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Contents Foreword Executive Summ Rethinking Business and Government in an Era of loT An era of convergence The risks of lot Five Pillars Shaping the Development of loT Architecture and standards Security and privacy Shared value creation 6888999999 Organizational development Ecosystem governance Key Challenges and Opportunities 10 Recommendations 15 Conclusion Contributors Annex 1: Workshop participants Endnotes 20 Fealizing the Intarnet cf Things Realizing the internet cf Things Foreword At the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2017, global leaders highlighted the development of the internet of things (oT) as one of the most significant emerging technologies, harbouring the potential for massive societal impact. Recognizing this opportunity, the World Economic Forum the Auto-ID Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(Mm) and GS1, the global standard organization, collaborated to help define a path forward while ensuring a shared understanding of the pressing challenges facing the development of loT. Over the course of 2017 and 2018, the Forum, the Auto-ID Lab at MIT and Gs1 organized calls and workshop meetings to gather input, case studies and insights from experts and key stakeholders Roundtable events were also held at the Forum's Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2017 and Jeff merritt Annual Meeting 2018 Head. Internet of Things, Robotics This White Paper presents the findings and outcomes of this work. It includes a framework for nd Smart Cities, analysing the space, the opportunities for impact and the challenges facing the loT ecosystem. A World Economic series of recommendations are also put forward to help government, the private sector and civil Forum society organizations work together to advance the development of loT in the public interest Sanjay sarma Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Co-Founder. Auto-ID Lab Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Fealizing the Intarnet cf Things EXecutive Summary The ability to sense the environment, and to formulate and to engineers, including everything from low-power radio- execute an action in response, is central to all vertebrates frequency identification(RFID) to 5G, and the alphanumeric and increasingly so to all things artificial. This is the driving soup in between, whether a LPWAN (low-power wide force behind the internet of things (oT). Homes, businesses, area network) or 6LoWPAN (Pv6 over low-power wireless governments and systems that deploy sensors, gather personal area networks data to inform intelligent decisions and respond to the environment can enable a safer, more sustainable, more While connectivity is a key element of loT, computation and comfortable, healthier and more economically viable world sensors are two other key legs of the stool. The smartphone for humanity combines all three and has driven a two-pronged revolution On the one hand, smartphones are the magic wand of loT fulfils these needs, and the growth expected is loT, turning dumb objects into smart objects by their very staggering. Gartner predicted that lOT spend in 2016 presence, by adding handy displays and controls where would exceed $2.5 million per minute, and projects 1 needed, and by providing computation at a pinch Uber, for million lot devices to be installed hourly by 2021. HP example, converts any old car into a connected vehicle that similarly estimates an 18% compound annual growth rate can be tracked and located by a consumer (and vice versa in machine-to-machine connections, reaching 27 billion by 2024. 2 A chorus of predictions by blue chip companies On the other hand, the cellular industry has brought about such as McKinsey and Cisco, echoes the same message: a stunning commoditization of sensor components- be it loT will see astronomical growth in the next decade cameras or gyroscopes, accelerometers or touch displays Batteries have become more stable, longer-lasting and The rise and expansion of lot cheaper Unbundled sensor modules are now easier to embed in other devices such as thermostats and smoke loT owes its growing potential in recent years to several alarms. Embedded computation packs more bang for the parallel developments over the last decade buck today. Radio chips are now more ubiquitous. And the growth of RFID brings ubiquitous, disposable sensors much Hard-wired industrial automation goes back over 100 closer to reality. This has snowballed now with the growth years. Over the last 50 years, automation has transformed of other industries, such as autonomous vehicles, robotics, businesses, and the economic, performance, satety and wearables and drones. Suddenly, LiDAR(light detection and quality benefits are well understood. Automation needs ranging) is going solid-state, infrared cameras are becoming connectivity, and modern networking principles entered affordable and galvanic skin response sensors are becoming the industrial realm in fits and starts with the likes of commoditized the manufacturing application protocol/technical ofice protocol more than 35 years ago -and later with Modbus, While technologies are enabling to lo T, human capital is Lonworks, CANbus and ethernet- but adoption in heaw paramount. The growth of talent that can manipulate the industries such as manufacturing favoured dedicated various levels of the computational stack, and the hacker/ hardened"systems due to understandable concerns about maker culture further fuelled by the rise of systems such performance. These systems, meant to control factories as the Raspberry Pi, have made the innovation in loT an and plants, are referred to as Supervisory Control and Data irresistible force. Few household or industrial products today Acquisition(SCADA). In automotive systems, the Canbus be it a home lock or a doorbell, a heating ventilation and standard has dominated and become the foundation fo ir conditioning system or an elevator- have resisted the on-board diagnostics. However, the incredible advances in inexorable force of loI-based rethinking. These innovators sensing, networking and data analysis currently occurring in are now bringing their unconventional ideas back to more home automation and consumer applications is only slowly mature industries-such as industrial automation and affecting the industrial world. But that change will accelerate vehicles networking. Tesla, for example, supports CANbuS, tremendously in the years ahead but really uses in-vehicle ethernet, enabling a more flexible loT approach Many advances recently have been driven by consumer demands for voice and data combined with innovator So, while automation is not new, it is the amorphous demands for ad hoc data networking-such as, say, a pervasive (and often publicly) connected, ad hoc flexible sensor and actuator system for watering plants in a distributed, easy to design, easy to deploy, easy to greenhouse -and have led to new paradigms in networking, mashup"and massively commoditized nature of the sensing and actuating outside the industrial automation sensing, computing and actuating enabled by loT that realm. As is often the case, the " lower" expectations for makes it a new and explosive capability. And it is now performance in non-critical applications have allowed more impacting the industrial sector where it all started. Whether innovation and architectural creativity, leading in the end to a new building or a new oil rig, a retrofitted power plant or a dazzling set of systems and components, at lower costs a retooled manufacturing line, loT is becoming an inevitable and, in many respects, with better performance. Today part of the thinking-a lingua franca of sorts a broad palette of connectivity approaches is available Realizing the internet cf Things loT is a new design language Computation, or intelligence, is a second capability Intelligent systems afford a level of customization for the Much has been written about the opportunity created by user's experience impossible with connectivity alone. Smart ol, but fundamental questions may confuse the issue connected thermostats can sense usage patterns and in the minds of business leaders Is loT a technology suggest alternate heating and cooling schedules that reduce that can be purchased? Is loT a business practice? A energy consumption. Modern smartphones and voice communications technology? How might one best think controllable devices can implement new apps and skills to about lot? Until these fundamental doubts are resolved make the user's experience more satisfying. Analytics of the discussions about lot will vacillate between arcane compressor can detect an issue and prevent a breakdown questions about sta andards and technology, such as transforming maintenance from a scheduled or preventative SLOWPAN Versus Wi-Fi, and speculative guesses of the paradigm to a predictive one. A general-purpose return on investment(ROl) of loT. This section presents a computation platform that can morph and enlist local or way to think about loT. cloud-based resources to provide intelligent, adaptive functionality can strengthen the relationship between OT may be thought of as a new design language. Consider the customer and the vendor, and also provide insights the business of designing buildings before the widespread previously unavailable in conventional static products availability of electric power. Buildings had to be lit with candles and, later, with gas. 4 Running water was difficult to The third affordance of loT's design language is recruitment deliver to upper floors without steam pumps and overhead A single device may not have the functionality to create an tanks, Elevators and escalators were rare because they experience, but it may recruit other devices. Laptops can needed to be powered by hand or animals. Fire provided be unlocked by a user when she is nearby wearing a smart neat, and cooling was impractical. The invention and watch.a coffee machine may activate when a user has adoption of electricity and the subsequent development of woken because her wearable fitness device signalled it. The umps, electric lights, elevators, escalators and modern smart thermostat in the earlier example recruits a phone,s heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems together GPs to figure out when to turn up the heat and may also heralded a whole new design language for architects recruit a comfort sensor on the user's body to fine-tune Buildings, and the business of construction, were its setting. 10 The compressor in the previous example can transformed recruit a local sensor to also record ambient temperature and help diagnose the overheating probler Similarly, lot is best thought of as a new design language for organizations, which helps them more effectively meet The fourth and most seamless design component within the needs that their customers or constituents want loT is immersion, Where connectivity, intelligence and Consider car rentals: the typical rental complex is usually recruitment occur automatically and fluidly. As a user near an airport and houses hundreds of cars ready for pick walks from her home office to her deck on a balmy Friday up. The reason is simple: keys need to be distributed and evening, a connected, immersive music system follows collected, and mileages and fuel levels must be recorded. her from room to room all the way to the deck i lights dim Nith loT, however, keys can be transferred electronically and the music changes as her wearable detects a lowering and mileage and fuel levels can be accessed remotely heart rate. 2 Her car sees a calendar event and pulls out Suddenly, cars can be positioned where customers to the driveway in anticipation of an upcoming dinner. 13 want them: at the parking lot across the street from their Returning to the compressor example, a maintenance apartment, or in office parking lots. This was the new rental engineer entering a jobsite is guided to the compressor paradigm invented by Robin Chase and Antje Danielson unit. A message to her mobile phone has informed her of when they founded Zipcar, which was quite possibly the impending issue, and replacement parts have been the first consumer-facing loT company. What Chase and ordered for her and are waiting for her to conduct a quick Danielson did was rethink the car rental business by using maintenance operation before the next shift begins. As the affordances of lo Ts new design language she leaves, she informs the job foreman of the higher than rated temperature of the jobsite and upsells him on the The new vocabulary appropriate compressor unit that has better cooling So, what are the elements of this new language? The four key components of such language are presented next Clearly connectivity is one Connectivity, implicit in the Iin lo t, enables remote device operation and data collection. Whether a remotely operable lock, so a homeowner can let a visitor into her online rental property, or a thermostat that can be monitored from a phone or controlled by a cloud platform to activate when a family member approaches the vicinity of home, ' or a compressor driving the pneumatics in a construction site that can report the vibration it is sensing in the motor, connectivity is a powerful capability. However, it is only one of several capabilities enabling the lOT. Fealizing the Intarnet cf Things Rethinking Business and Government in an Era of loT As highlighted in the previous section, loT forces us to fog computing. Each of these new concepts add a new question the traditional concepts of products, services noun, verb or adjective to the growing vocabulary of the user-interfaces and capabilities Does a coffee machine new design language that the people designing products, need its own app store 14 Should a mattress detect sleep services and, more importantly, experiences can leverage patterns?15 These ideas may seem outlandish but they rethink the customer experience using the new design The risks of lot language of lo T. For all its opportunities, lo T has challenges. Conside The rethinking may also involve a reimagination of the connectivity: there are myriad standards ranging from business model of an industry. Uber and AirBnB are ZigBee to Z-Wave, from Wi-Fi to Bluetooth, from a number examples of two-sided markets that have disrupted the of LPWAN standards LoRA, SigFox, NB-IOD to RFID. The business models of the transportation and hotel industries, inevitable rise of 5G will become a driving force in loT and respectively. Amazon Prime unbundles the shopping list the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Fragmented standards of the consumer and enables a form of streaming supply can be challenging, though the dream of total technical that is exploited by the Amazon Conversational Commerce convergence may be misplaced. It can be argued that family including Dash, Echo and Dot. Ring, recently acquired different standards are here to stay and serve different by Amazon, is an loT doorbell that works off a subscription goals. LoRA addresses long-range, ultra-low power and low service. 6 It is hard to imagine a subscription for a doorbell bandwidth communications whereas Wi-Fi addresses low but the Ring product uses a connected camera and image- range, higher-power and high-bandwidth communications processing to offer greater value to the customer Standards at other areas of the lot must be carefully assessed in terms of cost and performance trade-offs Governments and citizens, in many ways, have the most across many dimensions. Computation, intelligence, scale to gain from loT in pursuit of comfort, convenience, safet and accessibility create new cybersecurity challenges security and sustainability. Whether it is water quality or The growth of software on a cyberphysical systern creates detecting leaky water pipes, traffic safety or emissions terrible new possibilities like those exploited by Stuxnet reduction, plant performance or equipment maintenance, and the Mirai Botnet. 21 In cyberphysical systems, the sensors and intelligent actuation can have a signiticant failure modes are more widespread and coupled with impact. However, where to start and how to fund these common tasks and jobs -does a technician replacing activities remain critical, even paralysing questions. In the an instrumented valve in a power plant also need to be a end, these systems need to interoperate. The trade-offs cybersecurity expert? Protocols and training are needed to between starting too early and building disconnected ensure security. Trojan-horse hardware and software pose islands, or starting late and foregoing benefits are difficult to another challenge; the consequences are greater when the negotiate. Yet progress must be made, especially in the face physical world is involved. 22 of pressing goals -whether the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs)or economic imperatives This is the brave new world that awaits businesses in the 21st century -one of great opportunity but also threats An era of convergence both competitive and malicious. In the sections that follow the key issues faced by business and government in an The vocabulary of this new design language is more era of lot are laid out and a framework is offered for how expansive than loT alone, though it is often the glue that the global community can take on these challenges for the holds things together Is a self-driving car an example of greater good of society loT? Is it a robot? Does it involve the cloud? Is it an example of machine learning? Does it rely on computer vision? O is it all of the above? Clearly, the answer is the latter- this is an era of convergence, one in which the new languag of business is becoming more and more powerful. The ubiquity of the smartphone makes loT even more real and imminent as an opportunity -and a threat -tor businesses Even blockchain and related technologies are a part of this new language. Supply chain tracking using transponders, ecorded in distributed ledgers, has been suggested as a way to assure provenance and product integrity. 17 13 The convergence has a snowball effect. New ways to collect, process and interpret the flow of data are emerging whether they be voice or video, temperature readings or traffic sensors Computation is evolving by blending cloud computing with ground-level edge computing -also called Realizing the internet cf Things Five Pillars Shaping the Development of loT The many uncertainties in the future development of lot 4. Organizational development may be organized into five categories, or pillars, summarized below lo T is not IT. Using and benefiting trom lo I often require a fundamental rethinking of the business, and"speaking the 1 Architecture and standards new design language". GE Aerospace famously claimed to be in the business of thrust, not engines. This was Scalable, future-proof and cost-effective architectural predicated in part on the idea of instrumenting engines and choices are essential to loT's long-term success. 2 monitoring them remotely -an early example of loT. Such Architectural choices today may lock companies into rethinking requires three components: executive leadership long-term trajectories that can make or break loT a realignment of incentives across the organization and businesses. Reference architectures provide precompetitive perhaps most importantly, a massive upskilling of the frameworks and serve to enable two purposes: a)enable organization to learn the new design language the development of standards with dependable interface and touchpoints, which in turn are necessary for a healthy 5. Ecosystem governance vendor ecosystem; and b) enable best practices that ensure both widespread adoption and a healthy ecosystem that is New technologies often create new ecosystems with little relatively free of performance or safety issues. Architecture governance, either self or external. This cycle tragically and standards are important not just for software and repeats itself and usually involves competing technologies, communication- data require careful thought as well competing vendors, varying public opinion and national and, increasingly, international regulators. Simply put, lOT 2. Security and privacy needs a governing group. A number of questions in the loT space, including standards, privacy, security, architectures, Security and privacy must be designed in from the business cases, etc -as discussed previously -urgently consumers trust their data to be secure when stored online, industry best-practices and self-governancesevelopment of start. According to a Cisco/Jasper study, a mere 9%of require collective attention in the form of the development of with only 14% agreeing that companies provide appropriate transparency and clarity in explaining their data usage and sharing policies. 4 Despite the largely negative sentiment 42% of consumers are unwilling to disconnect their lives from the internet, in part due to the pervasive integration of the technology into various beneficial services. 25 Clearly consumers are uneasy with their lot presence and they perceive increasing security and improving transparency as must-haves For all its benefits. loT increases the attack surface of systems and connects two hitherto unrelated concerns: cybersecurity and safet 3. Shared value creation The anticipated benefits of new technologies in the early days are often rather bleak. 26 In a dell report 48% and 27%of survey respondents list budgetary constraints and unclear financial benefits as barriers to lot investment respectively. Investment in lo I will theretore require eadership and vision For cash-strapped cities and governments, though loT investments can lead to significant upsides in operational expenses and consumers benefits the initial investments can be daunting Public infrastructure may therefore lag in adoption. value created must also be shared- consumers must see the benefits of a smart meter stalled by a utility system rather than feeling as it they are the victims of pricing games. Buy-in across the value chain is necessary to ensure that loT is seen as a tide that lifts all boats rather than a technology for changing the dynamics between players Fealizing the Intarnet cf Things Key challenges and Opportunities The continuously evolving ecosystem of loT presents unique progress is occurring. 3b Furthermore, the communication and impending challenges that must be addressed not ir itself can occur between the cloud instances rather than an ad hoc and piecemeal manner, but by considering the between the actual lot devices unless the latency cannot bigger picture. With this in mind, issues related to the five be tolerated (which, in a surprisingly large proportion of pillars more holistically are examined below applications, it can). This enables a new form of security in hich the digital twin, with its vast y superior resources in oT challenges are society-wide and enterprise-wide the cloud, can enable a new form of security that is referred As society grapples with a range of issues-such as to as the Cognitive Firewall. The Cognitive Firewall is a self- sustainability, security and demographic shifts- the ability learning system capable of evaluating commands for safety to sense, communicate, infer and act become necessary in context and only allowing those safe commands to pass and indispensable in building a smarter, more efficient from the cloud to the end device for execution 37 and more comfortable world. The growing acceptance of technology, which is now becoming a hunger for The second pattern is what is variously captured by so dazzling new functionality, is fuelling new categories of called edge computing and fog computing. The basic companies with novel offerings with creative revenue dea is that some computation can and needs to occur models -ones that the existing business and technical ocally to ensure responsiveness and to save bandwidth lexicons can barely describe. With the rise of payment When that is important. On the other hand, some heavier technologies, such as cryptocurrencies, 29 and the newly weight computation needs to occur in the cloud. A minted lo Ta, even payment methods are reaching far simple example of this form of distribution of computation nto uncharted territory. However, there are issues with occurs in voice assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Google and growing such a pervasive technology so broadly and in as Cortana. The detection of the wake word, such as " Hey decentralized a way. Challenges facing the loT ecosystem Google"or"Alexa", occurs at the edge with an always-on include implementation, interaction and intrinsics. Some signal processing system but the actual heavy lifting of challenges stem from technical issues, others policy understanding and routing the query string, such as"read issues or organizational dynamics, and still others might me the news"occurs in the cloud be governance-related, all impeding the realization of the greatest benefits or the prevention of downside. 31 3233A Evolving the ideal architecture requires iteration and broad viewing angle is necessary to ensure an optimal refinement. a test bed is extremely effective, and often a outcome for society at large necessary precondition, for evolving good architectures ARPANET is a prime example of a government-initiated Architecture and standards test bed. Successful architectures become references so called reference architectures -that others can adopt Successful architectures are not always obvious. For with confidence of success. In lot. the industrial internet example, alternating current, or AC, which made the Consortium (C) has led a series of activities around test bed modern electric grid possible, was a counter-intuitive idea creation with use cases and business needs. 8 pioneered by tesla in the face of ferocious competition from direct current(DC) and its formidable backer, Edison. Architectures and standards are closely interrelated. The Packet-switched networks, cellular telephony and the architecture defines the touchpoints and the interfaces World wide Web are other examples of architectural where standards may be defined In the World Wide breakthroughs Web, the hyperlinking architecture drove the two new and key standards Http and Html. In the lot world loT is in pressing need of a breakthrough reference Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, 6LOWPAN and RFID are architecture. Several questions are unanswered. Should the sling for last- meter Lan connectivity. At the same communication be peer-to-peer? Should the computation time, new approaches, such as LPWAN, are enabling be local? Others pertain to where the computation will unprecedented levels of connectivity at long ranges with occur: at the device, at the edge or in the cloud? low-power objects. LPWAN is intended not for real- time control at all, but for relatively infrequent status Iwo key patterns are emerging. The first is the concept updates at low bandwidths and at very low battery that was initiated contemporaneously as Cloud Things, 4 levels. Each of these protocols occupies a different Digital Twins or digital mirroring. The basic idea is that lot point in the multidimensional space, consisting of axes objects in the real world will be mirrored in the cloud with for power consumption, bandwidth, range and latency virtual equivalents. In some ways the concept predates even For example, Wi-Fi is designed for high bandwidth the two technical references above -the itunes account low-latency but relatively high-power applications, such attached to an iPod being one of the earlier commercial as video cameras, while LPWAN is meant for relatively examples. However, the extent of the mirroring, combined infrequent communications with, say, a tank level sensor with the additional functionality in the cloud and the ability The absence of a dominant standard has driven lot into a to control, drive and protect the loT object through its ild-west status guardian in the cloud, is the area where a great deal of 0 Realizing the internat cf Things

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