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2010 SECTION V ARTICLE 17 ARTICLE 17 REMOTE FIELD TESTING (RFT) EXAMINATION METHOD (10)T1710 SCOPE TABLE T-1721 REQUIREMENTS OF AN RFT EXAMINATION (a) This article contains the techniques and require PROCEDURE ments for Remote Field Testing(RFT) examination (b) The requirements of Article l, General Require Requirement Essential Nonessential (As Applicable) Variable Variable ments, apply when a referencing Code section requires RFT examination Frequency(ies (c) Definition of terms for RFT examinations appear in Mode(DifferenUAbsolule) Article 1, appendix l, Glossary of Terms for Nondestruc- Minimum fill factor tive Examination. Subsection B. Article 26. SE-2096. In Equipment manufacturer/model Situ Examination of Ferromagnetic Heat Exchanger Tubes Scanning speed Using Remote Field Testing, and Article 30, SE-1316, Identity of artificial flaw reference Tube material, size, and grade d article 26. SE-2096. Standard Practice for In Situ Data analysis technique Procedure qualifications, When specified Examination of Ferromagnetic heat Exchanger tubes Personnel qualifications USing remote Field Testing, shall be used as referenced Scanning equipment/fixtures in this article Tube surface preparalion Data recording equipment T-1720 GENERAL Report format T-1721 Written Procedure Requirement T-1721.1 Requirements. RFT examinations shall be and qualifying RFt system operators are described in se performed in accordance with a written procedure which 2096. Personnel performing rFT examinations shall be shall, as a minimum, contain the requirements listed in qualified in accordance with requirements of the referenc Table T-1721. The written procedure shall establish a sin- ing Code section gle value, or range of values, for each requirement T-1721.2 Procedure Qualification. When procedure T-1730 EQUIPMENT qualification is specified, a change of a requirement in RfT equipment capable of operating in the absolute or Table t-1721 identified as an essential variable shall differential mode(or both modes) as specified in the written require requalification of the written procedure by demon- procedure together with suitable probes and a device for stration. a change of a requirement identified recording the rft data in a format suitable for evaluation sential variable does not require requalification of the and archival storage are all essential parts of the system written procedure. All changes of essential or nonessential The means of displaying signals shall be on a Voltage variables from those specified within the written procedure Plane(also known as an Impedance Plane, a Voltage Plane shall require revision of, or an addendum to, the written Polar Plot, and an X-Y Display). Equipment and fixtures procedure for moving probes through tubes and for scanning may T-1722 Personnel Requirements The user of this article shall be responsible for assigning T1750 TECHNIQUE qualified personnel to perform RFT examination to the (a) Single or multiple frequency techniques are permit requirements of this Article. Recommendations for training ted for this examination ARTICLE 17 DIO SECTION V FIG. T-1762 PIT REFERENCE TUBE (TYPICAL) RFT PIT REFERENCE TUBE 25% 50% 75% 100% xpanded NN VIew Top view Section Flay A D depth 25% 75% 100% A through c are D is a through hole Flaw type-3/16 in. (5 mm) diameter flat bottom holes 3/16 in. (5 mm)diameter NOTE: not to scale (b) Following the selection of the examination frequen- in Fig. T-1762, shall be used to demonstrate adequate cy(ies) and the completion of the set-up using a reference sensitivity. Pit depth and size selection shall be determined standard, the probe shall be pulled through the tubes to be by the application. Pil depth tolerance shall be +0/-10% examined at a speed that shall be uniform and appropriate Hole diameter tolerance shall be+10%. The spacing of the to the examination frequency, digital sampling rate, and artificial flaws shall be suitable for the coil spacing on the required sensitivity to faws. This rate of scanning shall be RFt probe to ensure that flaws or tube ends are not near used to perform the examination the exciter (s) and detector(s) at the same time Tubes used as reference standards shall be of the same nominal dimensions and material type as the tubes to be T-1760 CALIBRATION examined T-1761 Instrument Calibration T-1762.2 Where either the exact material type or RFT instrumentation shall be recalibrated annually and dimensional matches are not available. an alternative tube henever the equipment is subjected to damage and/or may be used. a demonstration of the equivalency of the after any major repair. when equipment has not been in alternate reference is required. An example of demonstra- use for a year or more, calibration shall be performed prior ting normalized response is when one of the following to first use. a tag or other form of documentation shall be responses from the reference standard and the nominal tube attached to the rft instrument with date of calibration are equal and calibration due date shown a) the amplitude and angular position of a support plate indication on the voltage plane (b) the angular difference between a support plate indi T-1762 System Preparation cation and the tube exit indication on the voltage plane T-1762.1 The RFT system is set up for the examination (c) the absolute phase response using artificial faws fabricated in a reference tube. The reference standard shall be in accordance with SE-2096 Fig.4, and para. 10.5 of that document. The reference T-1763 System Set-up and Calibration standard shall include a tube support plate fabricated in T-17631 Differential Channels accordance with SE-2096, para. 10.6. When it is required (a) The phase rotation of the base frequency (Fl)shall to detect and size small volume flaws, such as corrosion be adjusted so that the signal from the through-wall hole pits, a second reference tube, such as the example shown (TWH) appears approximately along the y(vertical) axis 2 2010 SECTION V ARTICLE FIG. T-17631(a) VOLTAGE PLANE DISPLAY OF FIG. T-17631(b) VOLTAGE PLANE DISPLAY OF DIFFERENTIAL CHANNEL RESPONSE FOR DIFFERENTIAL CHANNEL RESPONSE FOR THE TUBE THROUGH-WALL HOLE (THROUGH HOLE SIGNAL)AND SUPPORT PLATE (TSP),20%GROOVE, AND 20%GROOVE SHOWING PREFERRED ANGULAR THROUGH-WALL HOLE (THROUGH HOLE SIGNAL RELATIONSHIP 20% groove signal Through hole signal Through hole signal 20% groove signal TSP signal and that the signal from the tube support plate(TSP)lies FIG. T-17632 REFERENCE CURVE AND THE in the upper left-hand and lower right-hand quadrants ABSOLUTE CHANNEL SIGNAL RESPONSE FROM TWO When properly adjusted, the differential signals should be CIRCUMFERENTIAL GROOVES ANDA TUBE SUPPORT displayed on a voltage plane display, such as those shown PLATE in Figs. T-1763 1(a) and T-1763 1(b) Reference curve (b) The signal response for the through-wall hole refer- ence faw shall be generated when pulling the probe past the hole such that the initial response is downward followed by an upward motion and then back to the null point on the voltage plane Absolute signals from (c)The sensitivity shall be adjusted to produce a min two CiRc grooves mum peak-to-peak signal of approximately 50% full screen height from the through-wall hole (d) The response from the 20%o wear groove in the reference tube should be at approximately 150 deg(as measured clockwise from the negative X-axis). See e Signal from TSP Fig. T-17631(a). The angular difference between the TWH response and the 20% faw response shall be 60 deg +10 deg. Alternate initial response angles representing artificial faws may be used, providing the difference between the TWH response and the 20%o groove response meets this (b) Voltage Plane Polar Plot displays may also be used criteria or setting up the absolute probe technique using the fol lowing procedure T-17632 Absolute Channels (1) Adjust the frequency (ies)and phase of the signal (a) The signal responses for absolute channels are set from the through hole in the reference standard so that it up using a procedure similar to that used to set up the originates at 1,0 on the polar plot display and develops differential channels using the Voltage Plane display. by going upward and to the left at an angle between 20 deg Absolute signals will appear as half the extent of differen- and 120 deg measured clockwise from the X axis. The tial signals TSP signal will lie approximately parallel to the X axis ARTICLE 17 2010 SECTION V (2)If a reference curve is used, the signals from the (c)Should the system be found to be out of calibration two 20%o grooves in the reference standard should peak during the examination, it shall be recalibrated. The recall close to the reference curve. If they do not peak close to bration shall be noted on the report. All tubes examined the reference curve, the test frequency and/or probe drive since the last valid calibration shall be reexamined shall be adjusted until they do (3)Signals from flaws that are evenly displaced T1766 Correlation of Signals to Estimate Depth around the circumference of the tube, such as"general of flaws wallIo ss, "will typically follow the reference curve Signals from imperfections that are predominantly on one side of The phase angle analysis" method or the phase lag the tube will appear inside the reference curve. Signals and log-amplitude analysis method shall be used to esti- from magnetic permeability variations will appear outside mate the depth of iaws. In both cases the size(amplitude) the reference curve Figure T-1763.2 illustrates the Voltage of the signal is related to faw surface area, and the phase Plane polar Plot display with the signals from two circum- angle is related to the flaw depth. The method used shall ferential grooves, a tube support plate, and the reference be fully documented in the examination records and the curve relationship between faw dimensions and signals shall b described. One or both methods may be used for flaw depth T-17633 Dual Exciter and Array Probes. Dual and size estimation exciter and array probes may be used provided system performance is demonstrated by use of the reference stan T-1766.1 Phase Angle Method. A relationship of sig- dard. Displays used may vary from system to system nal phase angles to reference flaw depths shall be developed for the examination being performed T-1766.2 Phase-Lag Method. A relationship of phase T1764 Auxiliary Frequency(s) calibration lag angle and log-amplitude of signals from the reference Procedure standard flaws shall be developed for the examination being performed (a) auxiliary frequencies may be used to examine tubes They may be multiples(harmonics)of the base frequency or may be independent of the base frequency T-1770 EXAMINATION (b) auxiliary frequencies may be"mixed" with the base frequency to produce an output signal that suppresses I-1771 General unwanted variable responses, such as those from the tube Data shall be recorded as the probe traverses the tube support plates The data may be gathered in a timed " mode or a"distance (c) When"mixed signals are used for fiaw evaluation, encoded""mode. The axial location of discontinuities shall they shall demonstrate sensitivity to reference standard be estimated by reference to known features or by encoder artifical flaw with suppression of the unwanted signal For measurements example, the unwanted signal may be the tube support plate signal. Auxiliary frequency response and mixed sig nal response to the unwanted signal shall be part of the T-1772 Probe Speed calibration record The probe speed shall be dependent on the base fre- (d) The base frequency and auxiliary frequency (ies) quency and sample rate and shall be no faster than the response shall be recorded simultaneously speed required to obtain a clear signal from the reference standard through-wall hole, without any measurable phase shift or amplitude change of the signal T1765 Calibration Confirmation (a)Calibration of the system hardware shall be con- T-1780 EVALUATION firmed in accordance with requirements of the referencing Code section. When not specified in the referencing Code The analysis and evaluation of examination data shall Section. analog elements of the system shall be calibrated be made in accordance with the referencing Code Section annually or prior to first use (b) Calibration shall include the complete rFT exami T-1790 nation system. Any change of the probe, extension cables DOCUMENTATION RFT instrument, computer, or other recording instruments A report of the examination shall be generated. The shall require recalibration of the system, and recalibration report shall include, at a minimum, the following infor shall be noted on the report mation 2010 SECTION V ARTICLE 17 (a) owner, location, type, serial number, and identifica () serial number(s) of reference tube(s) tion of component examined (k) procedure used- identification and revision (b) size, wall thickness, material type, and configuration (L)acceptance criteria used of installed tubes (m) identify tubes or specific regions where limited sen (c) tube numbering system; sitivity and other areas of reduced sensitivity or other extent of examination or tubes examined and length problems of tubes scanned results of the examination and related sketches or (e) personnel performing the examination maps of the examined area; and (1)qualification level when required by the referenc (o) complementary tests used to further investigate or ing Code section confirm test results date of examination ( g) models, types, and serial numbers of components of the RFT system T-1793 Record Retention (h) probe model/type and extension length Records shall be maintained in accordance with require (i)all relevant instrument settings ments of the referencing Code Section 271 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 2010 SECTION V ARTICLE 22. SE-94 SUBSECTION B DOCUMENTS ADOPTED BY SECTION V ARTICLE 22 RADIOGRAPHIC STANDARDS STANDARD GUIDE FOR RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION ASME SE-94 INTERNATIONAL us word! (Identical with ASTM Specification E 94-04 Scope guide, beyond listing the available reference radiograph 1.1 This guide covers satisfactory X-ray and gamma- documents for casting and welds. Designation of accept ray radiographic examination as applied to industrial radio- reject standards is recognized to be within the cognizance graphic film recording. It includes statements about pre- of product specifications and generally a matter of contrac erred practice without discussing the technical background tual agreement between producer and purchaser which justifies the preference. A bibliography of several 1.4 Safety Practices- Problems of personnel protec textbooks and standard documents of other societies is tion against X-rays and gamma rays are not covered by included for additional information on the subject. this document For information on this important aspect 1. 2 This guide covers types of materials to be examined of radiography, reference should be made to the current radiographic examination techniques and production meth document of the national Committee on radiation protec ods; radiographic film section, processing, viewing, and Lion and Measurenent, Federal register, U.S. Energy storage; maintenance of inspection records; and a list of Research and Development Administration, National available reference radiograph documents Bureau of Standards, and to state and local regulations, if such exist. For specific radiation safety information refer NOTE 1- Further information is contained in Guide E 999, Practice to nist handbook ansi 433. 21 cfr 1020. 40. and 29 E 1025. Test methods e 1030 and e 1032 CFR 1910.1096 or state regulations for agreement states 1.3 Interpretation and Acceptance Standards -Inter- 1. 5 This standard does not purport to address all o pretation and acceptance standards are not covered by this the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is 273 ARTICLE 22 SE-94 DIO SECTION V the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish PH4.8 Methylene Blue Method for Measuring Thiosulfate appropriate safety and health practices and determine the and silver densitometric Method for Measuring resid applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (See ual Chemicals in Films, Plates, and Papers 1.4.) T9. 1 Imaging Media(Film)-Silver- Gelatin Type Speci- 1.6 If an NDT agency is used, the agency shall be fications for Stability qualified in accordance with Practice E 543 T9.2 Imaging Media- Photographic Processed Film Plate, and Paper Filing Enclosures and Storage Con 2. Referenced documents tainers 2.1 ASTM Standards 2.3 Federal standards E 543 Practice for Evaluating Agencies that Perform Non- Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations( CFR)1020.40, destructive Testing Safety requirements of Cabinet X-Ray Systems E 746 Test Method for Determining the Relative Image Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations(CFR)1910.96 Quality response of Industrial Radiographic Film Ionizing Radiation(X-Rays, RF, etc. E 747 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material 2. 4 Other de Grouping Classification of wire Image Quality Indica- NBS Handbook ANSI N43.3 General Radiation Safet tors (IQf Used for Radiology Installations Using NonMedical X-Ray and scaled E 801 Practice for Controlling Quality of radiological Ganma Sources up to 10 Mev Examination of electronic devices e 999 Guide for Controlling the Quality of Industrial 3. Terminology Radiographic Film Processing 3. 1 Definitions- For definitions of terms used in this E 1025 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material guide, refer to Terminology E 1316 Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality Indicators (IQI Used for Radiology E 1030 Test Method for Radiographic Examination of 4. Significance and Use Metallic Castings 4.1 Within the present state of the radiographic art this guide is generally applicable to available materials E 1032 Test Method for Radiographic examination of processes, and techniques where industrial radiographic Weldments films are used as the recording media. E1079 Practice for Calibration of transmission Densitom 4.2 Limitations- This guide does not take into consid eters eration special benefits and limitations resulting from th E 1254 Guide for Storage of Radiographs and Unexposed use of nonfilm recording media or readouts such as paper, Industrial radiographic films lapes, xeroradiography, Fluoroscopy, and electronic image intensification devices. Although reference is made to doc E 13 16 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations uments that may be used in the identification and grading, E1390 Guide for Illuminators Used for viewing Industrial here applicable, of representative discontinuities in com Radiographs mon metal castings and welds, no attempt has been made to E 1735 Test Method for Determining Relative Image Qual- set standards of acceptance for any material or production ity of Industrial Radiographic Film Exposed to X-Radia process. Radiography will be consistent in sensitivity and tion from 4 to 25 Mv resolution only if the effect of all details of techniques, such as geometry, film, filtration, viewing, etc, is obtained E 1742 Practice for Radiographic Examination and maintained E 1815 Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography 5. Quality of Radiographs 2.2 ANSI Standards 5.1 To obtain quality radiographs it is necessary to 41 Specifications for Photographic Film for Archival consider as a minimum the following list of items. Detailed Records, Silver-Gelatin Type, on Polyester Base information on each item is further described in this guide PH2.22 Methods for Determining Safety Times of photo- 5.1.1 Radiation source(X-ray or gamma graphic darkroom Illumination 5.1.2 Voltage selection(X-ray)

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