Optoelectronics and Photonics Principles and Practices (光电子学与光子学 原理与实践)
Optoelectronics and Photonics Principles and Practices (光电子学与光子学 原理与实践), 2nd. KASAP S O. 2012
Single mode waveguides Optical gain coefficient Planar waveguide: V< T/2 g(u)= Oem(u)N2- Tab(u)N Step-index fiber: V < 2.405 Optical gain Mode field diameter G= exp(gl) 2=2a(0.65+1.619v32+2879V6); Threshold gain in lasers 0.8<V<2.5 Dispersion in multimode step-index fiber gth n 2L △T R1e C Photon cavity lifetime Dispersion coefficient AT/L= Spread in group delay per unit length Bandgap light and wavelength D△λ 1.24 m △T E(eⅤ L△A Responsivity of a photodetector Chromatic dispersion Photocurrent(A) △T R Dn+D,+Dn|△A Incident optical power(W L Maximum rtz bit rate External quantum efficiency of a photodetector 0.25 B e U Attenuation in optical fibers Phase change between e-and o-waves xdB old pg 4.34a 2丌 DL 入 where a is the attenuation coefficient Arthur L Schawlow is adjusting a ruby optical maser during an experiment at Bell Labs, while C.G. B. Garrett prepares to photo- graph the maser flash. In 1981, Arthur Schawlow shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his" contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy. (Reprinted with permission of Alcatel Lucent usa inc 。,d 2,929,922 TIIE UNITEDSTTESOFAOERI(OA TOALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SH\: as Arthur L. Schawl ow, of Madison, New Jersey and Charles H. Townes, of New York, N, Y,, assignors to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, of New York, N. Y a corporation of New York FOUSPNTEn TO THE Comaalssiomep of PatenTs A PETITION PRAYINU PeR THiE GIANT o lPTTEits PTHNT IOn AN AL otD N ANn tiFt. INVENTIoN Tii TITl RNn DEMCHIITION O WIIICII ARl CONTANID IN TIE cIILArIoN o vinCi A∈”YBE联影EN1 SNISI.NIi M15HiFLA1=H上,ANB君ED下目 VAHIOUS ITOUIHEMENTS S 1.M IS HIEI CANEN MADE AND I.OVIDD, AND whereas UoN Dek EXAMINATION MADE THE MAID CLAIMANTS are AIMUDORD TO WI . ENTLY ENTIILED TO A PATENT UNDER TH LAw. Now THruron rINI ladders Patent Alt: TO GANT INTo THI sain Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, its successors 们5N FO THE TERM OF SEVENTEEN YEARN FROM THE DATE OP THIN GRANT l: ItGIT To Ixell'Dl oTitS wtoM MtAkING, UNING ot NeLLiNG Tlle SAID INvEx. I'HOUGHOUT THK UNTEn SEATFN n testimony pfiercof har hemmed ei twenty-second March your o dordone memantine sixty eighty-fourth 不m( (22 The patent for the invention of the laser by Charles H. Townes and Arthur L Schawlow in 1960(Reprinted with permis sion of Alcatel-Lucent USA Inc ) This laser patent was later bitterly disputed for almost three decades in the so-called laser patent wars"by Gordon Gould, an American physicist, and his designated agents. Gordon Gould eventually received the U.S. patent for optical pumping of the laser in 1977 inasmuch as the original laser patent did not detail such a pump ing procedure. In 1987 he also received a patent for the gas discharge laser, thereby winning his 30-year patent war. His original notebook even contained the word "laser. (See"Winning the laser-patent war", Jeff Hecht, Laser Focus World, December 1994, pp 49-51) This page intentionally left blank Second edition S.O. Kasap University of saskatchewan Canada PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle river Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Vice President and editorial Director ECS: Marcia horton Executive Editor: Andrew gilfillan Sponsoring Editor: Alice Dworkin Editorial Assistant: William Opaluch Marketing Manager Tim galligan Marketing Assistant: Jon bryant Permissions Project manager: Karen Sanatar Senior managing editor: Scott Disanno Production Project Manager: Clare romeo Creative Director: Jayne conte Cover Design: Suzanne behnke Cover lllustration/Photo: Courtesy of Teledyne-DALSA Image Permission Coordinator Karen sanatar Full-Service Project Management/Composition: Integra Software Services, Pvt Ltd Printer/Binder: Courier/Westford Typeface: 10712 Times Lt Std Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text Copyright o 2013, 2001 by Pearson Education, Inc, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data S.O.(Safa O Optoelectronics and photonics: principles and practices/SO Kasap --2nd ed Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN-13:978-0-13-2151498 ISBN-10:0-13-2151499 ronic devices. 2. Photonics, I. Ti TK8304.K372012 621.381045dc23 2012019410 10987654321 PEARSON ISBN-10:0-13-2151499 ISBN-13:978-0-13-2151498 We have a habit in writing articles published in scientific journals to make the work as finished as possible, to cover up all the tracks, to not worry about the blind alleys or describe how you had the wrong idea first and so on. So there isn't any place to publish, in a dignified manner, what you actually did in order to get to do the work RICHARD P. FEYNMAN NOBEL LECTURE, I966 Philip russell led a team of researchers at the University Bath in the 1990s where photonic crystal fibers were drawn. Thin hollow capillary tubes were stacked together and then fused to make a preform as shown on the left a photonic crystal fiber was then drawn at a high temperature from this preform. Photonic crystal fibers have the ability to guide light endlessly in a single mode, and have highly desirable nonlinear properties for various photonics applications in the manipulation of light, such as the generation of supercontinuum light. (Courtesy of Professor Philip russell) Peter Schultz, Donald Keck, and Bob Maurer (left to right) at Corning were the first to produce low-loss optical fibers in the 1970s by using the outside vapor deposition method for the fabrication of preforms, which were then used to draw fibers with low losses Courtesy of Corning. To Nicolette, who brightens my every day and makes me smile with joy every time I see her The first edition of this book was written more than 12 years ago. at the time it was meant as an easy-to-read book for third-year engineering or applied physics undergraduate students it emphasized qualitative explanations and relied heavily on intuitive derivations. As things turned out, the first edition ended up being used in fourth-year elective classes, and even in graduate courses on optoelectronics. Many of the instructors teaching at that level rightly need ed better derivations, more rigor, better explanations, and, of course, many more topics and problems. We have all at one time or another suffered from how wrong some intuitive short-cut derivations can be. The second edition was therefore prepared by essentially rewriting the text almost from scratch with much better rigor and explanations but without necessarily dwell ing on mathematical details. Many new exciting practical examples have been introduced, and numerous new problems have been added. The book also had to be totally modernized given that much had happened in the intervening 12 years that deserved being covered in an under graduate course FEATURES. CHANGES AND REVISIONS IN THE SECOND EDITION The second edition represents a total revision of the first edition, with numerous additional fea tures and enhancements All chapters have been totally revised and extended Numerous modern topics in photonics have been added to all the chapters There are Additional Topics that can be covered in more advanced courses, or in courses that run over two semesters There are many more new examples and solved problems within chapters, and many more practical end-of-chapter problems that start from basic concepts and build up onto advanced applications Nearly all the illustrations and artwork in the first edition have been revised and redrawn to better reflect the concepts Numerous new illustrations have been added to convey the concepts as clearly as possible Photographs have been added, where appropriate, to enhance the readability of the book and to illustrate typical modern photonic/optoelectronic devices The previous editions Chapter 7 on photovoltaics has been incorporated into this editions Chapter 5 as an Additional Topic, thus allowing more photonics-related topics to be covered Advanced or complicated mathematical derivations are avoided and, instead, the emphasis is placed on concepts and engineering applications Useful and essential equations in photonics are given with explanations and are used in examples and problems to give the student a sense of what typical values are Cross referencing in the second edition has been avoided as much as possible without too much repetition to allow various sections and chapters to be skipped as desired by the reader There is greater emphasis on practical or engineering examples; care has been taken to consider various photonics/optoelectronics courses at the undergraduate level across major universities
The second edition continues to represent a first course in optoelectronic materials and devices suitable for a half- or one-semester course at the undergraduate level either at the thirdor fourth-year level in electrical engineering, engineering physics, and materials science and engineering departments. With its additional topics, it can also be used as an introductory textbook at the graduate level. Normally the students would not have covered Maxwell’s equations. Although Maxwell’s equations are mentioned in the text to alert the student, they are not used in developing the principles. It is assumed that the students would have taken a basic first- or second-year physics course, with modern physics, and would have seen rudimentary concepts in geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction, but not Fresnel’s equations and concepts such as group velocity and group index. Typically an optoelectronics course would be given either after a semiconductor devices course or concurrently with it. Students would have been exposed to elementary quantum mechanics concepts, perhaps in conjunction with a basic semiconductor science course.
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