Smart Grids_Advanced Technologies and Solutions, 2nd Edition-CRC(2018).pdf

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The utility industry has made great progress in grid transformation and modernization since the rst edition of this book was published in 2012. In my view, one of the most signi cant changes has been at the “grid-edge”—the area of the distribution network close to the customer and at the customer interface. Distributed energy resources (DERs) and the IoT (Internet of Things) will be key technology deployments at the grid-edge. While the deployment of smart meters and advanced metering infrastructures in the USA seemed to reach a plateau when the rst edition of this book was published, the meter communication networks are now proving to be valuable foundations and operating experiences for real-time communications to the grid-edge. Pervasive and cost-effective sensors and controllers will also be essential for the smart grid IoT, and to enable transactive energy exchange between customers in an open retail market. The emphasis will be on device interoper- ability and data connectivity. We have seen recent changes in the USA net-metering programs for retail customers signaling the need for an increased focus on DER energy exchange on the grid. Both wholesale and retail markets will need to support DERs and the dynamic balancing of supply and demand resources across the grid by moving toward real-time, market-based locational pricing of transactive energy exchanges, and while maintaining equitable cost allocation among all customers. An increase in customer- and third-party-owned DERs will preclude utilities from earning rates of return on infra- structure investment in the current policy and regulation environment. In addition, the demand and supply paradigm may shift to include the need for a more distributed architecture requiring a differ- ent grid con guration and energy exchange management solution. Therefore, there will need to be a fundamental change in the way electricity is economically and safely generated, transported, and distributed. Microgrids and DERs
The Electric Power Engineering Series Series editor eo rigs Computational Methods for Electric Power Systems, Second Edition Me Electric Energy Systems: Analysis and Operation Antonio Gomez- Exposito, Antonio Conejo, and Claudio canizares Distribution System Modeling and Analysis, Second Edition William h. Kersting Electric machines Charles a gross Harmonics and Power Systems francisco C. de la rosa Electric drives. Second edition lon boldea and syed nasar Power System Operations and electricity markets Fred 1. Denny and David E. Dismukes Power Qualit C. sankaran Electromechanical Systems, Electric Machines, and applied mechatronics Sergey E. Lyshevski Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and automation systems Jacek Geras and Jerry Piech Electrical Energy Systems, Second Edition Mohamed e. el-Hawary The induction machine handbook lon boldea and syed nasar Electric Power Substations Engineering John d. mcdonald Electric Power Transformer engineering James h. harlow Electric power distribution handbook Tom Short Smart grids Advanced Technologies and solutions Second edition Edited by Stuart borlase (CRC) CRC Press Taylor Francis Group Boca raton London New york CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group, an informa business CRC Press Taylor Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway nw, Suite 300 Boca raton, Fl 33487-2742 o 2018 by Taylor Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-9955-3(Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copy right holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged, please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including pho tocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers Forpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthisworkpleaseaccesswww.copyright.com(http:// www.copyright.com/)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenterInc.(ccc),222RosewoodDrive,Danvers,Ma 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe Visit the Taylor francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com Disclaimer: The author contributions in this book do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the affiliations or employers of the contributing authors Contents Foreword IX Preface ,X111 Acknowledgments........………xV Editor… 11 Contributors XIX Chapter 1 Overview of the Electric Utility Industry Miguel brandao, Charles w. Newton, and Bartosz Wojszczyk Chapter 2 Smart Grid Challenges and Transformations Stuart Borlase, Miguel Brandao, James D. Fine, Mladen kezunovic, and Bartosz Wojszczyk Chapter 3 Smart Energy Resources: Supply and Demand .....67 Stuart Borlase, Sahand Behboodi, Thomas H. Bradley, Miguel brandao David Chassin, Johan Enslin, and Christopher McCarthy Chapter 4 Communications Systems 149 Mehrdad Mesbah. Sharon s. Allan, and Donivon d. hettich Chapter 5 Real-Time Grid Management 179 Stuart Borlase, Jiyuan Fan, Xiaoming Feng, Jay Giri, Douglas Wilson Gerald r Gray, Zhenyu(Henry) Huang, Walter Sattinger, Bo Yang, and Bo Zeng Chapter 6 Advanced Protection and Control for the Smart Grid · 253 Jens schoene and Muhammad humayun Chapter7 Automatic Restoration Systems and Outage Management………… 307 Mirrasoul. Mousavi, Ning Kang Hormoz Kazemzadeh, and Christopher McCarth Chapter 8 Volt/VAr optimization 333 Bob McFetridge, Mike Simms, and Steve Tyler Chapter 9 Monitoring and diagnostics 385 Mirrasoul. Mousavi, Tony Mcgrail, and siri varadan Contents Chapter 10 Asset Management 397 Tony Mcgrail Chapter 11 Geospatial Technologies 405 Paul wilson Chapter 12 Mobile Workforce Management 431 Jessica jensen Chapter 13 Smart Meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure... 445 Aaron F. Snyder, David Kranzler, and Robby simpson Chapter 14 Convergence of Technologies and IT/OT Integration 463 Stuart borlase, Michael covarrubias, Jim Horstman, and Greg robinson Chapter 15 Data analytics for the smart grid 489 Greg robinson, Jim Horstman, Mirrasoul. Mousavi, and Gowri Rajappan Chapter 16 High-Performance Computing for Advanced Smart Grid applications......511 Yousu Chen and Zhenyu(Henry) Huang Chapter 17 Cybersecurity for the Smart Grid 533 Jeffrey L. Hahn Chapter 18 FACTS and HVDC.......567 Neil Kirby and Johan enslin Chapter 19 microgrids 591 Stuart Borlase, Mehdi ganji, Mohammad Shahidehpour, Wei Tian, and k Burge Chapter 20 The Dynamics of Wholesale and Distributed Energy Markets 605 Eric Woychik, Hong Chen, and David Erickson Chapter 21 Transactive Energy 631 Eric Woychik Chapter 22 Smart Grid Standardization Work.. .641 Aaron F. Snyder, frances Cleveland, and Eric Lambert Contents Chapter 23 The Smart Grid IoT Stuart borlase, Onion D. Hettich, and David Kranzler Chapter 24 Smart Cities 687 Stuart Borlase, Mehdi ganji, Mohammad Shahidehpour, Mark Wells, Jessie Denver, Kip Harkness, Adrienne Grier, Daniel Kushner, Mahsa nicknam Dolan Beckel, Eric Lambert, Paul Doherty, Gary Wong, and Patrick burgess Chapter 25 Refining a Holistic View of Grid Modernization .725 John D McDonald, Robby Simpson, Patty Durand, Charles w. Newton and eric Woychik Index ·· 78 A Taylor francis Taylor Francis Group http://taylorandfrancis.com Foreword When I co-founded the grid Wise Alliance in 2003, the intent was to empower a diverse industr oriented, member-driven, non-governmental organization (NGO)to play the role of educator and convener in transitioning the power industry toward our shared vision of a smarter grid. Now that I' ve recently taken the helm again more than a decade later i find the mission very much intact, the goals clearer, and the urgency greater than ever Today, a general consensus holds: A modern(and smarter) grid offers a path to a healthy econ- omy and a sustainable energy future that involves utilities, regulators, vendors, and consumers, and is founded on a positive business case and a logical implementation framework. How this path takes shape for any individual utility will, of course, depend on myriad factors, though the traditional mandates for reliable, affordable, and safe power remain intact This second edition of Smart Grids: Advanced Technologies and solutions that you hold in your hands is a milestone and supports the notion that the question today is not whether a modern grid is beneficial and much-needed but how to best accomplish it. Since the turn of the century, the power industry has gained considerable insight into a variety of new technologies and best practices, cre ating a body of knowledge and experience that provides an excellent basis to move forward. TI challenge now is to engage stakeholders in a way that can bring together the diversity of interests toward a common outcome tor \chieving consensus among stakeholders with diverse interests, motivations, and means is akin to the old saying about democracy: It's a messy business. The history of grid modernization in gen- eral and the grid wise alliance in particular reflects that we've traveled a sometimes arduous road to our current, forward-looking position In the summer of 2001, as director of energy programs at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, I was asked by the Senate Energy and Natural resources Committee to testify on the potential impact that new information and communication technologies (ICT) could have on the energy sector. In that testimony I described conceptually how ICT could be deployed to optimize electricity delivery and consumption. Soon after, the lab and a few partner companies began work ing with the U.s. Department of Energy to create a new federal research and development(r&D) program focusing on ICT and the grid We chose the name Grid wise From the beginning, we understood that changes in the electric power sector would need to be undertaken and accomplished as a public and private partnership that included federal and state lawmakers and regulators, as well as traditional power industry stakeholders. In 2003, as politi- cal winds blew cold and the senates interest waned. we launched the grid wise alliance with six founding member companies. Our mission was to advocate for prudent changes to policies that would encourage innovation and new technologies to be deployed across the electricity sector While we were still finalizing the incorporation papers for the Alliance, a major blackout spread across the Northeastern U.S. and parts of Canada, leaving 55 million people without power, some for days and weeks. At the time, it was the worlds second most widespread blackout in history. The cause was traced to a software glitch in an alarm system in a control room in Ohio. Suffice to say it was preventable, and yet it served to draw federal attention back to the issue of grid modernization and helped to solidify the importance and relevance of the Alliance's mission In early 2007, the Alliance was asked to provide input to a new energy bill, and by the end of that year, President Bush signed into law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISa 2007). Title Xill of the legislation contained a number of key provisions that would fundamentall support the Alliance's mission and, indeed, support the broader power industry need to modernize Title XIll's opening paragraph stated: It is the policy of the United States to support the moderniza tion of the nation s electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth.. Henceforth, grid modernization

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