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机器人学导论第三版英文原版,内容清晰,非扫描版。 Introduction to robotics :·mechanics and control /·Addison-Wesley series in electrical and computer engineering. Contents Preface 1 Introduction 2 Spatial descriptions and transformations 3 Manipulator kinematics 4 Inverse manipulator kinematics 5 Jacobians: velocities and
Contents P reface 1 Introduction 2 Spatial descriptions and transformations 3 Manipulator kinematics 4 Inverse manipulator kinematics 5 Jacobians: velocities and static forces 135 6 Manipulator dynamics 165 7 Trajectory go generation 8 Manipulator-mechanism design 230 g Linear control of manipulators 262 Nonlinear control of manipulators 290 11 Force control of manipulators 317 12 Robot programming languages and systems 339 13 Off-line programming systems 353 A Trigonometric identities 372 B The 24 angle re-set conventions 374 C Some inverse-kinematic formulas 377 Solutions to selected exercises 379 Index 387 Preface Scientists often have the feeling that, through their work, they are learning about some aspect of themselves. Physicists see this connection in their work, so do for example, psychologists and chemists. In the study of robotics, the connection between the field of study and ourselves is unusually obvious. And, unlike a science that seeks only to analyze, robotics as currently pursued takes the engineering bent toward synthesis. Perhaps it is for these reasons that the field fascinates so many of us The study of robotics concerns itself with the desire to synthesize some aspects of human function by the use of mechanisms, sensors, actuators, and computers Obviously, this is a huge undertaking, which seems certain to require a multitude of ideas from various " classical?' fields Currently, different aspects of robotics research are carried out by experts in various fields. It is usually not the case that any single individual has the entire area of robotics in his or her grasp. A partitioning of the field is natural to expect. At a relatively high level of abstraction, splitting robotics into four major areas seems reasonable: mechanical manipulation, locomotion, computer vision, and artificial inteligence This book introduces the science and engineering of mechanical manipulation This subdiscipline of robotics has its foundations in several classical fields. The major relevant fields are mechanics, control theory, and computer science. In this book Chapters 1 through 8 cover topics from mechanical engineering and mathematics Chapters 9 through 11 cover control-theoretical material, and Chapters 12 and 13 might be classed as computer-science material. Additionally, the book emphasizes computational aspects of the problems throughout; for example, each chapter that is concerned predominantly with mechanics has a brief section devoted to computational considerations This book evolved from class notes used to teach"Introduction to robotics'at Stanford University during the autumns of 1983 through 1985. The first and second editions have been used at many institutions from 1986 through 2002. The third edition has benefited from this use and incorporates corrections and improvements due to feedback from many sources. Thanks to all those who sent corrections to the author. This book is appropriate for a senior undergraduate- or first-year graduate level course. It is helpful if the student has had one basic course in statics and dynamics and a course in linear algebra and can program in a high-level language Additionally, it is helpful, though not absolutely necessary, that the student have completed an introductory course in control theory. One aim of the book is to present material in a simple, intuitive way. Specifically, the audience need not be strictly mechanical engineers, though much of the material is taken from that field At Stanford, many electrical engineers, computer scientists, and mathematicians found the book quite readable Preface Directly, this book is of use to those engineers developing robotic systems but the material should be viewed as important background material for anyone who will be involved with robotics. In much the same way that software developers have usually studied at least some hardware, people not directly involved with the mechanics and control of robots should have some such background as that offered by this tex Like the second edition, the third edition is organized into 13 chapters. The material will fit comfortably into an academic semester; teaching the material within an academic quarter will probably require the instructor to choose a couple of chapters to omit. Even at that pace, all of the topics cannot be covered in great depth. In some ways, the book is organized with this in mind; for example, most chapters present only one approach to solving the problem at hand. One of the challenges of writing this book has been in trying to do justice to the topics covered within the time constraints of usual teaching situations. One method employed to this end was to consider only material that directly affects the study of mechanical manipulation At the end of each chapter is a set of exercises. Each exercise has been assigned a difficulty factor, indicated in square brackets following the exercise's number. Difficulties vary between [00] and [50], where [00] is trivial and [50] is an unsolved research problem. I Of course, what one person finds difficult, another might find easy, so some readers will find the factors misleading in some cases Nevertheless, an effort has been made to appraise the difficulty of the exercises At the end of each chapter there is a programming assignment in which the student applies the subject matter of the corresponding chapter to a simple three-jointed planar manipulator. This simple manipulator is complex enough to demonstrate nearly all the principles of general manipulators without bogging the student down in too much complexity. Each programming assignment builds upon the previous ones, until, at the end of the course, the student has an entire library of manipulator software Additionally, with the third edition we have added MATLAB exercises to the book. There are a total of 12 MATLAB exercises associated with Chapters 1 through 9. These exercises were developed by Prof. Robert L. Williams II of Ohio University, and we are greatly indebted to him for this contribution. These exercises can be used with the MATLAB Robotics Toolbox created by Peter Corke, Principal Research Scientist with CSIRO in Australia Chapter 1 is an introduction to the field of robotics. It introduces some background material, a few fundamental ideas, and the adopted notation of the book, and it previews the material in the later chapters Chapter 2 covers the mathematics used to describe positions and orientations n 3-space. This is extremely important material: By definition, mechanical manip ulation concerns itself with moving objects(parts, tools, the robot itself) around in space. We need ways to describe these actions in a way that is easily understood and is as intuitive as possible II have adopted the same scale as in The Art of Computer Programming by D. Knuth(Addison- Wesley) FortheMatlabRoboticsTOolboxgotohttp:/www.ict.csiroau/robotics/toolbox7.htm Preface vii Chapters 3 and 4 deal with the geometry of mechanical manipulators. They Introduce the branch of mechanical engineering known as kinematics, the study of motion without regard to the forces that cause it. In these chapters, we deal with the kinematics of manipulators, but restrict ourselves to static positioning problems Chapter 5 expands our investigation of kinematics to velocities and static forces In Chapter 6, we deal for the first time with the forces and moments required se motion of a manipulator. This is the problem of manipulator dynamics Chapter 7 is concerned with describing motions of the manipulator in terms of trajectories through space Chapter 8 many topics related to the mechanical design of a manipulator. For example, how many joints are appropriate, of what type should they be, and how should they be arranged? In Chapters 9 and 10 we study methods of controlling a manipulator(usually with a digital computer)so that it will faithfully track a desired position trajectory through space. Chapter 9 restricts attention to linear control methods; Chapter 10 extends these considerations to the nonlinear realm Chapter 11 covers the field of active force control with a manipulator. That is we discuss how to control the application of forces by the manipulator. This mode of control is important when the manipulator comes into contact with the environment around it, such as during the washing of a window with a sponge hapter 12 overviews methods of programming robots, specifically the ele ments needed in a robot programming system, and the particular problems associated with programming industrial robots Chapter 13 introduces off-line simulation and programming systems, which represent the latest extension to the man-robot interface I would like to thank the many people who have contributed their time to helping me with this book. First, my thanks to the students of Stanford,s ME219 in the autumn of 1983 through 1985, who suffered through the first drafts, found many errors, and provided many suggestions. Professor Bernard Roth has contributed in many ways, both through constructive criticism of the manuscript and by providing me with an environment in which to complete the first edition. At SILMA Inc I enjoyed a stimulating environment, plus resources that aided in completing the second edition. Dr. Jeff Kerr wrote the first draft of Chapter 8. Prof. Robert L Williams II contributed the MaTLAB exercises found at the end of each chapter and Peter Corke expanded his Robotics Toolbox to support this book's style of the Denavit-Hartenberg notation. I owe a debt to my previous mentors in robotics Marc Raibert, Carl Ruoff, Tom Binford, and Bernard Roth Many others around Stanford, SILMA, Adept, and elsewhere have helped in various ways--my thanks to John Mark Agosta, Mike Ali, Lynn Balling, Al Barr Stephen Boyd, Chuck Buckley, Joel Burdick, Jim Callan, Brian Carlisle, monique Craig, Subas Desa, Tri Dai Do, Karl Garcia, Ashitava Ghosal. Chris Goad, ron Goldman, Bill Hamilton, Steve Holland, Peter Jackson, Eric Jacobs, Johann Jager Paul James, Jeff Kerr, Oussama Khatib, Jim Kramer, Dave Lowe, Jim Maples, Dave Marimont, Dave Meer, Kent Ohlund, Madhusudan Raghavan, Richard Roy, Ken Salisbury, Bruce Shimano, Donalda Speight, Bob Tilove, Sandy Wells, and Dave Williams Preface The students of Prof. Roth's Robotics Class of 2002 at Stanford used the second edition and forwarded many reminders of the mistakes that needed to get fixed for the third edition Finally i wish to thank Tom Robbins at Prentice Hall for his guidance with the first edition and now again with the present edition CHAPTER Introduction 1.1 BACKGROUND 1.2 THE MECHANICS AND CONTROL OF MECHANICAL MANIPULATORS 1.3 NOTATION 1.1 BACKGROUND The history of industrial automation is characterized by periods of rapid change in popular methods. Either as a cause or, perhaps, an effect, such periods of change in automation techniques seem closely tied to world economics. Use of the industrial robot, which became identifiable as a unique device in the 1960s [1], along with computer-aided design(CAD) systems and computer-aided manufacturing(CAM) ystems, characterizes the latest trends in the automation of the manufacturing process. These technologies are leading indust transition, the scope of which is still unknown s trial automation through another In North America, there was much adoption of robotic equipment in the early 1980S, followed by a brief pull-back in the late 1980s. Since that time, the market has been growing(Fig. 1. 1), although it is subject to economic swings, as are all markets Figure 1.2 shows the number of robots being installed per year in the major industrial regions of the world. Note that Japan reports numbers somewhat dif ferently from the way that other regions do: they count some machines as robots that in other parts of the world are not considered robots(rather, they would be simply considered "factory machines"). Hence, the numbers reported for Japan are hat inflated A major reason for the growth in the use of industrial robots is their declining cost Figure 1.3 indicates that, through the decade of the 1990s, robot prices dropped while human labor costs increased. Also, robots are not just getting cheaper they are becoming more effective--faster, more accurate, more flexible. If we factor these quality adjustments into the numbers, the cost of using robots is dropping even faster than their price tag is. As robots become more cost effective at their jobs and as human labor continues to become more expensive more and more industrial jobs become candidates for robotic automation. This is the single most important trend propelling growth of the industrial robot market. A secondary trend is that economics aside, as robots become more capable they become able to do more and more tasks that might be dangerous or impossible for human workers to perform The applications that industrial robots perform are gradually getting more sophisticated, but it is still the case that, in the year 2000, approximately 78% of the robots installed in the US were welding or material-handling robots 3] 2 Chapter 1 Introduction Shipments of industrial robots in North America, millions of Us dollars 1200 1100 1000 900 800 00 00 00 00 200 19841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000 FIGURE 1.1: Shipments of industrial robots in North America in millions of US dollars [31 60,000 50.000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,00 199519961997199819992001200220032004 囫 Japan( all types of■ United States皿 European Union郾 All other countries industrial robots) FIGURE 1.2: Yearly installations ofmultipurpose industrial robots for 1995-2000 and forecasts for 2001-2004[ 3] 16000 14000 120.00 ◆ Labour costs 10000 g80 Robot prices, not quality adj 6000 40.00 Robot prices, quality adjusted 20.00 19901991199219931994199519961997199819992000 FIGURE 1.3: Robot prices compared with human labor costs in the 1990s [3


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