GNSS 遥感原理与应用

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Global Navigation Satellite Systems- Signal, Theory and Applications Edited by Shuanggen Jin Published by In tech Janeza trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright 2012 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source As for readers, this license allows users to download, copy and build upon published chapters even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, Which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications Notice Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published chapters. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials. instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book Publishing Process Manager Romana Vukelic Technical Editor Teodora Smiljanic Cover Designer InTech Design Team First published February, 2012 Printed in croatia Additional hard copies can be obtained from orders@intechweb org Global Navigation Satellite Systems-Signal, Theory and Applications, Edited by Shuanggen Jin 0. cm SBN978-953-307-843-4 NTECH open science open minas free online editions of in Tech Books and journals can be found at Contents Preface X Part 1 GNSS Signals and System 1 Chapter 1 High Sensitivity Techniques for GNSS Signal Acquisition 3 Fabio dovis and tung hai ta Chapter 2 Baseband hardware designs in modernised gNss receivers 33 Nagaraj c. shivaramaiah and andrew g. dempste Chapter 3 Unambiguous Processing Techniques of Binary offset Carrier Modulated signals 53 Zheng yao Chapter 4 Evolution of Integrity Concept From Galileo to Multisystem 77 Mario Calamia, Giovanni Dore and Alessandro mori Part 2 GNSS Navigation and Applications 105 Chapter 5 Estimation of Satellite-User Ranges Through GNSS Code Phase Measurements 107 Marco pini Gianluca falco and letizia lo presti Chapter 6 GNSs in Practical determination of regional heights 127 Bihter Erol and serdar erol Chapter 7 Precise Real-Time Positioning Using Network RTK 161 Ahmed El-Mowafy Chapter8 Achievable positioning accuracies ir a network of gnss reference stations 189 Paolo Dabove, Mattia De agostino and Ambrogio Manzino VI Contents Chapter 9 A Decision-Rule Topological Map-Matching Algorithm with Multiple Spatial Data 215 Carola A blazquez Chapter 10 Bevond Trilateration GPS Position Geometry and Analytical Accuracy 241 Monami Zⅰ aur rahman Chapter 11 Improved Inertial/odometry /GPS Positioning of Wheeled robots even in gPs-Denied environments 257 Eric North, Jacques Georgy, Umar Iqbal, Mohammed Tarbochi and aboelmagd Noureldin Chapter 12 Emerging New Trends in Hybrid Vehicle Localization Systems 279 Nabil drawl and otman basin Chapter 13 Indoor Positioning with GNSS-Like Local Signal transmitters 299 Nel samama Chapter 14 Hybrid Positioning and Sensor Integration 339 Masahiko Nagai Part 3 GNSS Errors Mitigation and Modelling 357 Chapter 15 GNSS Atmospheric and ionospheric Sounding 359 Shuanggen Jin Chapter 16 ionospheric Propagation Effects on GNSS Signals and New Correction Approaches 381 M. Mainul Hoque and norbert Jakowski Chapter 17 Multipath mitigation Techniques for Satellite-Based Positioning Applications 405 Mohammad Zahidul H. bhuiyan and elena simona Lohan Preface Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, positioning, timing, and scientific questions related to precise positioning on Earth,'s surface as a highly precise, continuous, all-weather and real-time technique, since GPs became fully operational in 1993. In addition, when the GPs signal propagates through the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere, it is delayed by the atmospheric refractivity owadays,the atmospheric and ionospheric delays can be retrieved from GPS observations, which have facilitated greater advancements in meteorology, climatology, numerical weather models, atmospheric science, and space weather Furthermore GPs multipath as one of the main error sources has been recentl recognized that GPS reflectometry(GPS-R) from the Earth's surface could be used to sense the earth's surface environments Together with the USs modernized GPs-IiF and planned GPS-lll, Russia's restored GLONASS, the coming European Unions GALILEO system, and China's Beidou/ COMPASS system, as well as a number of Space Based Augmentation Systems(SBAS), such as Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System(QZSS) and India's Regional Navigation Satellite Systems(IRNSS),more potentials for the next generation multi-frequency and multi-system global navigation satellite systems(GNSS)will be realized. Therefore, it is valuable to provide detailed information on GNSS techniques and applications for readers and users This book is devoted to presenting recent results and development in GNSS theory, system, signals, receiver, and applications with a number of chapters. First, the basic framework of GNSs system and signals processing are introduced and illustrated. The core correlator architecture of the next generation gnSs receiver baseband hardware is presented and power consumption estimates are analyzed for the new signals at the core correlator level and at the channel level, respectively because the performance of the traditional gnss is constrained by its inherent capability an innovative design methodology for future unambiguous processing techniques of Binary offset carrier (BOC) modulated signals is proposed. Some practical design examples with this methodology are tested to show the practicality and to provide reference for further algorithm development. More and more future GNSS systems and the integrity of multi-GNss system, including GPs, Galileo, GLONASS, and Beidou are very important for future high precision navigation and positioning. Here, the integrity concepts are proposed for the different constellations(GPS/EGNOS and Galileo)and some performances are evaluated

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