TMC2209_Datasheet_.pdf

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ATIONS Compatible Design Upgrade 3D Printers Printers, POS Office and home automation Textile, Sewing Machines CCTV, Security ATM, Cash recycler HVAC Battery Operated Equipment FEATURES AND BENEFITS 2-phase stepper motors up to 2.8A coil current (peak), 2A RMS STEP/DIR Interface with 4, 8,
TMC220%, TMC2226 Preliminary DATASHEET (Rev. 0.90/2019.FEB-12) Table of contents PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION 11 STALLGUARD4 LOAD MEASUREMENT..56 1,1 KEY CONCEPTS 11.1 STALLGUARD4 VS STALLGUARD2...56 ONTROL INTERFACE5,… 11.2 TUNING STALLGUARD4 57 1.3 MOVING AND CONTROLLING THE MOTOR..6 11.3 STALLGUARD4 UPDATE RATE 1.4 STEALTH CHOP2& SPREADCYCLE DRIVER..6 11.4 DETECTING A MOTOR STALL 57 1.5 PRECISE CLOCK GENERATOR AND CLK INPUT.8 11.5 LIMITS OF STALLGUARD4 OPERATION..57 1.6 AUTOMATIC STANDSTILL POWER DOWN.7 12 COOLSTEP OPERATION mmm 58 1.7 INDEX OUTPUT 8 121 USER BENEFITS 58 2 PIN ASSIGNMENTS,…9 12.2 SETTING UP F0RC00 LSTEP……158 21 PACKAGE OUTLINE TMO22o9…….9 123 TUNING C0 OLSTEP… 60 2.2 SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS TMC2209 13 STEP/DIR INTERFACE 51 2.3 PACKAGE OUTLINE TMC2226 10 2.4 SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS TMC2226 11 13.1 TIMING 13.2 CHANGING RESOLUTION 62 3 SAMPLE CIRCUITS… 13.3 MICRO PLYER STEP INTERPOLATOR AND STAND STILL DETECTION 3. 1 STANDARD APPLICATION CIRCUIT 3.2 INTERNAL RDSON SENSING 12 134 INDEX OUTPUT… 3 5V ONLY SUPPLY 14 INTERNAL STEP PULSE GENERATOR.. 65 3. 4 CONFIGURATION PINS 14 3. 5 HIGH MOTOR CURRENT .14 15 DRIVER DIAGNOSTIC FLAGs....66 LOW POWER STANDBY….… 15 151 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT∴…166 3.7 DRIVER PROTECTION AND EME CIRCUITRY.15 15.2 SHORT PROTECTION 4 UART SINGLE WIRE INTERFACE 15.3 OPEN LOAD DIAGNOSTICS 16 15.4 DIAGNOSTIC OUTPUT 67 4.1 DATAGRAM STRUCTURE 16 4.2 CRC CALCULATION 18 16 QUICK CONFIGURATION GUIDE 68 4. 3 UART SIGNALS 18 17 EXTERNAL RESET 72 4. 4 ADDRESSING MULTIPLE SLAVES 19 18 CLOCK OSCILLATOR AND INPUT.72 REGISTER MAP 19 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. 1 GENERAL REGISTERS............21 0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS……73 5.2 VELOCITY DEPENDENT CONTROL 26 STALLGUARD CONTROL 27 20.1 OPERATIONAL RANGE 73 54 SEQUENCER REGISTERS∴…29 20.2 DC AND TIMING CHARACTERISTICS 74 5. 5 CHOPPER CONTROL REGISTERS. ........30 20.3 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 78 6 STEALTHCHOPTM 36 21 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS 79 6.1 AUTOMATIC TUNIN石.…36 21.1 EXPOSED DIE PAD 6.2 STEALTHCHOP OPTIONS.…………… 38 21.2 WIRING GND 79 6.3 STEALTHCHOP CURRENT REGULATOR 38 213 SUPPLY FILTERING… 79 6. 4 VELOCITY BASED SCALING. 21.4 LAYOUT EXAMPLE TMC2209 6.5 COMBINE STEALTHCHOP AND SPREADCYCLE 42 22 PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA 6.6 FLAGS IN STEALTHCHOP……43 67 FREEWHEELING AND PASSIVE BRAKING……244 22.1 DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS QFN28.......81 7 SPREADCYCLE CHOPPER.. 22.2 DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS HTSSOP28..83 22.3 PACKAGE CODES 84 7.1 SPREADCYCLE SETTINGS... 47 23 TABLE OF FIGURES….5 8 SELECTING SENSE RESISTORS.m50 24 REVISION HISTORY 36 9 MOTOR CURRENT CONTROL 25 REFERENCES.... 9. 1 ANALOG CURRENT SCALING VREF 10 INTERNAL SENSE RESISTORS 54 www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dATASHEET(Rev. 0.90/2019-FEB-12 4 1 Principles of Operation The Tmc22xx family of stepper drivers is intended as a drop-in upgrade for existing low-cost stepper driver applications. Their silent drive technology Stealth Chop enables non-bugging motion control for home and office applications. a highly efficient power stage enables high current from a tiny package The TMC22xx requires just a few control pins on its tiny package. It allows selection of the most important setting: the desired microstep resolution. a choice of 2, 4,8 or 16 microsteps, or from fullstep up to 11256 step adapts the driver to the capabilities of the motion controller Even at low microstepping rate, the tMc22xx offers a number of unique enhancements over comparable products: TRINAMICs sophisticated StealthChop2 chopper plus the microstep enhancement Micro Plyer ensure noiseless operation, maxi mum efficiency and best motor torque. Its fast current regulation and optional combination with Spread cycle allow for highly dynamic motion. Protection and diagnostic features support robust and reliable operation. a simple-to-use 8 bit UART interface opens up more tuning and control options. Application specific tuning can be stored to on-chip OTP memory Industries' most advanced step direction stepper motor driver family upgrades designs to noiseless and most precise operation for cost-effective and highly competitive solutions TMC2209/2226 STEP Step and Direction motion control DIR Step&Dir input Ise 0A1 MS1 Memory (0 tealth chepa BRA RsA (GND or VCC IO Confiquration optional UART interface PDN/UART L Rsens∈ INDEX stallGLard4TMH opt. ext. CLK IN Trimmed r【 oscillator 33V or 5V VCC TO opt. low power sta ndby opt. driver enable Figure 1.1 TMC22xx basic application block diagram THREE MODES OF OPERATION OPTION 1: Standalone STEP/DIR Driver (Legacy Mode) a CPU (uC) generates step direction signals synchronized to additional motors and other components within the system. the tmc22xX operates the motor as commanded by the configuration pins and STEP/DIR signals. Motor run -current either is fixed, or set by the Cpu using the analog input VREF. The pin PDN UART selects automatic standstill current reduction Feedback from the driver to www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dATASHEET(Rev. 0.90/2019-FEB-12 the cpu is granted by the indeX and diag output signals. Enable or disable the motor using the enn OPTION 2: Standalone STEP/DIR Driver with OTP pre-configuration Additional options enabled by pre-programming oTP memory (label uarT & OTP) UART OTP Tuning of the chopper to the application for application tailored performance ost reduction by switching the driver to internal sense resistor mode Adapting the automatic power down level and timing for best application efficiency mh图> CPU LEMROR INDEX TMC22xX 0 bang uArt Other drivers programming I Fiqure 1.2 Stand-alone driver with pre-confiquration To enable the additional options, either one-time program the driver's OTP memory, or store configuration in the cpu and transfer it to the on-chip registers following each power-up. Operation uses the same signals as Option 1. Programming does not need to be done within the application-it can be executed during testing of the pcb! alternatively use bit-banging by cpu firmware to configure the driver. Multiple drivers can be programmed at the same time using a single TXD line OPTION 3: STEP/DIR Driver with Full Diagnostics and Contro Similar to Option 2, but pin PDN_UaRT is connected to the CPU uart interface UART Additional options (label UARD Detailed diagnostics and thermal management Passive bra king and freewheeling for flexible, lowest power stop modes More options for microstep resolution setting (fullstep to 256 microstep) Software controlled motor current setting and more chopper options Use StallGuard for sensorless homing and CoolStep for adaptive motor current and cool motor This mode allows replacing all control lines like ENN, DIAG, INDEX, MS1, MS2, and analog current setting VreF by a single interface line. This way, only three signals are required for full control: STEP. DIR and PDN_UART. Even motion without external STEP pulses is provided by an interna programmable step pulse generator Just set the desired motor velocity. However no ramping is provided by the tmc2 2XX. 1.1 Key concepts The TMC22xx implements advanced features which are exclusive to TRINAMIC products. These features contribute toward greater precision, greater energy efficiency, higher reliability, smoother motion, and cooler operation in many stepper motor applications Stealth Chop2TM No-noise, high-precision chopper algorithm for inaudible motion and inaudible standstill of the motor. allows faster motor acceleration and deceleration than Stealth ChopTM and extends stealth Chop to low stand still motor currents SpreadcycleM High-precision cycle-by-cycle current control for highest dynamic movements MicroPlyer Microstep interpolator for obtaining full 256 microstep smoothness with lower resolution step inputs starting from fullstep StallGuard4M Sensorless homing safes end switches and warns in case of motor overload CoolstepTM Uses StallGuard measurement in order to adapt the motor current for best efficiency and lowest heat-up of motor and driver www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dATASHEET(Rev. 0.90/2019-FEB-12 In addition to these performance enhancements, tRINAMIC motor drivers offer safeguards to detect and protect against shorted outputs, output open-circuit, overtemperature, and un dervoltage conditions for enhancing safety and recovery from equipment malfunctions 1.2 Control interfaces The TMC22xx supports both, discrete control lines for basic mode selection and a uart based single wire interface with CRC checking. The UarT interface automatically becomes enabled when correct uaRT data is sent. When using UART, the pin selection may be disabled by control bits UART 121 UART Interface The single wire interface allows unidirectional operation (for parameter setting only), or bi-directional operation for full control and diagnostics. It can be driven by any standard microcontroller UART or even by bit banging in software. Baud rates from 9600 Baud to 500k Baud or even higher (when using an external clock) may be used. No baud rate configuration is required, as the tmc2 2XX automatically adapts to the masters' baud rate. The frame format is identical to the intelligent TRINAMIC controller& driver ICs tmc5130, TMC516x and tmc5072. a crc checksum allows data transmission over longer distance. For fixed initialization sequen ces, store the data including Crc into the uc, thus consuming only a few 100 bytes of code for a full initialization Crc may be ignored during read access, if not desired. This makes cro use an optional feature! The Ic supports fa address settings to access up to four ICs on a single bus. Even more drivers can be programmed in parallel by tying together all interface pins, in case no read access is required. An optional addressing can be provided by analog multiplexers, like 74HC4066 From a software point of view the TMC22xx is a peripheral with a number of control and status registers. Most of them can either be written only or are read only Some of the registers allow both read and write access. In case read -modify-write access is desired for a write only register, realize a hadow register in master software 1.3 Moving and Controlling the motor 13.1 STEP DIR Interface The motor is controlled by a step and direction input. Active edges on the step input can be rising edges or both rising and falling edges as controlled by a special mode bit (DEDGE). Using both edges cuts the toggle rate of the SteP signal in half, which is useful for communication over slow interfaces such as optically isolated interfaces. The state sampled from the DiR input upon an active StEP edge determines whether to step forward or back. Each step can be a fullstep or a microstep, in which there are 2, 4,8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256 microsteps per fullstep. A step impulse with a low state on DIR increases the microstep counter and a high decreases the counter by an amount controlled by the microstep resolution. An internal table translates the counter value into the sine and cosine values hich control the motor current for microstepping 1.3.2 Internal Step Pulse Generator UART Some applications do not require a precisely co-ordinate motion- the motor just is required to move for a certain time and at a certain velocity the tmc22xx comes with an internal pulse generator for these applications: Just provide the velocity via UaRT interface to move the motor the velo city sign automatically controls the direction of the motion. However, the pulse generator does not integrate a ramping function Motion at higher velocities will require ramping up and ramping down the velocity value via software STEP/DIR mode and internal pulse generator mode can be mixed in an application 1.4 Stealth Chop2 Spread cycle driver Stealth Chop is a voltage-chopper based principle. It especially guarantees that the motor is absolutely quiet in standstill and in slow motion, except for noise generated by ball bearings. Unlike other voltage mode choppers, Stealth Chop2 does not require any configuration. It automatically learns the www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dATASHEET(Rev. 0.90/2019-FEB-12 best settings during the first motion after power up and further optimizes the settings in subsequent motions. An initial homing sequence is sufficient for learning. Optionally, initial learning parameters can be stored to OTP. Stealth Chop2 allows high motor dynamics, by reacting at once to a change of motor velocity For highest velo city applications, Spread Cycle is an option to Stealth Chop. It can be enabled via input pin or via UART and OTP. Stealth Chop2 and Spreadcycle may even be used in a combined configuration for the best of both worlds: Stealth Chop2 for no-noise stand still, silent and smooth performance, Spread Cycle at higher velocity for high dynamics and highest peak velocity at low vibration pread Cycle is an advanced cycle-by-cycle chopper mode. It offers smooth operation and good resonance dampening over a wide range of speed and load The spread cycle chopper scheme automatically integrates and tunes fast de cay cycles to guarantee smooth zero crossing performance Benefits of using Stealth chop Significantly improved microstepping with low cost motors Motor runs smooth and quiet absolutely no standby noise Reduced mechanical resonance yields improved torque 1.5 StallGuard4- Mechanical Load Sensing StallGuard4 provides an accurate measurement of the load on the motor It can be used for stall detection as well as other uses at loads below those which stall the motor, such as CoolStep load adaptive current reduction. This gives more information on the drive allowing functions like sensorless homing and diagnostics of the drive mechanics 1.6 CoolStep- Load Adaptive Current Control coolstep drives the motor at the optimum current. It uses the stallGuard4 load measurement information to adjust the motor current to the minimum amount required in the actual load situation This saves energy and keeps the components cool Benefits are Energy efficiency power consumption decreased up to75% Motor generates less heat mproved mechanical precision Less or no cooling improved reliability Use of smaller motor less torque reserve required cheaper motor does the job Less motor noise Due to less energy exciting motor resonances standard operation with 50% of torque reserve. coolStep is enabled above 60RPM in the expe ed to Figure 1.3 shows the efficiency gain of a 42mm stepper motor when using coolStep compa 0.9 Efficien cy with coolStep Efficiency with 50% torque reserve 06 0,5 0 50 100 150 300 Velocity [RPM Figure 1.3 Energy efficiency with coolStep(example www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dATASHEET(Rev. 0.90/2019-FEB-12 8 1.7 Automatic standstill power down An automatic current reduction drastically reduces application power dissipation and cooling requirements. Per default, the stand still current reduction is enabled by pulling PDN_UART input to GND. It reduces standstill power dissipation to less than 33 by going to slightly more than half of the run current Modify stand still current, delay time and decay via Uart, or pre-programmed via internal OTP Automatic freewheeling and passive motor braking are provided as an option for stand still. Passive braking reduces motor standstill power consumption to zero, while still providing effective dampening and braking! STEP 凵凵LL」」凵凵」 CURRENT TRUN IHOLD POWERDOWN IHOLDDELAY pcwer down power down RMS motor current trace with pin PDN=D Figure 1.4 Automatic Motor Current Power Down 1.8 Index Output The index output gives one pulse per electrical rotation, i. e. one pulse per each four fullsteps.It shows the internal sequencer microstep 0 position (MSTEP near 0). This is the power on position. In combination with a mechanical home switch, a more precise homing is enabled 1.9 Precise clock generator and clK input he TMC22xX provides a factory trimmed internal clock generator for precise chopper frequency and erformance. However an optional external clock input is available for cases, where quartz precision is desired, or where a lower or higher frequency is required. For safety the clock input features timeout detection and switches back to internal clock upon fail of the external source www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dATASHEET(Rev. 0.90/2019-FEB-12 2 Pin Assignments The Tmc22xx family comes in two package variants in order to fit different requirements for power dissipation. Please check for avai lability 2.1 Package outline TMC2209 OB2 0A2 ENN R STDBY GND|ω TMC2209 CPO QFN28 9 GND CPI A VREF VCP STEP SPREAD Pad=GND[3 VCC_IO 9回图 Figure 2.1 TMC2209 Pinning Top view -type: QFN28, 5x5mm2, 0.5mm pitch 2.2 Signal Descriptions TMC2209 Number Type Function OB2 Motor coil b output 2 ENN DI Enable not input. The power stage becomes switched off (all motor outputs floating) when this pin becomes driven to a high level GND 3,18 GND. Connect to GND plane near pin CPO Charge pump capacitor output CPI Charge pump capacitor input. Tie to CPO using 22nF 50V capacitor. VCP Charge pump voltage. Tie to vs using 100nF capacitor SPREAD DI (pd) Chopper mode selection: Low=Stealth Chop, High=Spread Cycle (may be left un connected) Output of internal 5v regulator. Attach 2. 2hF to 4.7HF ceramic SVOUT capacitor to GNd near to pin for best performance. Provide the shortest possible loop to the GNd pad MS1_AD0 9 DI(pd) Microstep resolution configuration (internal pull- down resistors) MS2_ AD1 10 DI【pd) MS2,MS1:00:1/8,01:12,10:111:116 For UaRt based configuration selection of UART Address 0.3 Diagnostic and stallguard output. hi level upon stall detection or DIAG 11 DO driver error. Reset error condition by enn=high INDEX 12 D0 Configurable index output Provides index pulse. CLK 13 DI CLK input. Tie to GNd using short wire for internal clock or supply www.trinamic.com TMC2209, TMC2226 Preliminary dataSHeet (Rev. 0.90 /2019-FEB-12 1 Pin Number Type Function Power down not control input low- automatic standstill current PDN UART 14 DIO reduction Optional UART Input/Output. Power down function can be disabled in uart mode VCC IO 15 3.3V to 5v I0 supply voltage for all digital pins STEP 16 DI STEP input VREF 17 AI Analog reference voltage for current scaling or reference current for use of internal sense resistors (optional mode) DIR 19 DI (pd) DIR input (internal pull-down resistor) STANDBY input. Pull up to disable driver internal supply regulator STDBY DI (pd) This will bring the driver into a low power dissipation state 100kOhm pulldown. (may be left unconnected Hint: Also shut down VREF voltage and enn to ov during standby VS 22,28 Motor supply voltage. Provide filtering capacity near pin with shortest possible loop to gnd pad 0A2 21 Motor coil A output 2 BRA 23 Sense resistor connection for coil a. place sense resistor to gnd near pin. Tie to GND when using internal sense resistor 0A124 Motor coil a output 1 unused May be connected to gNd for better PCB routing 0B1 26 Motor coil b output 1 BRB 27 Sense resistor connection for coil b. place sense resistor to gnd near pin. Tie to GNd when using internal sense resistor Exposed Connect the exposed die pad to a gnd plane provide as many as die pad possible vias for heat transfer to gnd plane. Serves as gnd pin for ower dr nd analogue circuit 2.3 Package Outline TMC2226 0B1 s]0A1 N BRA 0B2 0A2 ENN I W STDBY GND 8 DIR CPO TMC2226 AND CPI HTSSOP28 VREF VCP a STEP SPREAD 8 2VCC IO SVOUT PDN UART MS1 ADO r Pad=GND □CLK 巴 INDEX MS2 AL 凹DIAG Figure 2.2 TMC2226 Pinning Top view type: HTSSOP 28, 9.7x6 4mm2 over pins, 0.65mm pitch www.trinamic.com

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