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This ia an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party may be suppressed. Edition review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the over all learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove the contents from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate format, please visit www.cengage.com/higheredtosearchbyIsbN#,authortitle,orkeyword for materials in your areas of interest Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 6205600 fm_pi_xxvi-2010/5/4-3:05 page ll-# CENGAGE Learning Introduction to wireless and mobile C 2011, 2006, 2003 Cengage Learning Systems, 3rd Edition Dharma Prakash agrawal ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright Qing-An Zeng herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electroniC, or mechanical, including but not limited to Publisher, Global Engineering: Christopher photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, A Shortt tworks, or information storage and retrieval syst Xcept as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Acquisitions Editor: Swati Meherishi Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher Senior Developmental Editor: Hilda Gowans Editorial Assistant: Tanya Altieri For product information and technology assistance contact us at Team Assistant: Carly Rizzo Cengage Learning Customer Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. Marketing manager: Lauren betsos For permission to use material from this text or product, submitallrequestsonlineatwww.cengage.com/permissions Media editor: Chris valentine Further permissions questions can be emailed to Director Content and Media Production: permissionrequest@cengage.com. Barbara Fuller jacobsen Content Project Manager: Emily Nesheim Library of Congress Control Number:2010922633 Production service: RPK Editorial lSBN-13:9781439062050 Services. I SBN-10:1-4390-6205-6 Copyeditor: Harlan James Proofreader: Martha Mcmaster Cengage Learning Indexer: Shelly Gerger-KnechtI 200 First Stamford Place. suite 400 Compositor: Integra Stamford CT 06902 Senior art Director: michelle kunkler USA Internal Designer: Carmela Pereira Cover Designer: Andrew Adams Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning Cover Image: C Zsolt Nyulaszi/ g g Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and ja Shutterstock. c Neo edmund/ e yo local office at: international cengage. com/region Shutterstock Permissions Account Manager, Text: Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Mardell glinski schultz Nelson education ltd Permissions Account Manager, Images Deanna ettinger For your course and learning solutions, visit Text and Image Permissions Researcher: www.cengage.com/engineering. Kristiina paul Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our Senior First Print Buyer: Arethea Thomas preferredonlinestorewww.cengagebrain.com. Printed in the united states of america 12345671413121110 Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part “6205600 fm_pi_xxvi”-2010/5/4-3:05- page Ill-#3 In memory of my parents, Shri saryoo Prasad agrawal and shrimati Chandrakanta Bai agrawal who raised me affectionately and made me learn how to excel from a small unknown village. The third edi- tion is inspired by love and affection from my grand-children aneesh Neeraj, Rajeev, A khil and jaya ma Prakash Agrawal To my wife, Min, and to our children, Yao and andrew Ing-An zen Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 6205600fm XXVI 2010/54-3:05- page Iv-#4 about the authors Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal is the Ohio Board of Regents Distinguished Professor of Computer science and the founding director for the Center for Distributed and Mobile Computing in the Department of CS, University of Cincinnati, OH He was a Visiting Professor of ECE at the Carnegie Mellon University, on sab batical leave during the autumn 2006 and Winter 2007 Quarters. He has been a faculty member at the N.C. State University, Raleigh, NC(1982-1998)and the Wayne state University, Detroit (1977-1982). His recent research interests include resource allocation and security in mesh networks, efficient query pro- cessing and security in sensor networks, and heterogeneous wireless networks. He has five approved patents and twenty three patent filings in the area of wireless cellular networks. He has given tutorials and extensive training courses in var- ious conferences in USa. and numerous institutions in Taiwan Korea. jordan UAE, Malaysia, and India in the areas of ad hoc and sensor networks and mesh Networks. He is an editor for the Journal of parallel and Distributed systems, and International Journal of Ad Hoc sensor Wireless Networks. He has served as an editor of the iEEE Computer magazine, and the IEeE Transactions on Computers. He has been the program Chair and general chair for many inter- national conferences and meetings. He has received numerous certificates and awards from the IEEE Computer Society and been elected as a core member. He was awarded a Third millennium Medal, by the ieee for his outstanding contri- butions. He has also delivered keynote speech for 22 international meetings and has been named as an IsI Highly Cited Researcher in Computer Science. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the ACM, the AAAs, and the Wif and a recipient of 2008 IFFF CS Harry Goode award Dr. Qing-An Zeng received his Phd degree in Electrical Engineering from Shizuoka University in Japan. In 1997, he joined the nEC Corporation, Japan where he engaged in research and development for the third generation(3G) mobile communication systems. In 1999, he joined the University of Cincinnati as a faculty member in the department of Computer Science Currently, he is a faculty member in the Department of Electronics, Computer and Information Technology at North Carolina a&T state University. He has authored over 100 publications including books, book chapters, refereed journal papers, and confer ence papers in the areas of wireless and Mobile Networks, Handoff, Resource Management, Mobility Management, Heterogeneous Networks, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Internet, QoS, Security, UWB, NOC, PLC, Vehicle Communications, Modeling and Performance Analysis, and Queuing Theory. Dr. Zeng is a senior member of IEEE Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 6205600fn XXVI 2010/5/4-3:05page #5 Contents Preface to the third edition xviii Preface to the second edition xx Preface to the first edition xxii Acknowledgments for the first Edition xxvi 口口彐a3 1 Introduction 1 1.1 History of Cellular Systems 1 1.2 Characteristics of cellular Systems 10 1.3 Fundamentals of Cellular Systems 14 1.4 Cellular System Infrastructure 19 5 Satellite Systems 22 1.6 Network protocols 23 1.7 Ad Hoc Networks 24 8 Sensor networks 25 1.9 Wireless laNs mans, and pans 26 1.10 Recent Advances 26 1.11 Outline of the book 27 1.12 References 27 1.13 Problems 29 2 Probability, statistics, and traffic Theories 30 2.1 Introduction 30 2.2 Basic Probability and statistics theories 30 2.2.1 Random variables 30 2.2.2 Cumulative distribution function 31 2.2.3 Probability density Function 32 Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 6205600fm XXVI 2010/5/4-3:05- page VI-#6 VI Contents 2.2.4 Expected Value, nth Moment, nth Central Moment and variance 32 2.2.5 Some Important Distributions 34 2.2.6 Multiple random variables 36 2.3 Traffic Theory 39 2.3.1 Poisson arrival model 39 2.4 Basic Queuing Systems 41 2. 4.1 What Is Queuing Theory? 41 2.4.2 Basic Queuing Theory 41 2.43 Kendall's notation 42 2.4.4 Little's Law 42 2.4.5 Markov process 43 2.4.6 Birth-Death Process 43 2.4.7 M/M/1/oo Queuing System 44 2.4.8 M/M/S/oo Queuing System 46 2.4. 9 M/G/1/oo Queuing System 48 2.5 Summary 54 2.6 References 54 2.7 Problems 54 日口口 3 Mobile Radio Propagation 58 3.1 Introduction 58 3.2 Types of Radio Waves 58 3.3 Propagation Mechanisms 59 3. 4 Free Space Propagation 60 3.5 Land Propagation 62 3. 6 Path loss 63 3.7 Slow Fading 65 3. 8 Fast Fading 67 3.8.1 Statistical Characteristics of Envelope 67 3.8.2 Characteristics of Instantaneous amplitude 70 3. 9 Doppler Effect 71 3.10 Delay Spread 72 3.11 Intersymbol Interference 73 3.12 Coherence bandwidth 74 3.13 Cochannel Interference 75 3.14 Summary 75 Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 6205600 m__pI_XXVI”-2010/543:05- page vIl-#7 Contents vil 3.15 References 76 3.16 Experiments 76 3.17 Open-Ended Projects 78 3.18 Problems 78 4 Channel Coding and error Control 81 4.1 Introduction 81 4.2 Linear block codes 82 4.3 Cyclic Codes 87 4.4 Cyclic Redundancy Check(CRC)88 4.5 Convolutional Codes 89 4.6 Interleaver 91 4.7 Turbo Codes 93 4.8 ARQ Techniques 94 4.8.1 Stop-And-Wait ARQ Scheme 94 4.8.2 Go-Back-N ARQ Scheme 96 4.8.3 Selective-Repeat arQ Scheme 97 4. 9 Summary 99 4.10 References 99 4.11 Experiments 100 4.12 Open-Ended projects 102 4.13 Problems 102 彐口口口gau 5 Cellular Concept 106 5.1 Introduction 106 5.2 Cell Area 106 Signal Strength and Cell Parameters 108 5. 4 Capacity of a cell 112 5.5 Frequency Reuse 114 5.6 How to form a cluster 115 5.7 Cochannel interference 118 5.8 Cell Splitting 119 5.9 Cell Sectoring 120 5.10 Summary 123 5.11 References 123 Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part 6205600 fm_pi_XXv”-2010/54-3:05- page vIll一#8 Vil Contents 5.12 Experiments 123 5.13 Open-Ended Projects 125 5.14 Problems 125 彐口口aa33。。 6 Multiple Radio Access 130 6.1 Introduction 130 6.2 Multiple Radio Access Protocols 131 6.3 Contention-Based protocols 132 6.3. 1 Pure aloha 133 63.2 Slotted aloha 134 6.3.3CSMA136 6.3. 4 CSMA/CD 139 6.3.5 CSMA/CA 141 6. 4 Summary 145 6.5 References 145 6.6 Experiments 147 6.7 Open-Ended Projects 148 6.8 Problems 148 彐口彐au3。 7 Multiple Division Techniques for Traffic Channels 151 7.1 Introduction 15 7.2 Concepts and models for multiple divisions 15 7.2.1FDMA152 7.2.2TDMA154 7.2.3CDMA156 7.2.4OFDM162 7.2.5SDMA163 7.2.6 Comparison of Multiple Division Techniques 165 7.3 Modulation Techniques 166 7.3.1AM166 7.3.2FM167 7.3.3FSK167 7.3.4PSK168 73.5QPsK168 73.614QPSK169 7.3.7QAM17 7.3816QAM171 Copyright 201 1 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part

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