• Arduino.Cookbook

    Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 1. Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Installing the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) 4 1.2 Setting Up the Arduino Board 8 1.3 Using the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to Prepare an Arduino Sketch 10 1.4 Uploading and Running the Blink Sketch 13 1.5 Creating and Saving a Sketch 14 1.6 Using Arduino 17 2. Making the Sketch Do Your Bidding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.1 Structuring an Arduino Program 24 2.2 Using Simple Primitive Types (Variables) 25 2.3 Using Floating-Point Numbers 27 2.4 Working with Groups of Values 29 2.5 Using Arduino String Functionality 32 2.6 Using C Character Strings 37 2.7 Splitting Comma-Separated Text into Groups 38 2.8 Converting a Number to a String 41 2.9 Converting a String to a Number 43 2.10 Structuring Your Code into Functional Blocks 45 2.11 Returning More Than One Value from a Function 49 2.12 Taking Actions Based on Conditions 52 2.13 Repeating a Sequence of Statements 53 2.14 Repeating Statements with a Counter 55 2.15 Breaking Out of Loops 58 2.16 Taking a Variety of Actions Based on a Single Variable 59 2.17 Comparing Character and Numeric Values 61 2.18 Comparing Strings 63 2.19 Performing Logical Comparisons 64 iii 2.20 Performing Bitwise Operations 65 2.21 Combining Operations and Assignment 68 3. Using Mathematical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing 69 3.2 Incrementing and Decrementing Values 70 3.3 Finding the Remainder After Dividing Two Values 71 3.4 Determining the Absolute Value 72 3.5 Constraining a Number to a Range of Values 73 3.6 Finding the Minimum or Maximum of Some Values 74 3.7 Raising a Number to a Power 75 3.8 Taking the Square Root 76 3.9 Rounding Floating-Point Numbers Up and Down 76 3.10 Using Trigonometric Functions 77 3.11 Generating Random Numbers 78 3.12 Setting and Reading Bits 80 3.13 Shifting Bits 84 3.14 Extracting High and Low Bytes in an int or long 85 3.15 Forming an int or long from High and Low Bytes 87 4. Serial Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.1 Sending Debug Information from Arduino to Your Computer 94 4.2 Sending Formatted Text and Numeric Data from Arduino 97 4.3 Receiving Serial Data in Arduino 100 4.4 Sending Multiple Text Fields from Arduino in a Single Message 105 4.5 Receiving Multiple Text Fields in a Single Message in Arduino 111 4.6 Sending Binary Data from Arduino 114 4.7 Receiving Binary Data from Arduino on a Computer 118 4.8 Sending Binary Values from Processing to Arduino 120 4.9 Sending the Value of Multiple Arduino Pins 122 4.10 How to Move the Mouse Cursor on a PC or Mac 125 4.11 Controlling Google Earth Using Arduino 130 4.12 Logging Arduino Data to a File on Your Computer 135 4.13 Sending Data to Two Serial Devices at the Same Time 138 4.14 Receiving Serial Data from Two Devices at the Same Time 141 4.15 Setting Up Processing on Your Computer to Send and Receive Serial Data 145 5. Simple Digital and Analog Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 5.1 Using a Switch 150 5.2 Using a Switch Without External Resistors 154 5.3 Reliably Detecting the Closing of a Switch 155 5.4 Determining How Long a Switch Is Pressed 158 iv | Table of Contents 5.5 Reading a Keypad 163 5.6 Reading Analog Values 166 5.7 Changing the Range of Values 168 5.8 Reading More Than Six Analog Inputs 170 5.9 Displaying Voltages Up to 5V 173 5.10 Responding to Changes in Voltage 176 5.11 Measuring Voltages More Than 5V (Voltage Dividers) 177 6. Getting Input from Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 6.1 Detecting Movement 183 6.2 Detecting Light 186 6.3 Detecting Motion (Integrating Passive Infrared Detectors) 187 6.4 Measuring Distance 189 6.5 Measuring Distance Accurately 193 6.6 Detecting Vibration 197 6.7 Detecting Sound 198 6.8 Measuring Temperature 202 6.9 Reading RFID Tags 206 6.10 Tracking Rotary Movement 208 6.11 Tracking the Movement of More Than One Rotary Encoder 211 6.12 Tracking Rotary Movement in a Busy Sketch 214 6.13 Using a Mouse 216 6.14 Getting Location from a GPS 220 6.15 Detecting Rotation Using a Gyroscope 225 6.16 Detecting Direction 230 6.17 Getting Input from a Game Control Pad (PlayStation) 235 6.18 Reading Acceleration 237 7. Visual Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 7.1 Connecting and Using LEDs 245 7.2 Adjusting the Brightness of an LED 248 7.3 Driving High-Power LEDs 249 7.4 Adjusting the Color of an LED 252 7.5 Sequencing Multiple LEDs: Creating a Bar Graph 255 7.6 Sequencing Multiple LEDs: Making a Chase Sequence (Knight Rider) 258 7.7 Controlling an LED Matrix Using Multiplexing 259 7.8 Displaying Images on an LED Matrix 262 7.9 Controlling a Matrix of LEDs: Charlieplexing 265 7.10 Driving a 7-Segment LED Display 271 7.11 Driving Multidigit, 7-Segment LED Displays: Multiplexing 274 7.12 Driving Multidigit, 7-Segment LED Displays Using MAX7221 Shift Registers 276 Table of Contents | v 7.13 Controlling an Array of LEDs by Using MAX72xx Shift Registers 279 7.14 Increasing the Number of Analog Outputs Using PWM Extender Chips (TLC5940) 281 7.15 Using an Analog Panel Meter as a Display 285 8. Physical Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 8.1 Controlling the Position of a Servo 292 8.2 Controlling One or Two Servos with a Potentiometer or Sensor 294 8.3 Controlling the Speed of Continuous Rotation Servos 296 8.4 Controlling Servos Using Computer Commands 298 8.5 Driving a Brushless Motor (Using a Hobby Speed Controller) 299 8.6 Controlling Solenoids and Relays 300 8.7 Making an Object Vibrate 302 8.8 Driving a Brushed Motor Using a Transistor 304 8.9 Controlling the Direction of a Brushed Motor with an H-Bridge 306 8.10 Controlling the Direction and Speed of a Brushed Motor with an H-Bridge 309 8.11 Using Sensors to Control the Direction and Speed of Brushed Motors (L293 H-Bridge) 311 8.12 Driving a Bipolar Stepper Motor 317 8.13 Driving a Bipolar Stepper Motor (Using the EasyDriver Board) 320 8.14 Driving a Unipolar Stepper Motor (ULN2003A) 323 9. Audio Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 9.1 Playing Tones 329 9.2 Playing a Simple Melody 331 9.3 Generating More Than One Simultaneous Tone 333 9.4 Generating Audio Tones and Fading an LED 335 9.5 Playing a WAV File 338 9.6 Controlling MIDI 341 9.7 Making an Audio Synthesizer 344 10. Remotely Controlling External Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 10.1 Responding to an Infrared Remote Control 348 10.2 Decoding Infrared Remote Control Signals 350 10.3 Imitating Remote Control Signals 354 10.4 Controlling a Digital Camera 357 10.5 Controlling AC Devices by Hacking a Remote-Controlled Switch 359 11. Using Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 11.1 Connecting and Using a Text LCD Display 364 11.2 Formatting Text 367 11.3 Turning the Cursor and Display On or Off 370 vi | Table of Contents 11.4 Scrolling Text 372 11.5 Displaying Special Symbols 375 11.6 Creating Custom Characters 377 11.7 Displaying Symbols Larger Than a Single Character 379 11.8 Displaying Pixels Smaller Than a Single Character 382 11.9 Connecting and Using a Graphical LCD Display 385 11.10 Creating Bitmaps for Use with a Graphical Display 389 11.11 Displaying Text on a TV 391 12. Using Time and Dates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 12.1 Creating Delays 397 12.2 Using millis to Determine Duration 398 12.3 More Precisely Measuring the Duration of a Pulse 402 12.4 Using Arduino as a Clock 404 12.5 Creating an Alarm to Periodically Call a Function 412 12.6 Using a Real-Time Clock 415 13. Communicating Using I2C and SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 13.1 Controlling an RGB LED Using the BlinkM Module 425 13.2 Using the Wii Nunchuck Accelerometer 430 13.3 Interfacing to an External Real-Time Clock 435 13.4 Adding External EEPROM Memory 437 13.5 Reading Temperature with a Digital Thermometer 441 13.6 Driving Four 7-Segment LEDs Using Only Two Wires 445 13.7 Integrating an I2C Port Expander 449 13.8 Driving Multidigit, 7-Segment Displays Using SPI 451 13.9 Communicating Between Two or More Arduino Boards 454 14. Wireless Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 14.1 Sending Messages Using Low-Cost Wireless Modules 459 14.2 Connecting Arduino to a ZigBee or 802.15.4 Network 465 14.3 Sending a Message to a Particular XBee 472 14.4 Sending Sensor Data Between XBees 475 14.5 Activating an Actuator Connected to an XBee 480 14.6 Sending Messages Using Low-Cost Transceivers 486 14.7 Communicating with Bluetooth Devices 491 15. Ethernet and Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 15.1 Setting Up the Ethernet Shield 498 15.2 Obtaining Your IP Address Automatically 500 15.3 Resolving Hostnames to IP Addresses (DNS) 502 15.4 Requesting Data from a Web Server 504 15.5 Requesting Data from a Web Server Using XML 508 Table of Contents | vii 15.6 Setting Up an Arduino to Be a Web Server 511 15.7 Handling Incoming Web Requests 514 15.8 Handling Incoming Requests for Specific Pages 517 15.9 Using HTML to Format Web Server Responses 521 15.10 Serving Web Pages Using Forms (POST) 525 15.11 Serving Web Pages Containing Large Amounts of Data 528 15.12 Sending Twitter Messages 535 15.13 Sending and Receiving Simple Messages (UDP) 539 15.14 Getting the Time from an Internet Time Server 545 15.15 Monitoring Pachube Feeds 550 15.16 Sending Information to Pachube 556 16. Using, Modifying, and Creating Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 16.1 Using the Built-in Libraries 561 16.2 Installing Third-Party Libraries 563 16.3 Modifying a Library 565 16.4 Creating Your Own Library 568 16.5 Creating a Library That Uses Other Libraries 574 16.6 Updating Third-Party Libraries for Arduino 1.0 580 17. Advanced Coding and Memory Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 17.1 Understanding the Arduino Build Process 584 17.2 Determining the Amount of Free and Used RAM 587 17.3 Storing and Retrieving Numeric Values in Program Memory 589 17.4 Storing and Retrieving Strings in Program Memory 592 17.5 Using #define and const Instead of Integers 594 17.6 Using Conditional Compilations 595 18. Using the Controller Chip Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 18.1 Storing Data in Permanent EEPROM Memory 603 18.2 Using Hardware Interrupts 606 18.3 Setting Timer Duration 609 18.4 Setting Timer Pulse Width and Duration 611 18.5 Creating a Pulse Generator 614 18.6 Changing a Timer’s PWM Frequency 617 18.7 Counting Pulses 620 18.8 Measuring Pulses More Accurately 621 18.9 Measuring Analog Values Quickly 624 18.10 Reducing Battery Drain 626 18.11 Setting Digital Pins Quickly 627 18.12 Uploading Sketches Using a Programmer 630 18.13 Replacing the Arduino Bootloader 632 18.14 Reprogram the Uno to Emulate a Native USB device 633 viii | Table of Contents A. Electronic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 B. Using Schematic Diagrams and Data Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 C. Building and Connecting the Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 D. Tips on Troubleshooting Software Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 E. Tips on Troubleshooting Hardware Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659 F. Digital and Analog Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 G. ASCII and Extended Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 H. Migrating to Arduino 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677

    2014-06-17
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