老外写的24G硅基汽车雷达技术

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老外写的24G硅基汽车雷达技术,硅基集成技术是以后的发展趋势,绝对干货!
Vadim issakov Microwave circuits for 24 GHz Automotive radar in Silicon-based Technologies ② Springer Vadim issakov Infineon Technologies ag Am Campeon 1-12 85579 Neubiberg Germany vadim issakov infineon. com Title of the Dissertation EIM-E/267, University of Paderborn, Germany, 2010: Microwave Circuits for 24GHz Radar Front-End Applications in CMOS and Bipolar Technologies ISBN978-3-642-13597-2 e-ISBN978-3-642-135989 DOI10.1007/978-3-642-13598-9 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2010932572 O Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965 in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective aws and regulations and therefore free for general use Cover design: WMXDesign GmbH Printed on acid-free paper SpringerispartofSpringerScience+businessMedia(www.springer.com) Preface There are continuous efforts focussed on improving road traffic safety worldwide Numerous vehicle safety features have been invented and standardized over the past decades. Particularly interesting are the driver assistance systems, since thes can considerably reduce the number of accidents by supporting drivers' perception of their surroundings. Many driver assistance features rely on radar-based sensors Nowadays the commercially available automotive front-end sensors are comprised of discrete components, thus making the radar modules highly-priced and suitable for integration only in premium class vehicles. Realization of low-cost radar front end circuits would enable their implementation in inexpensive economy cars, con- siderably contributing to traffic safety Cost reduction requires high-level integration of the microwave front-end cir- cuitry, specifically analog and digital circuit blocks co-located on a single chip re cent developments of silicon-based technologies, e.g. CMOS and SiGe: C bipolar make them suitable for realization of microwave sensors additionally, these tech- nologies offer the necessary integration capability. However, the required output power and temperature stability, necessary for automotive radar sensor products have not yet been achieved in standard digital CMOs technologies. On the other hand sige bipolar technology offers excellent high-frequency characteristics and necessary output power for automotive applications but has lower potential for re alization of digital blocks than CMos This work presents the design, implementation, and characterization of mi- crowave receiver circuits in CMOS and SiGe bipolar technologies. The applicability of a standard digital 0. 13 um CMOS technology for realization of a 24 GHz narrow band radar front-end sensor is investigated The unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (IsM) frequency band at 24 GHz is particularly interesting for radar applica tions, due to its worldwide availability and the possibility of inexpensive packaging in this frequency range The low-noise amplifier(LNA) and mixer receiver building blocks have been designed in CMOs and bipolar technologies. These building blocks have been in tegrated into receiver and transceiver front-ends. The performance stability of the circuits is compared over a very wide temperature range from -40 to 125C. Addi Preface tionally, ESD protection techniques are considered. Further, advanced modeling and de-embedding techniques, required for accurate circuit characterization, are inves- tigated. The presented circuits are suitable for automotive, industrial and consumer applications, as e. g lane-change assistant, door openers or alarms This manuscript is based on the dissertation entitled Microwave Circuits for 24 GHz Radar Front-End Applications in CMOS and Bipolar Technologies "sub mitted to the university of paderborn The research work was supported under the German BMBF funded project EMCpack/FASMZS 16SV3295 and was carried out in close collaboration with Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg, Germany. I would like to express the deepest gratitude to my advisor Prof. Dr -Ing. An dreas Thiede for his kind guidance, support, patience and insight throughout my research at the University of Paderborn. His valuable advice and inspiring ideas have advanced my work and encouraged me to research deeper. I highly appreciate his great efforts, amiable attention and understanding evinced in the guidance of my research work Furthermore, my debt of gratitude is owed to Prof Dr -Ing. Andreas Thiede and Prof Dr -Ing. Dr.-Ing habil Robert Weigel for reviewing this manuscript In addition, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. Werner Simburger for enabling and supporting my activities at Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg germany His sustained encouragement and valuable discussions have contributed a great deal to this work A very special thank you goes to Dr Herbert Knapp and Dr Marc Tiebout of In fineon Technologies AG for many valuable discussions, suggestions and their con tinuous support throughout the research. Thanks also goes to Maciej wojnowski of Infineon Technologies AG for the kind support with on-wafer measurements, pack- aging and numerous interesting discussions about de-embedding and calibration techniques. My thanks also go to Mirjana rest for the initial support with the layouts and job deck viewing. Furthermore, I would like to thank my Infineon colleagues Dr Ronald Thuringer, Dr Winfried Bakalski, Dr Ludger Verweyen, Domagoj siprak, Yiqun Cao, David Johnsson and Kevni buyuktas for their kind support a kind thank you goes to Dr. Volker Winkler of EaDs, Ulm, Germany for his valuable help with measurements and radar system aspects. Additionally, I would like to thank the colleagues Dr. Linus Maurer, Gunter Haider and Shoujun Yang from Danube Integrated Circuit Engineering(DICE)GmbH, Linz, Austria for help ful comments and supporting this work I wish to express my sincere appreciation to efforts of Mr Peter Jupp of peak re td., Cambridge, UK for carefully reading through this manuscript and refining the English grammar in this work I would like to thank my fiancee Elisabeth Hofmann for her support and patience As well, I express my sincere gratitude to my parents Eduard and Maya Issakov for the continuous encouragement, motivation, care and their priceless support Vadim issakov Munich, Germany May 2010 Contents 1 Introduction References 2 Radar Systems 2.1 Radar Principle 2.2 Radar equation and system considerations 2. 3 CW and Frequency-Modulated radar 8 2.3 I Doppler rad op p 2.3.2 Frequency-Modulated radar....... 2.3.2.1 Linear Fm Continuous-Wave radar 9 2. 4 Angle detection 2.5 Frequency Regulations ..12 2.6 Receiver Architectures 14 2.6.1 Hood 14 2.6.2 Heterodyne 2.7 Status of Automotive Radar Systems..………16 2.8 Technology Requirements for Radar Chipset 17 References 17 3 CMOS and Bipolar Technologies 3.1 CMOS Technolo 3.1.1 MOSFET Layout and Modeling Considerations ..20 3.1.2 Devices available in CllN 3.2 Bipolar Transistors 23 3.2.1 HBT Layout and Modeling Considerations........ 24 3.2.2 Devices available in B7HF200 25 3.3 Technology Comparison............ 26 3.3.1 Transistor Performance 3.3.2 Metallization and Passive components References 31 ontents 4 Modeling Techniques 4.1 Analytical Fitting of On-Chip Indu 4.1.1 Series Branch Parameters Fitting 36 4.1.2 Shunt branches parameters fitting 38 4.1.3 Results verification 40 4.2 Transistor Finger Capacitance Estimation 42 References 45 5 Measurement Techniques ....47 5.1 S-parameter De-embedding Techniques 48 5.1.1 Extension of Thru Technique for De-embedding of Asymmetrical Error Networks 5.1.1.1The 5.1.1.2 Result verif 52 5.1.2 De-embedding of Differential Devices using ascade-based Two-Port Techniq 54 5.1.2.1 Theory ....... ..54 5.1.2.2 Result verification 5.2 Differential Measurements using Baluns · 63 5.2.1 Theoretical Analysis 64 5.2.1.1 Back-to-Back Measurement 65 5.2.1.2 DUT Measurement 67 5.2.1.3 Insertion Loss De-embedding Error 5.2.2 Measurement Verification 69 References .....,,74 6 Radar Receiver Circuits 6. 1 Low-Noise amplifiers 78 6.1.1 LNA in CMOS Technology .78 6. 1. 2 LNA in SiGe: C Technology .83 6.1.3 Measurements of cmos and Sige lnas 86 6.1.4 LNA Results Summary and Comparison 6.2 Mixers 6.2.1 Active mixers ..93 6.2.1.1 Active Mixer in CMOS Technology ...93 6.2. 1.2 Active Mixer in SiGe Technology 6.2.1. 3 Measurements of CMos and siGe Active Mixers. 97 6.2.1. 4 Active Mixers Results Summary and Comparison. 101 6.2.2 Passive mixers 102 6.2.2.1 Passive Resistive Ring Mixer in CMOS Technology ..102 6.2.2.2 Passive Bipolar Mixer in SiGe Technology.... 105 6.2.2. 3 Measurements of Cmos and SiGe Passive Mixers 107 6.2.2.4 Passive Mixers Results Summary and comparison 110 6.2.3 Comparison of Active and Passive mixers Contents 6.3 Single-Channel Receivers ...,112 6.3. 1 Design of Active and Passive Receivers in CMOs 113 6.3.2 Receiver Measurements and Analysis 113 6.3.2.1 Chip Size 114 6.3.2.2 Power Consumption, Gain and Noise figure... 114 6.3.2.3 Linearity ..116 6.3.2.4 Required LO Power .....118 6.3.2.5 Isolation 119 6.3.2.6 Temperature Performance 120 6.3.3 Receiver Results Summary and Comparison....... 121 6.4 IQ Receivers .....122 6.4.1 Design of IQ Receivers 122 6.4.1.1 IQ Receiver in CMOS Technology 122 6.4.1.2 IQ Receiver in SiGe Technology 124 6.4.2 IQ Receiver Measurements 125 6.4.3 IQ Receiver Results Summary and Comparison 131 6.5 Integrated Passive circuits 132 6. 5. 1 Circuit Design and layout Considerations ....132 6.5.1.1 On-Chip 180 Power Splitter/Combiner ..132 6.5. 1.2 On-Chip 90 Power Splitter/Combiner 134 6.5.1.3On-Chip180° Hybrid Ring Coupler.……136 6.5.2 Realization and Measurement results .137 6.5.2.1 On-Chip 180 Power Splitter/Combiner 137 6.5.2.2On-Chip90 p Power Splitter/Combiner 138 6.5.2.3 On-Chip 180 Hybrid Ring Coupler 6. 5. 3 Results Summary and discussion 143 6.6 Circuit-LeveI RF ESD Protection 144 6.6. 1 Overview of Circuit-Level Protection Techniques..... 145 6.6.2 Virtual Ground Concept 147 6.6.2.1 Concept Verification by Circuit Simulation.... 149 6.6.2.2 Concept Verification by HBM Measurement... 150 6.6.2.3 Concept verification by TLP Measurement... 151 6.6.3 Transformer Protection Concept 153 .3.1 Test LNA Circuit Design. 155 6.6.3.2 Test LNA Realization and measurement 156 6.6.3.3 Concept Verification by TLP Measurement.... 157 Re eferences 158 7 Radar Transceiver circuits 165 7.1 IQ Transceiver in CMOS 7.1.1 IQ Transceiver Circuit Design 166 7.1.2 Measurements of transceiver 169 7.1.3 Results Summary and Comparison ...171 7.2 Merged Power-Amplifier-Mixer Transceiver ...173 7.2.1 System Considerations 173

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