相控阵天线手册2018最新版(超清晰英文原版)Phased Array Antenna Handbook_Third Edition.pdf

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本书作者Robert J. Maillo堪称天线界的元老,本电子书为2018年新出版的第三版,作者2005年出版的《相控阵天线手册》第二版可以说是圣经级别的书。介绍了相控阵天线与系统的最新、最全面的知识,侧重工程应用,涵盖了许多设计细节,如天线系统噪声处理,天线方向图分析、子阵列天线技术开发以及关于天线结构的深入探讨等。
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the U.S. Library of Congress British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalog rccord for this book is availablc from the British library. ISBN13:978-1-63081-0290 Cover design by John Gomes o 2018 Artcch House 685 Canton Street Norwood ma All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher all terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized artech House cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service ma 10987654321 Contents Preface to the third edition Preface to the second edition Preface to the first edition Acknowledgments CHAPTER Phased arrays in Radar and communication Systems 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 System Requirements for radar and communication Antennas 1.1.2 Directive Properties of arrays 1. 1.3 Array Noise Characterization 1. 1.4 The Receiving Antenna in a Polarized plane wave Field 148 ystem Considerations 1.1.6 Monopulse Beam Splitting 1.2 Array Characterization for Radar and Communication Systems 12 1.2.1 Scanning and Collimation of linear and Planar arrays 15 1.2.2 Phase Scanning in One Dimension(oo=0) 1.2.3 Two-Dimensional Scanning of Planar Arrays 1.2.4 Beamwidth and Directivity of Scanning Arrays 1. 2. 5 Directivity of Linear arrays 1.2.6 Directivity of Planar arrays 24 1.2.7 Array Realized Gain and Scan Loss 25 1.2.8 Grating Lobes of a Linear array 26 ing Lobes of a Planar array 30 1.2.10 Bandwidth 31 1.2.11 Array Size Determination 35 1. 2. 12 EIRP and G/T for Large, Two-Dimensional Passive or Active Arrays 1.2.13 Gain Limitations due to circuit losses 37 1. 2.14 Directivity and Illumination Errors: Random error and Quantization error 39 1.2.15 Minimum Number of elements versus Scan Coverage Limited Field-of-View arrays 42 1. 2.16 Time-Delay Compensation 44 Contents Array architecture and ce nology 45 1.3.1 Array aperture 1.3.2 Feed Architectures 48 1.3.3 Beamforming and Relevant architectures 53 1.3.4 RF Components for Array Control 56 1.3.5 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Technology 59 1.3.6 Antenna Components for mobile phones 1.3.7 Metamaterials for array control 60 Reference CHAPTER 2 Pattern Characteristics of linear and planar arrays 65 2.1 Array Analysis 2.1.1 The Radiation Integrals 2.1.2 Element Pattern Effects, Mutual Coupling, Gain Computed from Element patterns 2.2 Characteristics of Linear and Planar arrays 76 2.2.1 Linear array characteristics 76 2.2.2 Planar Array Charactcristics 85 2.3 Scanning to Endfire 2. 4 Thinned arrays 2.4.1 Average Patterns of Density-Tapered Arrays 96 2.4.2 Probabilistic Studics of Thinned arrays 97 2.4.3 Thinned Arrays with Quantized Amplitude DistributiOns 102 References 110 chaPTeR 3 Pattern Synthesis for Linear and Planar arrays 3. 1 Linear Arrays and Planar Arrays with Separable Distributions 114 3.1.1 Fourier transform method 114 3.1.2 Schelkunov's(Schelkunoff's)Form 114 3.1.3 Woodward Synthcsis 3.1.4 Dolph-Chebyshey Synthesis 120 Taylor Line Source synthesis 126 3.1.6 Modified sin rz/ Patterns 134 3. 1.7 Bayliss Linc Sourcc Diffcrcncc Pattcrns 136 3.1.8 Synthesis Methods Based on Taylor Patterns: Elliott's Modified Taylor Patterns and the Iterative Method of elliott 139 3.1.9 Discretization of Continuous Aperture illuminations b Root matching and Iteration 145 3.1.10 Power Pattern Parameter Optimization Based upon the Ratio of Quadratic Forms 146 3.2 Numerical Methods of Pattern Synthesis 149 3.2.1 Numcrical Powcr Pattcrn Synthesi 149 3.2.2 The Alternating Projection Method 158 3.2.3 Numerical Pattern Synthesis Subject to Constraints 162 Contents 3.3 Circular Planar arrays 164 3.3. 1 Taylor Circular Array Synthesis 164 3.3.2 Bayliss Difference Patterns for Circular arrays 166 3.4 Methods of Pattern Optimization and Adaptive arrays l68 3. 4.1 Introduction 168 3.4.2 Generalized S/N Optimization for Sidelobe Cancelers and Phased and multiple-Beam arrays 3.4.3 Operation as sidelobe canceler 174 3.4. Fully Adaptive Phased or Multiple-Beam Arrays 177 3.4.5 Wideband Adaptive contro 179 3.5 Generalized Patterns Using Covariance Matrix Inversion 184 3.6 Pattern Synthesis Including Mutual Coupling 186 3.6.1 Introduction 186 3.6.2 Pattern Synthesis Using Mutual Coupling Parameters 187 3.6.3 Pattern Synthesis Using Measured Element Patterns 188 3.6.4 Array Failure Correction 189 References 191 CHAPTER 4 Patterns of Nonplanar arrays 197 4.1 Introduction 197 4.1. 1 Methods of Analysis for General Conformal Arrays 198 4.2 Patterns of Circular and Cylindrical arrays 199 4.2.1 Phase Mode Excitation of Circular Arrays 202 4.2.2 Patterns and Elevation Scan 206 4.2.3 Circular and Cylindrical Arrays of Directional elements 207 4.2.4 Scctor Arrays on Conducting Cylinders 210 4.3 Spherical and Hemispherical Arrays 233 4.4 Truncated Conical arrays 234 R eferences 234 CHAPTER 5 Elements for Phased arrays 239 5.1 Array Elements 239 5.2 Polarization Characteristics of Infinitesimal Elements in Free Space 239 5. 3 Elcctric Current(Wirc) Antenna Elcments 242 5.3.1 Effective radius of wire structures with noncircular Cross-Section 242 The dipole and the me pole 242 5.3.3 Special Feeds for Dipoles and Monopoles 246 5.3.4 Dipoles Fed Off-Center 249 s The sleeve dipole and monopole 251 5.3.6 The Bowtie and Other Wideband Dipoles 253 5.3.7 Thc Folded dipolc 254 5.3.8 Microstrip Dipoles 256 5.3.9 Other Wire Antenna structures 256 Contents 5.4 Wideband Array Elements 258 5. 4.1 Introduction 258 5.4.2 Self-Complementary elements 259 5.4.3 TEM Horn Element 260 5.4.4 Long-Slot Array 260 5.4.5 Spiral Elements and arrays 262 5.4.6 Broadband Tapered Slot and vivaldi arrays 262 5.4.7 Balanced Antipodal vivaldi antenna 266 5.4.8 Broadband Dipole Elements 267 5.4.9 Bunny Ear 268 5.4.10 Capacitively Coupled Dipoles 268 5.5 Aperture Antenna elements 273 5.5.1 Slot elements 273 5.5.2 Waveguide radiators 275 5.5.3 Ridged Waveguide elements 278 5.5.4 Horn Elements 280 5.6 Microstrip Patch Elements 280 5.6.1 Microstrip Patch 280 5.6.2 The Balanced Fed radiator of collings 288 5.7 Elements for Alternative Transmission lines 289 5.8 Elements and Row(Column) Arrays for One-Dimensional Scan 289 5.8. 1 Waveguide slot array Line Source elements 291 5.8.2 Printed Circuit Series-Fed Arrays 295 5.9 Elements and polarizers for polarization diversity 296 References 302 CHAPTER 6 Summary of Element Pattern and Mutual Impedance Effects 313 6.1 Mutual Impedance Effects 6.2 Integral Equation Formulation for Radiation and coupling in Finite and Infinite arrays 315 6.2.1 Formulation and Results for Finite arrays 315 6.2.2 Formulation and Results for infinite arrays 319 6.3 Array Blindness and Surface Waves 329 6.4 Impedance and element patterns in Well-Behaved Infinite Scanning arrays 34 6.5 Semi-Infinite and Finite arrays 353 6.6 Impedance Matching for Wide angle and Wideband Radiation 353 6.6.1 Reduced Element Spacing 354 6.6.2 Dielectric WAIM Sheets 356 6.7 Mutual Coupling Phenomena for Nonplanar Surfaces 358 6.8 Small Arrays and Waveguide Simulators for the Evaluation of Phased array Scan behavior 363 6.8.1 Several Useful simulators 367 References 369 Contents CHAPTER 7 Array error Effects 375 7. 1 Introduction 7.2 Effects of Random Amplitude and Phase errors in Periodic arrays 375 7.2.1 Average pattern Characteristics 377 7.2.2 Directivity 380 7.2.3 Beam pointing error 380 7. 2.4 Peak sidelobes 381 7.3 Sidelobe Levels Due to periodic phase, amplitude, and Time-Delay Quantization 384 7.3. 1 Characteristics of an Array of Uniformly Illuminated Contiguous Subarrays 385 7.3.2 Phase Quantization in a Uniformly Illuminated array 388 7.3.3 Reduction of Sidelobes due to phase Quantization 393 7.3.4 Subarrays with Quantized Amplitude taper 396 7.3.5 Time Delay at the Subarray Ports 397 7.3.6 Discrete Phase or Time-Delayed Subarrays with Quantized subarray amplitudes 398 References 399 CHAPTER 8 Multiple beam Antennas 401 8. 1 Introduction 401 8. 1. 1 Multiplc bcam Systcms 402 8.1.2 Beam Crossover loss 403 8.2 Orthogonality Loss and the stein limit 407 8. 2.1 Introduction 407 8. 2.2 Orthogonality of thc psinc Functions and thcir Sourcc Vectors 408 8.2.3 Power Dividers for Multiple Beam Networks 409 8.2.4 Efficiency of Multiple beam Radiation-Stein's Limit 411 8. 2.5 Multiplc-Bcam Matrices and Optical Bcamformcrs 417 8.3 Multiple-Beam Lens and Reflector Systems 421 8.3. 1 Multiple beam lenses 423 8.3.2 Reflectors for Scanning and Multiple beams 425 8.3.3 Rcflcctarrays 426 Refe 430 chaPTeR 9 Special Arrays for Limited Field of view and Wideband Coverage 435 9.1 Antenna Techniques for Limited Field of view and Wideband tems 435 9.1.1 Minimum Number of Controls 436 9.1.2 Periodic and Aperiodic arrays for Limited Field of View 439 9.13A1 periodic an d Thinned arrays 455 Contents 9.2 Completely Overlapped Subarrays 464 9.2.1 Constrained Network for Completely Overlapped Subarrays 464 9.2.2 Reflectors and Lenses with array Feeds 472 9.2.3 Practical Design of a Dual-Transform System 493 9. 3 Wideband Scanning systems 497 9.3.1 Broadband Arrays with Time-Delayed Offset Beams 497 9.3.2 Contiguous Time-Delayed Subarrays for Wideband Systems 49 8 Overlapped Time-Delayed Subarrays for Wideband Systems 501 References 508 About the authors 513 ndex 515 Preface to the third edition Fed by demands for increased bandwidth, lower cost, and simpler fabrication antenna and array technology has undergone several revolutionary changes since the second edition of this book. Those changes have been in the areas of fabrica tion and computation Modern fabrication technology allows integration of array control, RF circuitry and array elements on the same substrate, or even incorporated into monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)packaging, with switching devices and inte grated transmitter and receiver combinations. Cell phones are using printed ele ments to operate in several bands and optimize directivity, and automotive radars use highly integrated single chip arrays to produce multifunction radars on a chip In addition to thc outstanding changcs in fabrication capability, the huge impact of high performance computational tools influences antenna technology from ele ment design to synthesis. Modern computational tools now model array elements including dielectric and metallic support structures and metamaterial substrates and superstrates, and in such detail that it is often possible to by pass the fabrication of test articles before production. In the area of array pattern synthesis, the increased computational power and storage has allowed the use of advanced iterative synthesis and optimization techniques, so that deterministic procedures have, in many cases bccn rcplaccd by optimization algorithms with multiple constraints. Numcrical power has also allowed for the solution of large arrays with classic aperiodic tilings, and the optimization of random arrays of subarrays, including polyomino subarrays and other geometrical shapes that fill or almost fill planar arrays In this edition, I have attempted to address these new developments by increasing detail and adding references in the area of beamforming networks and components and by describing some of the advanced numerical techniques for addressing the synthesis of optimized patterns for large thinned arrays I havc also changed Chaptcr 5 to emphasize explicitly that the charactcristics of an isolated antenna element have little to do with the pattern of the same element in an array i have omitted most data that described the characteristics of isolated antennas in favor of including array data. The major change to Chapter 5, how ever, was the added description of a number of wideband antenna array elements and included references to most of the new array configurations that offered the rom ise of multioctave bandwidth chapter 8 is new and expanded beyond the brief treatment of multiple beam antennas that had been in the second edition. The added matcrial included up-to-datc dcscriptions of multiple bcam reflector and lens systerms and multibeam reflectarrays. Chapter 9 includes much of the overlapped subarray material of the second edition and new descriptions of several of the more important subarraying and aperiodic thinning approaches

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