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GNU C库函数查询手册 The GNU C Library Reference Manual Sandra Lo osemore with Richard M. Stallman, Roland McGrath, Andrew Oram, and Ulrich Drepp er for ve rs ion 2.21
The GNU C Library Reference manual Sandra loosemore with Richard m. stallman, Roland McGrath, Andrew Oram, and Ulrich Drepper for version 2.21 This file documents the gnu c library This is The GNU C Library Reference Manual, for version 2.21 Copyright 1993-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc Permission is granted to copy, distribute and /or modify this document under the terms of the gnu Frcc Documentation License, Version 1. 3 or any latcr version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being " Free Software Needs free Documentation"and"GNU Lesser General Public License, the Front-Cover texts being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in(a)below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "Gnu Free Documentation License ll (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in developing gnU and promoting software freedon.” Short Contents 1 Introduction 2 Error Reporting 22 3 Virtual memory Allocation And Paging......... 39 4 Character handling 77 5 String and array utilities ...87 6 Character Set handling .,..127 7 Locales and Internationalization 169 8 Message Translation ..,..,,,,,.188 9 Searching and sorti 212 10 Pattern Matching 11 Input/Output Overview 12 Input/Output on Streams 247 13 Low-Level Input/Output 322 14 File System Interface 376 15 Pipes and Fifos ,,,,,,422 16 Sockets 427 17 Low- Level Terminal Interface ....475 18 Syslog .....502 1 9 Mathematics 509 20 Arithmetic Functions 7 21 Date and time 593 22 Resource Usage And Limitation 628 23 Non-Local exits 650 24 Signal handling...…..…...….….659 25 The Basic Program/System Interface 703 26 Processes ..747 27 Inter-Process Communication 鲁·· 759 28 Job control 761 29 System Databases and Name Service Switch ...780 30 Users and groups 789 31 System Management ....819 32 System Configuration Parameters 836 33 DES Encryption and Password Handlin 857 34 Debugging suppor 864 35 POSiX Threads ..867 36 Internal probes 869 a C Language Facilities in the library..........875 b Summary of Library facilities 890 c Installing the gnU C Library D Library maintenance 申 ...100l E Platform-specific facilities ,,,,1008 F Contributors to the GU C library 1010 G Free Software Needs Free Documentation 1015 h GU Lesser General public license 1017 GNU Free Documentation license ...1026 Concept Index 10.34 Type Index..…… 1044 Function and macro index .1047 Variable and Constant Macro Index 1059 Program and File Index ...,,,.,,,,,,,,,1069 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Getting Started ·垂 1.2 Standards and portability 1 1.2.1ISO( 2 1. 2. 2 POSIX (The Portable Operating System Interface) 1.2.2.1 POStX Sa fety concepts 2 1.2.2.2 Unsafc Fcaturcs 4 1.2.2.3 Conditiona. lly Safe Features 1.2.2.4 Other Safcty Remarks 9 1.2.3 Berkeley Ur 11 1.2. 4 SVID(The System V Interface Description 11 5 XPG(The X/Open Portability Guide 12 1. 3 Using the library 12 1.3.1 Header files 12 1.3.2 Macro Definitions of functions 13 1.3. 3 Reserved names .14 1.3.4 Feature Test macros 1.4 Roadmap to the manual 18 2 Error reporting 22 2.1 Checking for Errors 22 2.2卫 rror Codes..... 23 2.3 Error Messages 33 3 Virtual memory Allocation And Paging 39 3.1 Process Memory Concepts 39 3.2 Allocating Storage For Program Data 40 3.2.1 Memory Allocation in C Programs............ 41 3.2.1.1 Dynamic Memory Allocation 41 3.2.2 Unconstrained Allocation................. 42 3.2.2.1 Basic Memory Allocation 42 3.2.2.2 Examples of malloc 42 3.2.2. 3 Freeing Memory Allocated with malloc 43 3.2.2.1 Changing the Size of a Block ∴.,14 3.2.2.5 Allocating Cleared Space ∴...45 3.2.2.6 Efficiency Considerations for malloc 45 3.2.2.7 Allocating Aligned Memory blocks 46 3.2.2. 8 Malloc Tunable parameters 47 3.2.2.9 Heap Consistency Checking 48 3.2.2.10 Memory Allocation Hooks............. 50 3.2.2.11 Statistics for Memory Allocation with malloc 52 3.2.2. 12 Summary of malloc-Related Functions 53 3.2.3 Allocation Debugging 54 3.2.3.1 How to install the tracing functionalit 鲁善 54 3.2.3.2 Example program excerpts 55 3.2.3.3 Some more or less clever ideas,.,,,,,.....,56 3.2.3.4 Interpreting the traces 57 3.2.4 Obstack 58 3.24.1 Creating obstacks.……58 3.2.1.2 Preparing for Using Obstacks .....59 3.2. 4.3 Allocation in an obslack 60 3.2.4.4 reeing Objects in an Obstack∴……,,…,61 3.2.4.5 Obstack Functions and macros 61 3.2.4.6 Growing Objects 62 8.2.4.7 Extra Fast, Growing Objects 64 3.2.4.8 Status of an Obstack 66 3.2. 4.9 Alignment of Data in Obstacks 67 3.2.4.10 Obstack Chunks ∴67 3.2.4. 11 Summary of Obstack Functions .68 3.2.5 Automatic Storage with Variable Size .69 3.2.5.1 alloca Example 70 3.2.5.2 Advantages of alloca 70 3.2.5.3 Disadvantages of alloca 71 3.2.5.4 GNU C Variable-Size Arrays .,71 3.3 Resizing the Data Segment ...72 4 Locking Page 3.4.1 Why Lock Pages 73 3.4.2 Locked Memory Details 3.4.3 Functions To Lock And Unlock Pages 74 4 Character Handling .....77 4.1 Classification of Characters 77 4.2 Case Conversion 4.3 Character class determination for wide characters 鲁 80 4.4 Noles on using the wide character classes 84 4.5 Mapping of wide characters 85 5 String and Array Utilities 87 5.1 Representation of Strings 87 5.2 String and array Conventions.................88 5.3 String Length 5. 4 Copying and ConcatenatioN ··· 91 5.5 String Array comparison 102 5.6 Collation functions 106 5.7 Search Functions 5.7.1 Compatibility String Search Functions 115 5.8 Finding Tok Strin 115 9 strfr ∴,120 5.10 Trivial Encryption 120 5.11 Encode Binary data 121 5.12 Argz and Envz Vectors ∴..,122 5.12.1 Argz Functions ∴,123 5.12.2 Envz functions 125 6 Character Set Handling 127 6.1 Introduction to extended characters 127 6.2 Overview about Character Ilandling Functions 131 6.3 Restartable multibyte Conversion Functions ..131 6.3. 1 Selecting the conversion and its properties 6.3.2 Representing the state of the conversion ∴..,131 ∴...132 6.3. 3 Converting Single Characters ∴.,133 6.3.4 Converting multibyte and wide Character strings.... 139 6.3.5 A Coinplete Multibyte Conversion Example....... 143 6.1 Non-reentrant Conversion Function.............. 111 6.4.1 Non-reentrant Conversion of Single Characters 144 6.4.2 Non-reentrant Conversion of strings ...146 6.4.3 States in Non-reentrant functions 147 6.5 Generic Charset Conversion .148 6.5.1 Generic character set conversion Interface 149 6.5. 2 A complctc iconv cxamplc ,.152 6.5. 3 Some Details a bout other iconv Implementations 154 6.5.4 Thc iconv Implementation in the GNU C Library.... 155 6.5.4.1 Format of gconT-modules files 156 6.5. 4.2 Finding the conversion path in iconv ..157 6.5.4.3 iconv module data structures 158 6.5.4. iconv module interfaces .161 7 Locales and internationalization .169 7. 1 What Effects a Locale has 169 7.2 Choosing a Locale 170 7. 3 Locale Categories....... ,170 7. 4 How Programs Set the locale 171 7.5 Standard Locales 173 7. 6 Locale names .....173 7.7 Accessing Locale Information 174 7.7.11ca1 It table but 175 7.7. 1.1 Generic Numeric Formatting Parameters............175 7.7.1.2 Printing the Currency Symbol 176 7.7. 1.3 Printing the Sign of a Monetary Amount......178 7.7.2 Pinpoint access to Locale Data 178 7. 8 a dedicated lunction to format numbers........... 184 7.9 Yes-or-No Questions 187 8 Message Translation ···· 188 8.1 X/Open Message Catalog ha anding ... .188 8.1.1 The catgets function family 188 8.1.2 Format of the message catalog files 191 8.1.3 Generate Message Catalogs files ∴,193 8.1. 4 How to use the catgets interface............ 194 8.1.4.1 Not using symbolic names ..195 8.1.4.2 USing symbolic names 195 8.1.4. 3 How docs to this allow to devclop ..196 8.2 The Uniforum approach to Message Translation ··= 197 8.2.1 The gettext family of functions.............197 8.2.1.1 What has to be done to translate a message? 198 8.2.1.2 How to determine which catalog to be used 8.2.1.3 Additional functions for more complicated situations .202 8.2. 1.4 How to specify the output character set gettext uses 8.2.1.5 How to use gettext in GUi programs 207 8.2. 1.6 User influence on gettext 2. 2 Programs to handle message catalogs for gettext 9 Searching and Sorting 212 9.1 Defining the Comparison Function 212 9.2 Array Search Function 212 9.3 Array Sort Function .·:·.····.·· 13 9. 4 Searching and Sorting Example ............... 214 9. 5 The hsearch function 9. 6 The tsearch function 10 Pattern Matching .222 10.1 Wildcard Matching 222 10.2 Globbing 223 10.2.1 Calling glob 223 10.2.2 Flags for Globbing ∴..∴,227 10.2.3 More Flags for Globbing................ 228 10.3 Regular Expression Matching ∴....,230 10.3.1 POSIX Regular Expression Compilation .. .............231 10.3. 2 Flags for POSiX Regular Expressions 232 10.3.3 Matching a Compiled posix Regular expression.... 233 10.3.4 Match Results with Subexpressions 234 10.3.5 Complications in Subexpression matching 234 10.3.6 POSIX Regexp Matching Cleanup 235 10.4 Shell-Style v F 236 10.4.1 Thc Stages of Word Expansion............. 236 10.4.2 Calling worde 237 10.4.3 Flags for Word Expansion............... 238 10.4.4 wordexp Example 239

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u011627161 是官方的版本,挺好的。
2015-08-01
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