Real-Time Rendering.3rd.pdf

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Real-Time Rendering Third edition Tomas akenine-Moller Eric Haines Naty Hoffman AK Peters, Ltd Wellesley, massachusetts Editorial, Sales, and Customer Service Office A PEters ltd 888 Worcester Street. Suite 230 Wellesley, Ma 02482 www.akpeters.com Copyright c 2008 by A K Peters, Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechani cal, including photocopying recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Moller g Tomas, 1971 Real-time rendering/ Tomas Akenine-Moller, Eric Haines, Nathaniel Hoffman 3rd ed p. cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN-13:978-1-56881-424-7(alk. paper 1. Computer graphics. 2. Real-time data processing. I Haines, Eric, 1958-II Hoffman. Nathaniel. iil. Title T385M6352008 0066′773-d22 2008011580 Cover images:C2008 Sony Computer Entertainment Europe Little Big planet developed by Media molecule. Little Big planet is a trade- mark of Sony Computer Entertianment Europe Printed in India 1211100908 1098765432 Dedicated to eva, Felix, and elina T A-M Dedicated to Cathy, Ryan, and Evan E H Dedicated to dorit, karen and daniel NH Contents Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Contents Overview x124 1.2 Notation and Definitions 2 The Graphics Rendering Pipeline 11 2.1 Architecture 12 2.2 The Application Stage 14 2.3 The Geometry Stage 15 2.4 The Rasterizer Stage 21 2.5 Through the Pipeline 25 3 The Graphics Processing Unit 29 3.1 GPU Pipeline Overview 30 3. 2 The Programmable Shader Stage 3. 3 The Evolution of Programmable Shading 33 3.4 The Vertex Shader 38 3.5 The Geometry Shader 40 3.6 The Pixel Shader 2 3.7 The Merging Stage 44 3.8 Effects 4 Transforms 53 4.1 Basic Transforms 4.2 Special Matrix Transforms and Operations 65 4.3 Quaternions 72 4.4 Vertex Blending 80 4.5 Morphing 85 4.6 Projections 89 5 Visual Appearance 99 5.1 Visual phenomena 5.2 Light Sources 100 VII Contents 5.3 Material 104 5.4 Sensor 107 Shading 110 5.6 Aliasing and Antialiasing 116 5.7 Transparency, alpha, and compositing 134 5.8 Gamma correction 141 6 Texturing 147 6.1 The Texturing Pipeline 148 6.2 Image Texturing 156 6.3 Procedural Texturing 178 6.4 Texture animation 180 6.5 Material Mapping 180 6.6 Alpha Mapping 181 6.7 Bump Mapping 183 7 Advanced Shading 201 7. 1 Radiometry 202 7.2 Photometry 209 7. 3 Colorimetry 210 7. 4 Light Source Types 217 7.5 BRDF Theory 223 7. 6 BRDF MOdels 251 7.7 BRDF Acquisition and Representation 264 7. 8 Implementing brdFs 269 7. 9 Combining lights and Materials 275 8 Area and Environmental Lighting 285 8.1 Radiometry for Arbitrary Lighting 286 8.2 Area Light Sources 289 8.3 Ambient light 295 8.4 Environment Mapping 297 8.5 Glossy Reflections from Environment Maps 308 8.6 Irradiance Environment Mapping 314 9 Global lllumination 327 9.1 Shadows 331 9.2 Ambient occlusion 373 9.3 Reflections 386 94① ansmittance 392 9.5 Refractions 396 9. 6 Caustics 399 9.7 Global Subsurface Scattering 401 Contents 9. 8 Full Global illumination 407 9.9 Precomputed lighting 417 9. 10 Precomputed Occlusion 425 9. 11 Precomputed Radiance Transfer 430 10 Image -Based Effects 439 10.1 The Rendering Spectrum 440 10.2 Fixed-View Effects 440 10.3 Skyboxes 443 10.4 Light Field Rendering 444 10.5 Sprites and Layers 445 10.6 Billboarding 446 10.7 Particle Systems 455 10.8 Displacement Techniques 463 0.9 Image Processing 467 10.10 Color Correction 474 10.11 Tone Mapping 475 0.12 Lens Flare and bloom 482 10.13 Depth of Field 486 10.14 Motion blur 490 10.15Fog... 496 0.16 Volume rendering 502 1 1 Non-Photorealistic Rendering 507 11.1 Toon Shading 508 11.2 Sihouette Edge Rendering 510 11.3 Other Styles 523 1.4 Lines 527 12 Polygonal Techniques 531 12.1 Sources of Three-Dimensional Data. 532 12.2 Tessellation and Triangulation 534 12.3 Consolidation 541 12.4 Triangle Fans, Strips, and Meshes 547 12.5 Simplification 561 13 Curves and Curved surfaces 575 13.1 Parametric Curves 576 13.2 Parametric Curved surfaces 592 13.3 Implicit Surfaces 606 13.4 Subdivision Curves 608 13.5 Subdivision surfaces 611 13.6 Efficient Tessellation 629 Contents 14 Acceleration Algorithms 645 14.1 Spatial Data Structures 647 14.2 Culling techniques 660 14.3 Hierarchical View Frustum Cullin 664 14.4 Portal culling 667 14.5 Detail Culling 670 14.6 Occlusion Culling 670 14.7 Level of detail 680 14.8 Large Model Rendering 693 14.9 Point Rendering 693 15 Pipeline Optimization 697 15.1 Profiling tools 15.2 Locating the Bottleneck 698 699 15.3 Performance Measurements 702 15. 4 Optimization 703 15.5 Multiprocessing 716 16 Intersection Test methods 725 16.1 Hardware-Accelerated Picking 726 16.2 Definitions and Tools 727 16.3 Bounding volume creation 732 16.4 Geometric Probability 735 16.5 Rules of thumb 737 16.6 Ray/Sphere Intersection 738 16.7 Ray/Box Intersection 741 16.8 Ray/Triangle Intersection 746 16.9 Ray/Polygon Intersection 750 16.10 Plane/Box Intersection Detection 755 16.11 Triangle/ Triangle Intersection 757 16.12 Triangle/Box Overlap 760 16.13 BV/BV Intersection Tests 762 16.14 View Frustum Intersection 771 16.15 Shaft/Box and Shaft/ Sphere Intersection 778 16.16 Line/ Line Intersection Tests 780 16.17 Intersection Between Three Planes 782 16. 18 Dynamic Intersection Testing 783 17 Collision Detection 793 17. 1 Collision Detection with Rays 795 17.2 Dynamic CD using BSP Trees 797 17.3 General Hierarchical Collision Detection 802 17.4 OBBTree 807

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