NIST SP800-57pt2r1.pdf

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Cryptographic mechanisms are often used to protect the integrity and confidentiality of data that is sensitive, has a high value, or is vulnerable to unauthorized disclosure or undetected modification during transmission or while in storage. A cryptographic mechanism relies upon two basic components: an algorithm (or cryptographic methodology) and a variable cryptographic key. The algorithm and key are used together to apply cryptographic protection to data (e.g., to encrypt the data or to generate a digital signature) and to remove or check the protection (e.g., to decrypt the encrypted data or to verify a digital signature). This is analogous to a physical safe that can be opened only with the correct combination. Two types of cryptographic algorithms are in common use today: symmetric key algorithms and asymmetric key algorithms. Symmetric key algorithms (sometimes called secret key algorithms) use a single key to both apply cryptographic protection and to remove or check the protection. Asymmetric key algorithms (often called public key algorithms) use a pair of keys (i.e., a key pair): a public key and a private key that are mathematically related to each other. In the case of symmetric key algorithms, the single key must be kept secret from everyone and everything not specifically authorized to access the information being protected. In asymmetric key cryptography, only one key in the key pair, the private key, must be kept secret; the other key can be made public. Symmetric key cryptography is most often used to protect the confidentiality of information or to authenticate the integrity of that information. Asymmetric key cryptography is commonly used to protect the integrity and authenticity of information and to establish symmetric keys. Given differences in the nature of symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography and of the requirements of different security applications of cryptography, specific key management requirements and methods necessarily vary fr

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