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NUREG7006核电FPGA设计参考标准,对于高可靠性的FPGA设计具有重要意义。
飞 U.SNRO NUREG/CR-7006 ORNL/TM-2009020 United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Protecting people and the environment Review Guidelines for Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems Manuscript Completed: October 2009 Date Published: January 2010 Prepared by M. Bobrek, D. Bouldin, D.E. Holcomb, S.M. Killough S F. Smith,C. Ward, and r.t. wood Oak Ridge National Laboratory P O. Box 2008 Oak ridge, TN 37831-6010 University of Tennessee 419 Ferris Hall. 1508 Middle drive Knoxville tn 37996-5483 M.E. Waterman, NRC Project Manager NRC Job Code n6351 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Page intentionally blank ABSTRACT his report is a compilation of safe field-programmable gate array(FPGA) design practices that can be used by NRC staff as guidance for reviewing FPGA-based safety systems in nuclear power plants. It can also serve as a basis for devclopment of specific activities that will support the licensing process such as FPGA-specific review procedures and acceptance criteria. The report follows on the investigation of existing regulatory documents and standards related to design and review of safety-related FPGA systems. Since the existing regulatory documents are not specific about FPga design practices, this report also serves as the complement to the standards that cover general issues related to digital and software safety systems in nuclear power plants FPGa design practices are classified into three major groups--FPGA hardware design practices, FPGa design entry methods, and FPGa design methodologies. Within these major groups, design practices are further classified according to four top-level attributes -reliability, robustness, traceability, and maintainability according to the framework used in NUrEg/CR-6463 well as on suggesting which ones are acceptable for safety-critical designs. Additionally, the repor as The report focuses on listing and describing FPGa design practices that are potentially unsafe outlines a design life cycle that could be used by the designers and the reviewers for FPga-based safety systems Page intentionally blank FOREWORD Although field programmable gate arrays(FPGAs)(and complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs)have not been used extensively in safety-related nuclear applications to date, it is highly likely that this technology will be used in safety systems submitted for nRC review in the foreseeable future A common misunderstanding about FPGAs(and CPlds)is that these devices are less complex than microprocessor-based systems and therefore are inherently safer than microprocessor-based safety systems. Fpga devices are fundamentally complex software designs implemented by hardware engineers. As more functions are moved onto single integrated circuit(IC)chips, greater attention should be given to the system development process. Experience has shown that FPGa disciplined design methodologies have not progressed at the same rate as the capability to add functionality to FPgas, implying that project managers may not fully appreciate the risk to safety. There also could be a perception that the process is improved by using automated design tools In fact, there may be an over reliance on these design tools, as indicated by several projects in which problems were linked to improper use of the tools or unintended loss of redundancy arising from the tools optimizing the intended design into unintended functionality From a safety perspective, it is difficult to assess the correctness of fpga devices without extensive documentation, tools and review procedures Therefore, several aspects of these technologies should be addressed during safety reviews. First, NRC reviewers should review vendor information about FPGA design processes, including software design tools and development methodologies(similar to that used for current software reviews). Second, NRC reviewers should consider specific device design information (over and above the system-level documentation) for the system under review, such as requirements and design specifications, data sheets, user manuals, programmer manuals, and so forth. Third, NRC reviewers should review device failure mode information, including mitigating fault tolerant designs(e.g from faults found too late in the design process to correct without extensive cost (a potential issue witp ga triple modular redundancy and concurrent cell error detection) and workaround design changes resulting third-party FPGa devices). Fourth, to ensure consistent reviews of FPGA safety systems, the nrc should acquire tools and review procedures(as well as corresponding training)to support staff evaluations of safety functions implemented in FPGAS. The primary objective of the research described in this report was to develop comprehensive guidance the NrC staff could use to confirm that FPGA-based safety systems are in conformance with NrC regulations, including Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50(10CFR50), Appendix a General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, Criterion 21, Protection system reliability and testability Criterion 21 states, "The protcction system shall be designed for high functional reliability and inservice testability commensurate with the safety functions to be performed redundancy and independence designed into the protection system shall be sufficient to assure that (1)no single failure results in loss of the protection function and(2)removal from service of any component or channel does not result in loss of the required minimum redundancy unless the acceptable reliability of operation of the protection system can be otherwise demonstrated., The use of unsafe design practices could decrease the reliability of a safety system. Consequently, unsafe design practices should be identified during the development of the system by the vendor or licensee and verified to be not in the system by the nrc reviewer during the licensing process proactive approach to safety assessments of FPGA-based safety systems. The results of this work also p Because the regulatory offices are ultimately responsible for revising their standard review plans ar interim staff guidance documents, the research is described in a nureg-series report suitable for translating into regulatory guides and standard review plans. This report emphasizes the importance of could be used to develop nrc policy and regulations regarding acceptable FPga design and application practices and procedures Page intentionally blank CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 111 FORE WORD LIST OF FIGURES… IX LIST OF TABLES IX ACRONYMS 4··,非· I. INTRODUCTION 1自 1 Background 1.2 Document Organization 2. FPGA HARDWARE DESIGN PRACTICES 2.1 Reliabilit 2.1.1 Board-Level Design Attrib 2.1.2 FPGA Internal logic Design Attributes 2.2 Robustness ·.·····;·;·.····· 2.3 Traceability……… 10 2. 4 Maintainability.......... 11 3. FPGA DESIGN ENTRY METHODS ………13 3.1 Reliability 13 3.2 Robustness ···········;······;· .…135 3.3 Traceability ,, 36 3.4 Maintainability.……………… 41 4. FPGA DESIGN METHODOLOGIES 45 4.1 Design for Safety....... 45 42 FPGA Selection 45 4.3 Design Tool Selection ……46 4.4 Design Flow 46 4.4. 1 Design requirements ····4 46 4.4.2 Architectural Design 46 4.4.3 Detailed Design ········;;:······:·:·········4···········1 418 4.4.4 Design Review 48 4.4.5 Behavioral description 48 4.4.6 Behavioral simulation 49 4.4.7 Logic Synth 49 4.4.8 Logic-Level Simulation. 4.4.9 Physical Implementation 4.4.10 Post-Layout simulation 4.4.11 Prototype....... 50 4.4.12 FPGA Verification 51 4.4.13 Hardware Implementation....... 51 4.4.14 Functional hardware Verification m ……51 5. CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX A: SURVEY OF FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY DESIGN GUIDES AND EXPERIENCE RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR POWER PLANT APPLICATION A-1 APPENDIX B: RESULTS OF SEARCH FOR TECHNICAL STANDARDS RELATED TO FPGA DESIGN B-1 v11

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zyj_604 核电软件软件标准,不错。谢谢分析
2014-05-09
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