5G turbo码编程

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内容为pdf文字版介绍5G的编码与调制,主体为turbo吗,也介绍了BCH码和LDPC码 1 Historical Perspective, Motivation and Outline 1 1.1 AHistoricalPerspective onChannelCoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 A Historical Perspective on Coded Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Motivation for thisBook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Organisationof theBook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4 NovelContributions of theBook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Convolutional Channel Coding 13 2.1 BriefChannelCodingHistory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2 ConvolutionalEncoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3 State and Trellis Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4 TheViterbiAlgorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.4.1 Error-free Hard-decision Viterbi Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.4.2 ErroneousHard-decisionViterbiDecoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4.3 Error-free Soft-decision Viterbi Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.5 Summary andConclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3 Soft Decoding and Performance of BCH Codes 25 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2 BCHcodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2.1 BCHEncoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2.2 State and Trellis Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.3 Trellis Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This edition first published 2011 c 20 1 1 John wiley sons Ltd Registered office John wiley sons ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, Po19 8SQ United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permissiontoreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwww.wiley.com The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the uK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data Turbo coding, turbo equalisation, and space-time coding: exit-chart-aided near-capacity designs for wireless channels /by L. Hanzo .. [et al. p cm Rev. ed of: Turbo coding, turbo equalisation, and space-time coding/by L. Hanzo, T.H. Liew B L. Yeap. 2002 Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN978-0-470-97290-8( cloth) 1. Signal processing-Mathematics 2 Coding theory. 3. Iterative methods (Mathematics)I. Hanzo, Lajos 1952 TK5102.92.H362011 621.3822dc22 2010037016 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Print isbn:9780470972908(H/B) PDF ISBN:9780470978498 oBook ISBN:9780470978481 ePub isbn:9780470978337 Set in 9/lpt Times by Sunrise Setting Ltd, Torquay, UK We dedicate this monograph to the contributors of this field listed in the Author index Contents About the authors Other related Wiley-IEEE Press books XIX Acknowledgements 1 Historical Perspective, Motivation and outline 1. 1 A Historical Perspective on Channel Codin 1.1.1 A Historical Perspective on Coded Modulation 1.2 Motivation for this book 1.3 Organisation of the book 1. 4 Novel contributions of the book 12 2 Convolutional Channel Coding 13 2.1 Brief Channel Coding History 2.2 Convolutional Encoding 2. 3 State and Trellis transitions 15 2. 4 The Viterbi Algorithm 2.4.1 Error-free Hard-decision Viterbi Decoding 2.4.2 Erroneous hard-decision Viterbi decoding 19 2.4.3 Error-free Soft-decision Viterbi decoding 21 2.5 Summary and Conclusions 23 3 Soft Decoding and Performance of BCH Codes 25 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 BCH codes 3.2.1 BCH Encoder 25 3.2.2 State and Trellis Diagrams 3.3 Trellis Decoding 3.3.1 Introduction 30 3.3.2 Viterbi Algorithm 30 3.3.3 Hard-decision Viterbi Decoding 3.3.3.1 Correct Hard-decision Decoding 32 3.3.3.2 Incorrect Hard-decision Decoding 3. 3. 4 Soft-decision viterbi decodin 3.3.5 Simulation results 3.3.5.1 The Berlekamp-Massey algorithm 35 CONTENTS 3. 3.5.2 Hard-decision Viterbi Decoding 38 3.3.5.3 Soft-decision Viterbi Decoding 3.3.6 Conclusion on block Coding 3.4 Soft-input Algebraic Decoding 42 3.4.1 Introduction 42 3.4.2 Chase algorithms 43 3.4.2.1 Chase algorithm I 45 3.4.2.2 Chase algorithm 2 47 3.4.3 Simulation results 47 3.5 Summary and Conclusions 49 Part I Turbo Convolutional and Turbo Block Coding 51 4 Turbo Convolutional Coding 53 J. P Woodard andL. Hanzo 41 Introduction 4.2 Turbo encoder 54 4. 3 Turbo Decoder 4.3.1 Introduction 4.3.2 Log-likelihood ratios 4.3. 3 The maximum a Posteriori algorithm 59 4.3.3.1 Introduction and mathematical Preliminaries 4.3.3.2 Forward Recursive Calculation of the ak(s) Values 62 4.3.3.3 Backward Recursive Calculation of the Bk(s)values 4.3.3.4 Calculation of the k (S, s) Values 64 4.3.3.5 Summary of the MAP Algorithm 4.3.4 Iterative Turbo Decoding Principles 4.3.4.1 Turbo decoding mathematical preliminaries 4.3.4.2 Iterative Turbo Decoding 4.3.5 Modifications of the map algorithm 72 4.3.5.1 Introduction 72 4.3.5.2 Mathematical Description of the Max-Log-MAP Algorithm 4.3.5.3 Correcting the approximation the log-MAP algorith 74 4.3.6 The Soft-output Viterbi algorithm 75 4.3.6. 1 Mathematical Description of the Soft-output Viterbi algorithm 75 4.3.6.2 Implementation of the sova 78 4.3.7 Turbo decoding e 4.3.8 Comparison of the Component Decoder algorithms 4.3.9 Conclusions 4.4 Turbo-coded BPSK Performance over Gaussian Channels 90 4.4.1 Effect of the number of iterations used 4.4.2 Effects of Puncturing 91 4.4.3 Effect of the Component Decoder Used 92 4.4.4 Effect of the frame length of the code 94 4.4.5 The Component Codes 96 4.4.6 Effect of the interleaver 97 4.4.7 Effect of estimating the channel reliability value L 101 4.5 Turbo Coding performance over Rayleigh Channels 104 4.5.1 Introduction 104 4.5.2 Performance over Perfectly Interleaved Narrow band Rayleigh Channels 105 4.5.3 Performance over Correlated Narrow band Rayleigh Channels .107 4.6 Summary and Conclusions 108 CONTENTS 5 Turbo BCH Coding 109 5.1 Introduction 109 5.2 Turbo Encode 109 5.3 Turbo Decoder 110 5.3. 1 Summary of the MaP algorithm 5.3.2 The Soft-output Viterbi algorithm 114 5.3.2.1 SOVA Decoding Example 117 5.4 Turbo Decoding Example 5.5 MAP Algorithm for Extended bch codes 126 5.5.1 Introduction 126 5.5.2 Modified MAP algorithm 126 5.5.2.1 The Forward and back ward recursion 126 5.5.2.2 Transition Probability 127 5.5.2.3 A-posteriori Information 12 8 5.5.3 Max-Log-MAP and Log-MAP Algorithms for extended bCh Codes 128 5.6 Simulation Results 130 5.6.1 Number of iterations Used 13 5.6.2 The Decoding Algorithm 132 5.6.3 The Effect of Estimating the Channel reliability Value L 133 5.6.4 The Effect of Puncturing .135 5.6.5 The Effect of the interleaver length of the turbo code 136 6.6 The Effect of the Interleaver design 5.6.7 The Component Codes 139 5.6.8 BCH(31, k, dmin)Family Members 141 5.6.9 Mixed C 141 5.6.10 Extended BCh Codes .142 5.6. 11 BCH Product Codes 144 5.7 Summary and Conclusions 144 Part II Space-time Block and Space-time Trellis Coding 147 6 Space-time Block Codes 149 6.1 Classification of smart antennas 149 6.2 Introduction to Space-time Codin 150 6.3 Background 152 6.3.1 Maximum Ratio Combining .152 6.4 Space-time block Codes 153 6.4.1 A Twin-transmitter-based Space-time Block Code 153 6.4.1. 1 The Space-time Code G2 Using One receiver 154 6.4.1.2 The Space-time Code G2 USing Two Receivers 156 6.4.2 Other Space-time Block Codes 157 6.4.3 MAP Decoding of space-time block Codes .159 6.5 Channel-coded Space-time Block Codes 16l 6.5.1 System Overview 6.5.2 Channel Codec Parameters 162 6.5.3 Complexity Issues and Memory requirements 165 6.6 Performance results 167 6.6. 1 Performance Comparison of Various Space-time Block Codes Without Channel Codecs 168 6.6.1.1 Maximum Ratio Combining and the Space-time Code G2 6.6.1.2 Performance of 1 BPS Schemes 169 6.6.1.3 Performance of 2 BPS Schemes 169 CONTENTS 6.6.1.4 Performance of 3 BPS Schemes 172 6.6. 1.5 Channel-coded Space-time Block Codes 173 6.6.2 Mapping Binary Channel Codes to Multilevel Modulation 174 6.6.2.1 Turbo Convolutional Codes: Data and Parity Bit Mapping .175 6.6.2.2 Turbo Convolutional Codes: Interleaver Effects 177 6.6.2.3 Turbo bCh Codes 179 6.6.2.4 Convolutional Codes 181 6.6.3 Performance Comparison of Various Channel Codecs USing the G2 Space-time Code and multilevel modulation 182 6.6.3.1 Comparison of Turbo Convolutional Codes 182 6.6.3.2 Comparison of Different-rate TC(2, 1, 4)Codes 183 6.6.3. 3 Convolutional Codes 184 6.6.3.4 G2-coded Channel Codec Comparison Throughput of 2 BPs 185 6.6.3.5 G2-coded Channel Codec Comparison: Throughput of 3 BPS 187 6.6.3.6 Comparison of G2-coded High-rate TC and TBCH Codes 187 6.6.3.7 Comparison of High-rate TC and Convolutional Codes 188 6.6.4 Coding Gain versus Complexity .188 6.6.4.1 Complexity Comparison of Turbo Convolutional Codes 189 6.6.4.2 Complexity Comparison of Channel Codes 190 6.7 Summary and Conclusions 192 7 Space-time Trellis Codes 195 7.1 Introduction 195 7.2 Space-time Trellis Codes 196 7.2.1 The 4-state, 4PSk Space-time Trellis encoder 196 7.2.1.1 The 4-state, 4PSK Space-time Trellis Decoder 198 7.2.2 Other space-time Trellis codes OR 7.3 Space-time-coded Transmission over Wideband Channels 200 7.3.1 System Overview 203 7.3.2 Space-time and Channel codec Parameters 7.3.3 Complexity Issues 205 7. 4 Simulation results 206 7.4.1 Space-time Coding Comparison: Throughput of 2 BPS 207 7.4.2 Space-time Coding Comparison: Throughput of 3 BPs 210 7.4.3 The Effect of Maximum Doppler Frequency 7.4.4 The Effect of Delay Spreads 7.4.5 Delay Non-sensitive System .217 7.4.6 The Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode System 220 7.4.6.1 Channel-coded Space-time Codes: Throughput of I BPS 221 7.4.6.2 Channel-coded Space-time Codes: Throughput of 2 BPS 221 7.5 Space-time-coded Adaptive Modulation for OFDM 222 222 7.5.2 Turbo-coded and space-time-coded AOFDM 7. 5.3 Simulation results 224 7.5.3. 1 Space-time-coded AOFDM 224 7.5.3.2 Turbo- and space-time- coded AOFDM 227 7.6 Summary and conclusions 230 8 Turbo-coded Adaptive Modulation versus Space-time Trellis Codes for Transmission over Dispersive Channels 233 8.1 Introduction 233 8.2 System Overview .235 8.2.1 SISO Equaliser and AQAM 235 CONTENTS 8.2.2 MIMO Equaliser 236 8.3 Simulation parameters 237 8.4 Simulation results 23 8.4.1 Turbo-coded Fixed modulation mode performance 239 8.4.2 Space-time Trellis Code Performance 243 8.4.3 Adaptive Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Performance 245 8.5 Summary and Conclusions 251 Part IIi Turbo equalisation 253 g Turbo-coded Partial-response Modulation 255 9.1 Motivation 9.2 The Mobile radio Channel 256 9. 3 Continuous phase modulation theor .257 9. 4 Digital Frequency Modulation Systems 9.5 State Representation 9.5. 1 Minimum Shift Keying 263 9.5.2 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying 266 9.6 Spectral Performance 9.6. 1 Power Spectral Density 268 9.6.2 Fractional Out-of-band Power .271 9.7 Construction of Trellis-based Equaliser States 271 9.8 Soft-output GmsK Equaliser and turbo Codin 275 9.8.1 Background and Motivation 275 9.8.2 Soft-output GMSK Equaliser 276 9.8.3 The Log- MAP Algorithm 277 9.8.4 Summary of the Log-MAP Algorithm 281 9.8.5 Complexity of Turbo Decoding and Convolutional Decoding .282 9.8.6 System Parameters 283 9.8.7 Turbo Coding performance Results 9.9 Summary and Conclusions 287 10 Turbo Equalisation for Partial-response Systems 289 10.1 Motivation 10.2 Principle of Turbo Equalisation Using Single/Multiple Decoder(s/ 291 2 10.3 Soft-in/Soft-out Equaliser for Turbo equalisation 296 10.4 Soft-in/Soft-out Decoder for Turbo Equalisation 296 10.5 Turbo Equalisation example .299 10.6 Summary of Turbo Equalisation ...313 10.7 Performance of Coded GMsK Systems Using Turbo Equalisation 10.7. 1 Convolutional-coded GMSK System 10.7.2 Convolutional-coding-based Turbo-coded gmsK System 315 10.7.3 BCH-coding-based Turbo-coded gmsK System 10.8Di of results 318 10.9 Summary and Conclusions 323 11 Comparative Study of turbo equalisers 325 11.1 Motivation .325 11.2 System Overview 326 11. 3 Simulation parameters 326 11.4 Results 11.4.1 Five-path Gaussian Channel 329 CONTENTS 11.4.2 Equally Weighted Five-path Rayleigh Fading Channel 332 11.5 Non-iterative Joint Channel Equalisation and Decoding 337 11.5.1 Motivation 337 11.5.2 Non-iterative Turbo equalisation .338 11.5.3 Non-iterative Joint Equalisation/Decoding Using a 2 X N Interleaver 339 11.5.4 Non-iterative Turbo Equaliser Performance 340 11. 5.4.1 Effect of Interleaver Depth 342 11.5. 4.2 The M-algorithm 343 11.6 Summary and conclusions 346 12 Reduced-complexity Turbo Equaliser 347 12.1 Motivation 347 12.2 Complexity of the Multilevel Full-response Turbo Equaliser 12.3 System Model .350 12.4 In-phase/Quadrature-phase Equaliser Principle 351 2.5 Overview of the Reduced-complexity Turbo Equaliser 352 12. 5. 1 Conversion of the dFE Symbol estimates to llrs 353 12.5.2 Conversion of the Decoder A Posteriori LLRs into Symbols 354 12.5.3 Decoupling Operation 357 12.6 Complexity of the In-phase/Quadrature-phase Turbo Equaliser .358 12.7 System Parameters 359 12.8 System Performance 12.8. 1 4-QAM System 360 12.8.2 16-QAM System 363 12.8.3 64-QAM System 12.9 Summary and conclusions 13 Turbo Equalisation for Space-time Trellis-coded Systems 369 13.1 Introduction .369 13.2 System Overview 370 13.3 Principle of In-phase/Quadrature-phase Turbo equalisation 371 13.4 Complexity Analysi 373 13.5 Results and discussion 374 13.5.1 Performance versus Complexity trade-off 13.5.2 Performance of STTC Systems over Channels with Long Delays 381 13.6 Summary and Conclusions .382 Part Iv Coded and Space-time-Coded Adaptive Modulation TCM, TTCM, BICM, BICM-ID and mlc 385 14 Coded Modulation Theory and performance 387 14.1 Introduction 387 14.2 Trellis-coded modulation 388 14.2.1 M Principl 388 14.2.2 Optimum TCM Codes 14.2.3 TCM Code Design for Fading Channels 14.2.4 Set Partitioning 395 14.3 The Symbol-based MAP algorithm 14.3. 1 Problem Description 397 14.3.2 Detailed Description of the symbol-based map algorithm 398 14.3.3 Symbol-based MAP Algorithm Summary 400 14 4 Turbo Trellis-coded Modulation 402

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