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经典的DX11龙书,作者依然是Frank Luna,非常值得一看
Introduction to 3D GAME PROGRAMMING WITH DIRECTX 11 Frank d, luna MERCURY LEARNING AND INFORMATION Dulles, Virginia Boston Massachusetts Copyright C2012 by MERCURY LEARNING AND INFORMATION LLC. All rights reserved This publication, portions of it, or any accompanying software may not be reproduced in any way, stored in a retrieval system of any type, or transmitted by any means, media, electronic display or mechanical display, including, but not limited to, photocopy, recording, Internet postings, or scanning, without prior permission in writing from the publisher Publisher: david palai MERCURY LEARNING AND INFORMATION 2284I Quicksilver Drive Dulles. va 20166 info(amerclearning.com www.merclearning.com 1-800-758-3756 This book is printed on acid-free paper Frank d. luna. Introduction to 3D GAME PROGRAMMING WITH DIRECTX II ISBN:978-1-9364202-2-3 The publisher recognizes and respects all marks used by companies, manufacturers, and developers as a means to distinguish their products. All brand names and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective companies. Any omission or misuse(of any kind)of service marks or trademarks, etc. is not an attempt to infringe on the property of others Library of Congress Control Number: 20 12931119 12131432 Printed in canada Our titles are available for adoption, license, or bulk purchase by institutions, corporations, etc. For additional information, please contact the Customer Service Dept at 1-800-758-3756(toll free) The sole obligation of MERCURY LEARNING AND INFORMation to the purchaser is to replace the disc, based on defective materials or faulty workmanship but not based on the operation or functiona lity of the product. LICENSE. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY AND LIMITED WARRANTY By purchasing or using this book(the"Work), you agree that this license grants permission to use the contents contained herein, but does not give you the right of owncrship to any of thc textual content in the book or ow ncrship to any of thc information or products contained n it. This license dves not permit uploudingofthe Work onto the Internet or on a network(of uny kind) without the written consent of the Publisher Duplication or dissemination of any text, code, simulations, images, etc. contained herein is limited to and subject to licensing terms for the respective products, and permission must be obtained from the Publisher or the ow ner of the content, etc, in order to reproduce or network any portion of the textual material (in any media) that is contained in the Work MERCURY LEARNING AND INFORMATION LLC (MLIor"the Publisher?") and anyone involved in the creation, writing, or production of the companion disc, accompanying algorithms, code, or computer programs("the softw are), and any accompanying Web site or softw are of the Work, cannot and do not warrant the performance or results that might be obtained by using the contents of the Work. The author, developers, and the publisher have used their best efforts to insure the accuracy and functionality of the textual material and/or programs contained in this package; we, however, make no warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the performance of these contents or programs. The Work is sold"as is"without warranty (except for defective materials used in manufacturing the book or due to faulty workmanship) The author, developers, and the publisher ofany accompanying content, and anyone involved in the composition, produc tion, and manufacturing of this work will not be liable for damages of any kind arising out of the usc of (or the inability to usc) the algorithms Source code, computer programs, or textual material contained in this publication. This includes, but is not limited to, loss of revenue or profit, or other incidental, physical, or consequential damages arising out of the use of this Work The sole remedy in the event ofa claim ofany kind is expressly limited to replacement of the book, and only at the discretion of the Publisher. The use of"implied warranty and certainexclusions'"vary from state to state, and might not apply to the purchaser of this product To my nieces and nephews, Marrick, Hans, Max, Anna, Augustus, and Presley CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction Intended audience Prcrcquis itcs Required Development Tools and Hardware Use of the d3dX library sing the directX sdk documentation and SDK samples Clarity Sample Programs and Online Supplements Demo Project Setup in Visual Studio 2010 Create a win32 Project Linking the DirectX Libraries Setting up the Search Paths Adding th he source code and nd Building the Project PART I MATHEMATICAL PREREQUISITES Chapter I Vector Alge bra 1. 1 Vectors 1. 1. I Vectors and Coordinate Systems 1.1.2 Left-Handed Versus Right-Handed Coordinate Systems 1. 1. 3 Basic Vector Operations 1. 2 Length and Unit Vectors 1. 3 The dot product 1.3. 1 Orthogonalization 1. 4 The Cross product 1. 4.1 Pseudo 2d cross product 1. 4.2 Orthogonalization w ith the Cross Product 1.5 Points 1. 6 XNA Math Vectors 1.6.1 Vector Types 1.6.2 Loading and Storage Methods 1.6.3 Parameter Passing 1. 6. 4 Constant Vectors 1.6.5 Overloaded Opcrators 1. 6. 6 Miscellaneous 1. 6. 7 Setter Functions 1. 6. 8 Vector Functions 1. 6.9 Floating-Point error 1. 7 Summary 1. 8 Exercises Chapter 2 Matrix Alge bra 2.1 Definition 2.2 Matrix Multiplication 2.2.1 Definition 2.2.2 Vector-Matrix Multiplication 2. 2. 3 Associativity 2. 3 The Transpose of a Matrix 2. 4 The Identity matrix 2.5 The determinant of a matrix 2.5.I Matrix Minors 2.5.2 Definition 2. 6 The Adjoint of a Matrix 2. 7 The Inverse of a matrix 2.8 XNA Matrices 2.8. 1 Matrix Types 2.8.2 Matrix Functions 2.8.3 XNA Matrix Sample Program Summary 2. 10 Exercises Chapter 3 Transformations 3.1 Linear Trans formations 3.1. 1 Definition 3.1.2 Matrix Representation 3.1.3 Scaling 3.1.4 Rotation 3.2 Affine Trans formations 3. 2. 1 Homogeneous Coordinates 3.2.2 Definition and Matrix Representation 3.2.2 Translation 3.2.3 Affine Matrices for Scaling and rotation 3.2. 4 Geometric Interpretation of an Affine Transformation Matrix 3. 3 Compos ition of Transformations 3. 4 Change of Coordinate Transformations 3.4.1 Vec tors 3.4.2 Points 3.4.3 Matrix Representation 3.4.4 Associativity and Change of Coordinate Matrices 3.4.5 Inverses and Change of Coordinate matrices 3.5 Trans formation Matrix versus Change of Coordinate Matrix 3. 6 XNA Math Transformation functions 3.7 Summary 3. 8 Exercises PART II DIRECT 3D FOUNDATIONS Chapter 4 Direct3D Initialization 4.1 Preliminaries 4. 1. 1 Direct3D Overview 4.1.2COM 4.1.3 Textures and Data resource formats 4. 1. 4 Thc Swap Chain and Pagc Flipping 4.1.5 Depth Buffering 4. 1. 6 Texture Resource views 4.1.7 Multisampling Theor 4.1.8 Multis ampling in Direct3D 4.1.9 Fcaturc Lcvcls 4.2 Initializing Direct3D 4.2. 1 Create the Device and Context 4.2.2 Check 4X MSAA Quality Support 4.2.3 Describe the Swap Chain 4.2. 4 Create the Swap chain 4.2.5 Create the render target View 4.2.6 Create the depth/ Stencil Buffer and view 4.2. 7 Bind the views to the Output merger Sta 4.2.8 Set the View port 4.3 Timing and Animation 43. 1 The performance timer 4.3.2 Game Timer Class 4.3.3 Time Elapsed Between Frames 4.3. 4 Total Time 4. 4 The Demo Application Framew ork 4.4.1 D3DApp 4.4.2 Non-Framework Methods 4.4.3 Framework methods 4.4.4 Frame Statistics 4.4.5 The Message Handler 4.4.6 Going Full Screen 4.4.7 The"Init Direct3D" Demo 4.5 Debugging Dircct3D Applications 4.6 Summary 4.7 Exerc ises Chapter 5 The Rendering Pipeline 5.1 The 3D Illusion 5.2 Model representation 5.3 Basic Computer Color 5.3. 1 Color Operations 5.3.2 128-Bit Color 5.3.3 32-Bit Color 5.4 Overview of the Rendering Pipeline 5.5 The Input assembler stage 5.5.1 Vertices 5.5.2 Primitive Topology 5.5.2.1 Point list 5.5.2.2 Line Strip 5.5.2. 3 Line list 5.5.2. 4 Triangle Strip 5.5.2. 5 Triangle List 5.5.2.6 Primitives with Adjacency 5.5.2. 7 Control Point Patch List 5.5.3 Indices 5.6 The Vertex Shader Stage 5.6. I Local Space and world space 5.6.2 View Space 5.6.3 Projcction and Homogcncous Clip Spac c 5.6.3. 1 Denning a Frustum 5.6.3. 2 Projecting Vertices 5.6.3.3 Normalized Device Coordinates(NDC) 5.6.3. 4 Writing the Projection Equation with a Matrix 5.6.3. 5 Normalized Depth value 5.6.3.6 XMMatrix PerspectiveFOVLH 5.7 The Tessellation Stages 5.8 The Geometry Shader Stage 5.9 Clippin 5. 10 The Rasterization Stage 5.10. 1 View port Transform 5.10.2 Backface Culling 5.10.3 Vertex Attribute Interpolation 5. 11 The Pixel Shader Stage 5. 12 The Output Merger Stage 5.13 Summary 5. 14 Excrc iscs Chapter 6 Drawing in Direct3D 6. 1 Vertices and Input layouts 6.2 Vertex Buffers 6.3 Indices and Index Buffers 6. 4 Example vertex Shader 6.5 Constant Buffers 6.6 Example pixel Shader 6. 7 Render States 6.8 Effects 6.8.1 Effect files 6.8.2 Compiling Shaders 6.8.3 Interfacing w ith Effects from the C++ Application 6.8.4 USing Effects to Draw 6.8. 5 Compiling an Effcct at Build Timc 6.8. 6 The effects framework as a "Shader generator h 6.8. 7 What the assembly Looks like 6.9 Box Demo 6. 10 Hills demo 6. 10. 1 Gcncrating thc Grid Vertices 6.10.2 Generating the grid Indices 6. 10.3 Applying the Height Function 6. 1I Shapes Demo 6. 11. 1 Generating a cylinder mesh 6.11.1. 1 Cylinder Side Geometry 6.11. 1.2 Cap Geometry 6. 11.2 Generating a Sphere mesh 6.11.3 Generating a Geosphere Mesh 6.11. 4 Demo Code 6. 12 Loading geometry from the file 6. 13 Dynamic Vertex Buffers 6. 14 Summary 6.15 Exerc is Chapter 7 Lighting 7. 1 Light and Matcrial Intcraction 7. 2 Normal Vectors 7.2. 1 Computing normal Vectors 7.2.2 Transforming Normal Vectors 7.3 Lambert s Cosine Law 7. 4 Diffuse Lighting 7.5 Ambient Lighting 7.6 Specular Lighting 7.7 Brief Recap 7.8 Specifying Materials 7.9 Parallel lights 7. 10 Point Lights 7.10.1 Attenuation 7.10.2 Range 7. 11 Spotlights 7. 12 Implementation 7.12. 1 Lighting Structures 7. 12.2 Structure Packing 7. 12.3 Implementing Direc tional Lights 7.12.4 Implementing Point Lights 7. 12.5 Implementing Spotlights 7.13 Lighting Demo 7.13. 1 Effcct Filc 7.13.2 C++ Application Code 7.13. 3 Normal Computation 7.14 Lit skull demo 7. 15 Summary

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