ASPICE Essential

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ASPICE具体实施的相关数据,涉及到Level1, level2, level3.
Foreword //3 Foreword le wrote this book for people who have little time want to learn the basics quickly don't want to compromise on quality and depth This compact book should help you gain an overview quickly. You will be able to evaluate whether Automotive SPICe is suitable to improve the de velopment processes in your company. The first chapter gives an overview of the basic idea behind Automotive SPICE, how to introduce the model in a company as well as business Issues The second chapter covers the structure and contents of the model. As ex- perienced assessors and practitioners we explain not only the structure of the model and its relationships but also provide practical guidance to achieving the goals of the model, as well as avoiding some of its common pitfalls In chapter three, we consider the relevant processes in detail: We explain the core processes relevant to the carmakers and their suppliers, discus sing their benefits and requirements. Furthermore, we present experiences and common problems in the application that we met in our ten years of experience with Automotive SPICE. For each of these processes we show the original text of the model and interpret their crucial aspects The fourth chapter is devoted to assessments which are used to evaluate the process quality of organizations systematically. We explain procedures and roles as well as the necessary preparation of a typical assessment With the final chapter we discuss how Automotive SPICe integrates with other models and approaches such as functional safety according to ISo 26262 and agile methods and practices Peter Abowd, Klaus hoermann, Bhaskar Vanamali, Dan Wall May 2018 4∥/ Contents Contents Imprint How to contact us Foreword 1. Automotive sPice-the essentials in brief 22366 1.1 The basic idea of automotive spice 1.2 Automotive spice benefits 1.3 How to achieve automotive SPice compliance 12 1.4 Typical problems with the implementation………,, 15 2. Structures and contents 2. 1 The automotive spice model 2.2 Structure of a process 18 2.3 The Automotive spice levels 20 2. 4 Process attributes and generic Practices 22 2.5 How are the levels determined? 2. 6 The importance of the model elements for Capability Level ratings.......m 28 2.7 Processes and the reality…… 29 2. 8 The relationship to the business objectives of the organization .30 2. 9 The role of development tools 31 3. The Automotive SPICE processes (VDA scope) 34 3.1 SYS.2- System Requirements Analysis 34 3.2 SYS.3-System Architectural design 38 3. 3 SWE.- Software Requirements analysis 3.4 SWE.2- Software Architectural design 3.5 SWE.3-Software Detailed design and Unit Construction 3. 6 SWE, 4-Software Unit Verification 52 3.7 SWE.5- Software Integration and Integration Test Contents∥/5 3. 8 SWE.6-Software qualification Test 58 3.9SYS.4- System Integration and Integration Test 61 3.10 SYS.5- System Qualification Test ∴64 3.11 MAN.3-Project Management 67 3.12 SUP. 1- Quality Assurance 71 3.13 SUP.8-Configuration Management 74 3.14 SUP9- Problem Resolution Management 3.15 SUP. 10-Change Request Management 81 3.16 ACQ.4- Supplier Monitoring 84 3. 17 Traceability and consistency in Automotive SPICE 87 3. 18 Verification criteria in automotive sPice 2 3.19 Application parameters in Automotive SPICE 94 4. The automotive sPice guidelines 97 5. Assessments 102 5. 1 How do assessments work? 102 5.2 What roles are involved in an assessment? 104 5.3 How are assessments conducted? 106 5. 4 How to prepare for an assessment? 5.5 Organizational maturity Assessments 110 6. Relation to other models and paradigms 6. 1 Differences and similarities: Automotive SPICe-CMMl 113 6.2 Automotive SPICE and Functional Safety 11 6. 3 Automotive SPice and agile 120 The authors 128 Notes 131 6//1.1 The basic idea of automotive SPIce 1. Automotive sPice- the essentials in brief 1. 1 The basic idea of automotive sPice What is the basic idea? The Automotive SPICE Model' is a structured collection of best practices for the automotive industry. It enables companies to improve processes either for them- selves or for their suppliers. Automotive SPICe is used by many automobile ma nufacturers and suppliers as a means of qualifying their suppliers and also asses- sing the risks associated with their suppliers. Often they are required to achieve a certain capability level in selected processes to even get a contract. Reaching the level is checked through performing assessments What the levels stand for In Automotive SPice the > capability levels partition the model into clusters of best practices that build on each other and describe the ascent to better command and control of the development. There are levels from zero to five. Achieving a le vel often requires cultural changes and can therefore take considerable time and effort To achieve, for example, level three in a larger organization typically three to five years are required, if starting at level zero(0) How assessments work Whether one has achieved a particular level is determined in an assessment. An assessment typically focuses on a project and investigates a pre-determined set of Automotive SPICE processes. Results are statements of strengths and weak- nesses, improvement recommendations and level ratings. An assessment can be carried out by oneself (>self-assessment<) or by independent persons. For as- sessments to be recognized in the automotive industry they must be carried out by qualified specialists. The only training system recognized by the vda is intacs Automotive SPICE: origin, source, rights, organizations involved Automotive SPICE was published in 2005 by the Automotive Special Interest Group(AutoSIG) within the Procurement Forum. The brand Automotive SPl- CEu is owned by the association of the automotive Industry (vda)5. the model can be obtained free of charge from the official Automotive SPICe website after registration. The Automotive SPICE pocket guides (small booklets containing the most important subset of the model) can be ordered through the web shop of Kugler Maag Cie. How Automotive SPice relates to other models Automotive SPICe is an ISO/EC 330xx compliant process assessment model, 1.1 The basic idea of Automotive SPIce//7 which was derived from the Iso 15504-5 originally The Iso/EC 330xx standard family is also known as )SPICE< Automotive SPICe has certain similarities with CMMI, but also many differences in detail. In the automotive industry there have been numerous companies that have implemented cmmi and automotive sPice in combination Where to apply Automotive SPICE? Automotive SPiCe is used in the automotive industry for the development of me chatronic systems, consisting of mechanics, electronics and software. Examples are navigation systems, instrument clusters, engine control units, transmission control units. The contents of Automotive SPICE focus on software and system engineering. However, in software-only projects one would focus on software and descope the system engineering processes. Processes for other engineering di sciplines such as hardware and mechanical engineering can be supplied through separate models. However, most assessments focus on software and system en gineering The main reason is that the automobile manufacturers currently do not System Requirements Analysis System Test System Architecture Design System Integration Test Requirements Analysis Overall Test per Discipline Hard- Mecha- Soft- Soft-/ Hard-/ Mecha Ware nIcs ware ware Ware nIcs Architecture Design Integration Test Hard- Mecha- Soft- Soft- Hard-/ Mech Ware nIcs Ware ware ware nIcs Detailed Design Implementation Unit Test Hard- Mecha- Soft Soft-/ Hard-/Mecha ware nIcs ware ware Ware nICS More commonly used Automotive SPICE processes project management, contiguration management, quality assurance, change management, problem resolution Figure 1: in a mechatronic system Automotive SPICE processes cover the red parts only Processes for hardware and mechanics can be plugged in through separate models 8//1.1 The basic idea of Automotive SPIce require assessments of hardware or mechanics. This is because most of the func tionality is implemented by software which causes also most of the problems Where Automotive SPICE is applied Initially the use of Automotive SPiCe was strongly influenced by the automobi le manufacturers in europe but has also been adopted by the north american OEMs. The OEMs require compliance with Automotive SPICE in their contracts hey usually also force their tier one suppliers to require Automotive SPICE from their suppliers. Because of the global supply relationships most of the suppliers all over the world need to implement Automotive SPICE. Another driving force is that Automotive SPICE is a very good basis for implementing the Iso 26262, the Automotive safety standard. Automotive SPice is enforced by oems of passen ger cars and also by oEMs of commercial vehicles Which vehicle manufacturers require which processes? Most manufacturers require from their suppliers within their contracts particular processes and process-specific levels. A standard scope has emerged over the years (the VDa Scopes formerly called the > HIS Scope), see fig. 2. However, on occasion also other OEMs than FCa require additional processes(e.g, MAN.5, SYS.1, SPL2 Standard FCA scope ACO. 4 SYS. SYS.2-SYS 4 SWE.1-SWE6 MAN.3 MAN, 5 SUP1 SUP8-SUP10 SUP4 SPL2 Figure 2: Processes required by the vehicle manufacturers (VDA Scope); this scope is required by Audi, BMW, Daimler, FORD, Jaguar, Land Rover, Porsche, Volkswagen. FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles) requires additional processes 1.1 The basic idea of Automotive sPice//9 Automotive SPICE: development, maintenance, conferences The development and maintenance is carried out by the DAwG 13. Development topics include a standardized assessment process, guidelines for performing as sessments, and guidelines for model interpretation. The WG 13 is composed of ndividuals from Volkswagen, BMW, FORD Europe, Daimler, Bosch, Continenta ZF Friedrichshafen, Schaeffler, Knorr Bremse and Kugler Maag Cie. The most im portant conference is the yearly )VDA Automotive SYS<. Besides this conference the exchange of experiences is promoted at the gate4SPICE events(an initiative of intacs see next section) Training of assessors: the intacs TM organization intacs(International Assessor Certification Scheme e V)is a not-for-profit organi zation based in Potsdam, germany. intacs defines requirements for the training and certification of assessors for iso/eC 330xX-conformant models intacs colla- borates with certification bodies that perform the accreditation of training provi ders and certification of trainers and assessors the current certification bodies are Ecqa-www.ecqa.org(forIsO/ec15504Pam,IsO20000Pam,Testspice PAM)and Vda Qmc-wWw.vda-Gmc.de(for Automotive SpicE intacs defines the qualification levels as shown in fig. 3. The qualification path distinguishes three levels: Provisional assessor and Competent assessor are qua lified for specific process assessment models only. Principal Assessors are qua lified for all models. Principal assessors can become instructors. there are two instructor levels: provisional course and competent course levels Assessors Instructors Principal Assessor (qualified for all PAMs Instructor (Competent level Competent Assessor (PAM-specific certification Instructor Provisional level) Provisional assessor (PAM-specific certification Figure 3: intacs qualification levels for assessors and instructors 10//1.2 Automotive sPice benefits 1.2 Automotive spice benefits What is the purpose? Regarding the benefits you have to distinguish the situation of oEMs and sup pliers. OEMs are interested in the control of quality in electronics and software, especially as the products and supply chains become more complex the management of risks and problems that arise in the supplier project in order Suppliers are interested in especially with ever shorter development cycles participating in attractive markets and the safeguarding of margins, becau se without Automotive SPiCe they will either be excluded from project assi- gnments or have to accept large discounts the control of development costs and quality problems in volume production caused by development (leading to repairs, recalls,.. What are the benefits for OEMs? Automotive SPICE requires more accuracy and precision in development. The re sults are fewer errors and errors being detected earlier. This decreases the num ber of residual errors which are not detected during development and may appear 60% Serial production O Series 50% Producti C sample pha 40% B sample phase A sample phase 30% Concept phase OE 20kE 40k E 60k 80k E Capability levels Fig 4: Correlation between Capability levels Fig 5: Defect removal cost in the Automotive and the ability to eliminate defects early industry (engineering only)(Survey) (BMW survey o)

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