reza Zarghami, Rahmat Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Navid Mostoufi Description: Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley sons, 2016. Includes bibliographical references and index Identifiers: LCCN 2016025074 IsBN 9781119005131(cloth)I Isbn 9781119005292(epub) Subjects: LCSH: Computational fluid dynamics-Mathematical models I Discrete element method-Mathematical models Classification: LCC TA3575D37 N67 2016I DDC 620./064015111-dc 23 Lcrecordavailableathttps://ccn.loc.gov/2016025074 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Cover(background)image: Gettyimages/KTSDESIGN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Set in 10/12pt Times by SPi global, Pondicherry, India 12016 To our families, for their continuous support and understanding Contents about the authors Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Multiphase Coupling 122 1.2 Modeling Appi roaches 1, 3 Modeling with dem 1.4 CFD-DEM Modeling 1.5 Applications 10 1.6 Scope and Overall Plan 10 1. 7 Online Content 12 References 12 PartI dem 15 2 DEM Formulation 17 2.1 Hard-Sphere 2.1.1 Equation of motion 2.1.2 Collision model 899 2.1.3 Interparticle Forces ) 2.2 Soft-Sphere 24 2.2.1 Equations of motion 2.3 Force-Displacement Laws 27 23. Linear viscoelastic model 29 2.3.2 Nonlinear viscoelastic models 36 2.3.3 Comparison of Viscoelastic Force-Displacement models 45 2.3.4 Elastic Perfectly Plastic Models 49 Contents 2.4 Torque expressions 56 2.4. Model A Constant Torque Model 56 2.4.2 Model B: Viscous model 2.4.3 Model C: Spring-Dashpot Model 57 2.5 Boundary and Initial conditions 2.5. 1 Boundary Conditions 58 2.5.2 Initial Condition Nomenclature 60 References 3 DEM Implementation 3.1 Computational view 3.2 Program Structure 71 3.3 Contact Search algorithms 3.3.1 Definition of problem 3.3.2 Cell-Based algorithms 80 3.3.3 Sort-Based algorithms 6 3.3.4 Tree-Based Broad Search algorithms 99 3.3.5 Fine Search for Spherical particles 103 3. 4 Integration Methods 103 3.4.1 Single-Step methods 106 3.4.2 Multi-Step algorithms 110 3.4.3 Predictor -Corrector Methods 3.4.4 Evaluation of Integration Me ethods 114 3.5 Spring stiffness 119 3.5.1 Maximum Overlap 3.5.2 Collision Time and Maximum Contact Force 123 3.6 Wall Implementation 123 3.6./ Definition of Wall elements 125 3.6.2 Contact Detection 128 3.6.3 Moving Wall 136 3.7 Parallelization 138 3.7.1 Distributed Memory parallelization 138 3.7.2 Shared-Memory parallelization 141 nomenclature 145 References 147 Non-Spherical Particles 152 4.1 Shape representation 153 4.2 Kinematics and dynamics of a rigid bod 156 4.2.1 Euler angles and Transformation Matrix 157 4.2.2 Equations of motion 159 4.2.3 Quaternions for rigid Body dynamics 163 4.3 Superellipsoids 164 4.3.1 Contact forces 166 4.3.2 Effective Radius and Curvatures 169 Contents 4.3.3 Torque calculation 43. 4 Contact Detection 174 4.4 Multi-Sphere method 178 nomenclature 184 Refe 5 DEM Applications to granular Flows 189 5.1 Packing of Particles 189 5.1.1 Confined packing 189 5. 2 Pile formation 0 5.1.3 Rigid and Flexible Fibers 194 5.2 Flow in Hoppers 196 5.2.1 Flow patterns 197 5.2.2 Segregation 199 5.2.3 Discharge Rate 201 5.3 Solid Mixing 203 5.3.1 Mechanisms of mixing and segregation 203 5.3.2 Mixing Index 205 5.3.3 Rotating Drums 209 5.3.4 Tumbling blenders 220 5.3.5 Shaft Batch mixers 223 5.3.6 Continuous mixers 229 5.4 Screw Conveying 234 5.4.1 Simulation of screw Conveyor 237 5.4.2 Results of the simulations 238 5.4.3 iterature 239 5.5 Film Coating 241 5.5./ Phenomenological Models 243 5.5.2 Monte-Carlo Method 244 Nomenclature 247 References 249 Part I CFD-DEM 257 6 CFD-DEM Formulation and Coupling 259 6. 1 Multiphase Coupling 260 6.1.1 Coupling strategies 260 6.1.2 Types of Coupling 262 6.1.3 Interphase interactions 265 6.2 Momentum Coupling 267 6.2.1 Single phase Flow of fluids 267 6.2.2 Fluid resolution in CFD-DEM 274 6.2.3 Unresolved Surface CFD-DEM 275 6.2. 4 Surface Force Decomposition 287 6.3 Energy Coupling 303 6.3.1 Governing equations 304 Contents 6.3.2 Rates of Heat Transfer for Particles 308 6.3.3 Rates of Heat Transfer for Fluid 316 6.3.4 Sequence of Calculations 317 6.4 Mass Coupling 319 6.4.1 Governing Equations 319 6.4.2 Rates of Mass Transfer for Particles 324 6.4.3 Rates of Change in Fluid 329 6.4.4 Sequence of calculations 329 Nomenclature 329 R eferences 335 7 CFD-DEM Applications to Multiphase Flow 7.1 Fluidization 341 7.I Macro-Scale phenomena 342 7.1. 2 Meso-Scale phenomena 344 71. 3 Micro-Scale phenomena 345 7.2 Spouting 347 7.3 Pneumatic Conveying 7.3.1 Dilute Phase and Dense Phase conveying 7.3.2 Horizontal Conveying 57 7.3.3 Vertical Conveying 359 7.4 Non-Isothermal flows 7.5 Reactive flows 362 7.6 Miscellaneous 364 Nomenclature 365 References 366 8 Interparticle Forces and External fields 372 8. 1 Governing Equations 8.1.1 Sequence of calculations 375 8.2 Interparticle Forces 376 8. 2.I van der waals force 376 8. 2. 2 Liquid Bridge Force 379 8.2.3 Electrostatic force 386 8.3 External Fields 390 8.3.1 Electric field 390 8.3.2 Magnetic Field 393 8.3.3 Vibration field 397 8.3.4 Acoustic field 398 8.4 Applications 399 Nomenclature 404 References 407 Index 412 about the authors Hamid reza norouzi is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Process Design and simulation at the universit of Tehran(email: hrnorouzi@@ut ac ir). He has taught fluid mechanics and applied mathematics for over 3 years He was a consultant to pharmaceutical companies. His research interests include multiphase flows and computational fluid dynamics. He holds a B Eng degree in chemical engineering from Arak University (Iran), as well as an M.Sc. and a Ph. D in chemical engineering from the University of Tehran. He has more than 27 publications in major international journals and conferences Reza zarghami is currently Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Tehran(email rzarghami@ut ac ir). He has taught advanced fluid mechanics, computational fluid dynamics, mixing, and process control for over 6 years. His research interests include nonlinear dynamics, multiphase flows, and com- mutational fluid dynamics. He holds a B Eng deg chemical engineering from Irans Shiraz University, plus an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Tehran He has written more than 100 publi cations in major international journals and conferences He was the chairman of the international conference of Membrane science and Technology(MST2015)

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