Algorithms Fourth Edition.pdf

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Algorithms Fourth Edition
This page intentionally left blank Algorithms FOURTH EDITION Robert Sedgewick and Kevin wayne Princeton university A Addison-Wesley 、 pper Saddle river,NJ· Boston· Indianapolis· San francisco New york· Toronto· Montreal· London· Munich· Paris· Madrid Capetown Sydney Tokyo· Singapore· Mexico city Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals The authors and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book, but make no expressed or im lied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. no liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focuS, and branding interests. For more information, please contact U.S. Corporate and government sale (800)382-3419 For sales outside the United States, please contact International sales Visit us on the Web: informit. com/aw Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of Congress Copyright O 2011 Pearson Education, Inc All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to Pearson education, Inc Rights and Contracts Department 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900 Boston MA 02116 Fax:(617)671-3447 ISBN-13:978-0-321-57351-3 ISBN-10:0-321-57351-X Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at Courier in Westford, Massachusetts First printing, March 2011 To Adam, Andrew, brett, robbie and especially linda To Jackie and alex CONTENTS P reface 1 Fundamentals 1.1 Basic Programming Model 8 1.2 Data Abstraction 64 1.3 Bags, Queues, and Stacks 120 1. 4 Analysis of algorithms 172 1.5 Case Study: Union-Find 216 2 Sorting 243 2.1 Elementary Sorts 244 2.2 Mergesort 270 2.3 Quicksort 288 2. 4 Priority queues 308 2.5 Applications 336 3 Searching 361 3.1 Symbol tables 362 3. 2 Binary Search Trees 396 3.3 Balanced Search trees 424 3.4 Hash tables 458 3.5 Applications 486 4 Graphs ,,,515 4.1 Undirected graphs 518 4.2 Directed Graphs 566 4.3 Minimum Spanning Trees 604 4.4 Shortest paths 638 5 Strings 695 5.1 String Sorts 702 5.2 Tries 730 5.3 Substring Search 758 5.4 Regular expressions 788 5.5 Data Compression 810 6 Context 853 Index .933 algorithms Clients 955 PREFACE his book is intended to survey the most important computer algorithms in use today, and to teach fundamental techniques to the growing number of people in need of knowing them. It is intended for use as a textbook for a second course in computer science, after students have acquired basic programming skills and familiarity with computer systems. The book also may be useful for self-study or as a reference for people engaged in the development of computer systems or applications programs, since it contains implemen tations of useful algorithms and detailed information on performance characteristics and clients. The broad perspective taken makes the book an appropriate introduction to the field THE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS AND DATA STRUCTURES is fundamental to any computer- science curriculum, but it is not just for programmers and computer-science students. every one who uses a computer wants it to run faster or to solve larger problems. The algorithms in this book represent a body of knowledge developed over the last 50 years that has become indispensable. From N-body simulation problems in physics to genetic-sequencing problems in molecular biology, the basic methods described here have become essential in scientific research; from architectural modeling systems to aircraft simulation, they have become es sential tools in engineering; and from database systems to internet search engines, they have become essential parts of modern software systems. And these are but a few examples-as the scope of computer applications continues to grow, so grows the impact of the basic methods covered here Before developing our fundamental approach to studying algorithms, we develop data types for stacks, queues, and other low-level abstractions that we use throughout the book Then we survey fundamental algorithms for sorting, searching, graphs, and strings. The last chapter is an overview placing the rest of the material in the book in a larger context Distinctive features The orientation of the book is to study algorithms likely to be of practical use. The book teaches a broad variety of algorithms and data structures and pro- vides sufficient information about them that readers can confidently implement, debug, and put them to work in any computational environment. The approach involves Algorithms. Our descriptions of algorithms are based on complete implementations and on a discussion of the operations of these programs on a consistent set of examples. Instead of presenting pseudo-code, we work with real code, so that the programs can quickly be put to practical use. Our programs are written in Java, but in a style such that most of our code can be reused to develop implementations in other modern programming languages Data types. We use a modern programming style based on data abstraction, so that algo- rithms and their data structures are encapsulated together Applications. Each chapter has a detailed description of applications where the algorithms described play a critical role. These range from applications in physics and molecular biology to engineering computers and systems, to familiar tasks such as data compression and search ing on the web A scientific approach. We emphasize developing mathematical models for describing the performance of algorithms, using the models to develop hypotheses about performance, and then testing the hypotheses by running the algorithms in realistic contexts Breadth of coverage. We cover basic abstract data types, sorting algorithms, searching al- gorithms, graph processing, and string processing. We keep the material in algorithmic con text, describing data structures, algorithm design paradigms, reduction, and problem-solving models. We cover classic methods that have been taught since the 1960s and new methods hat have been invented in recent years Our primary goal is to introduce the most important algorithms in use today to as wide an audience as possible. These algorithms are generally ingenious creations that, remarkably, can each be expressed in just a dozen or two lines of code. As a group, they represent problem solving power of amazing scope. They have enabled the construction of computational ar tifacts, the solution of scientific problems, and the development of commercial applications that would not have been feasible without them

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老鹰Love baro! 谢谢楼主
sapdigger 看起来很好,要面顶顶
dingzhe0301 书,全,清晰,适合初学者,但要多读几遍,才能吃透
sinat_29898961 baro! 谢谢楼主
1w2l 是英文版,对照中文一块看,感谢楼主分享
minidust 资料完整,对学习算法很有用途。
春风世界 内容很清晰,不过是Java版的吧。
Smallc0de 全英超级棒,解释详细,学英语和算法都是一本好书
kittybo 全英文,没有其他广告内容,非常清晰
naruto21003 资料完整,对学习算法很有用途。谢谢分享。
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