UNIX - The Textbook, 3rd Edition

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This book is a textbook on the modern, twenty-first-century UNIX operating system. It uses an introductory approach in style, very similar to the style of the previous editions. With the exception of four chapters on system programming, the book can be used very successfully by a complete novice, as
aylor francis Taylor Francis Group http://taylorandfrancis.com UNIX The Te× took Syed Mansoor Sarwar Robert m koretsky (CRC) CRC Press Ta lor& francis g Boca raton London New york CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group, an informa business a chapman hal book CRC Press Taylor Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway Nw, Suite 300 Boca raton, FL 33487-2742 o 2017 by Taylor& Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed on acid-free paper Version date: 20160226 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4822-3358-2(Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the valid y of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or uti lized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopy ing, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the ublishers Forpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthisworkpleaseaccesswww.copyright.com(http:// www.copyright.com/)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenter,Inc.(ccc),222RosewoodDrive,Danvers,Mao1923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Sarwar, Syed Mansoor, author. Koretsky, Robert, author Title: UNIX: the textbook Syed Mansoor Sarwar and Robert M. Koretsky Description: Third edition. Boca Raton: Taylor Francis, CRC Press, 2016 Includes bibliographical references and inde Identifiers: LCCN 2016009010 IsBN 9781482233582(alk. paper Subjects: LCSH: UNIX( Computer file) Operating systems( Computers) Classification: LCC QA76774 U64 $37 2016 DDC 005.4/32--dc23 Lcrecordavailableathttp://lccn.loc.gov/2016009010 Visit the Taylor francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the crc press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com To my family S.M.S To my family RMK aylor francis Taylor Francis Group http://taylorandfrancis.com Contents Preface to the third edition xxvii Acknowledgments for the Third Edition, xxxiii Acknowledgments for the Second and First editions, XXXV Personal Acknowledgments, xxxvii CHAPTER 1. Overview of Operating Systems 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? 1.3 OPERATING SYSTEM SERVICES 1.4 CHARACTER (COMMAND LINE) VERSUS GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES 1.5 TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS 1.6 THE UNIX FAMILY 1.7 UNIX SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE 1.7.1 Device driver layer 1.7.2 UNIX Kernel 1.7. 3 System Call Interface 1.7.4 Language libraries 5567779999 1. 7.5 UNIX Shell 1.7.6 Applications 1. 8 DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM 10 1.8.1 Beginnings 1.8.2 Research Operating System 1.8.3 At&T System v 1.8.4 Berkeley software Distributions 1.8.5 History of Shells 023333 1.8.6 Current and Future Developments 1. 9 VARIATIONS IN UNIX SYSTEMS 14 vi■ Contents SUMMARY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 16 CHAPTER 2. A"Quick Startinto the UNIX Operating System 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 THE STRUCTURE OF A UNIX COMMAND 20 2.3 LOGGING ON AND LOGGING OFF 2.3.1 Stand-Alone Login Connection to PC-BSD and solaris 24 2.3.2 Connecting via PuTTY from a Microsoft Windows Computer 25 2.3.3 Connecting via an ssh client between uNIX Machines 27 2. 4 FILE MAINTENANCE COMMANDS AND HELP ON UNIX COMMAND USAGE 29 2.4.1 File and Directory structure 30 2.4.2 Viewing the Contents of Files 31 2.4.3 Creating, Deleting, and Managing Files 32 2.4.4 Creating, Deleting, and Managing Directories 36 2.4.5 Obtaining Help with the Man Command 40 2.4.6 Other Methods of Obtaining Help 43 2.5 UTILITY COMMANDS 2.5.1 Examining System Setups 45 2.5.2 Printing and General Utility commands 46 2.5.3 Communications Commands 48 2.6 COMMAND ALIASES 2.7 INTRODUCTION TO UNIX SHELLS 52 2. 8 VARIOUS UNIX SHELLS 54 2.8.1 Shell Programs 54 2.8.2 Which Shell Suits your needs? 56 2.8.3 Ways to Change Your Shell 56 2.8.4 Shell Start-Up Files and environment variables 57 2.9 SHELL METACHARACTERS 59 2.10 THE SUDO AND SU COMMANDS 60 SUMMARY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS Chapter 3 Editing text Files 3.1 INTRODUCTION AND QUICK START 65 3.1.1 Quick Start: The Simplest Path through These Editors 65 Contents 3. 1.2 First Comments on UNiX Editors 66 1.3 USing Text Editors 67 3.2 USING THE Vi, vim, AND gvim EDITORS 68 3. 2.1 Basic Shell Script File Creation, Editing, Execution 69 3.2.2 How to Start, Save a File, and exit 70 3. 2. 3 The Format of a vi Command and the Modes of Operation 72 3. 2. 4 Cursor Movement and Editing Commands 3.2.5 Yank and Put ( copy and Paste) and substitute search and replace) 77 3.2.6 vim and gvim 80 3. 2.7 Changing vi, vim, and gvim Behavior 88 3.2.8 Executing Shell Commands from within vi, vim, and gvim 91 3.2.9 vi, vim, and gvim Keyboard macros 91 3.3 THE EMACS EDITOR 96 3.3.1 Launching Emacs, Emacs Screen Display, General Emacs Concepts and features 97 3.3.2 How to Use Emacs to Do Shell Script File Creation, Editing, and Execution 103 3.3.3 Visiting Files, Saving Files, and Exiting 104 3.3.4 Cursor Movement and Editing Commands 105 3.3.5 Keystroke Macros 108 3.3.6 Cut or Copy and Paste and Search and replace 109 3.3.7 How to Do Purely Graphical Editing with GNU Emacs 112 3.3.8 Editing Data Files 112 3.3.9 How to Start, Save a File, and exit in graphical Emacs 114 3.3.10 Emacs Graphical menus 116 3.3.11 Creating and Editing C Programs 116 3.3.12 Working in Multiple buffers 119 3.3.13 Changing Emacs behavior 122 3. 4 vi AND EMACS COMMAND TABLES 141 3.5 SUMMARY 141 QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 146 CHAPTER 4. Files and File System Structure 153 4.1 INTRODUCTION 153 4.2 THE UNIX FILE CONCEPT 154 4.3 TYPES OF FILES 154

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