Antenna Theory Analysis and Design ，3rd edition
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Antenna Theory Analysis and Design，3rd edition，天线经典教材。原书加代码。
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Constantine A. Balanis
A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION
Copyright 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Published simultaneously in Canada.
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Printed in the United States of America.
The third edition of Antenna Theory is designed to meet the needs of electrical engi-
neering and physics students at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate levels,
and those of practicing engineers. The text presumes that the students have knowledge
of basic undergraduate electromagnetic theory, including Maxwell’s equations and the
wave equation, introductory physics, and differential and integral calculus. Mathemat-
ical techniques required for understanding some advanced topics in the later chapters
are incorporated in the individual chapters or are included as appendices.
The third edition has maintained all of the attractive features of the ﬁrst two edi-
tions, including the three-dimensional graphs to display the radiation characteristics of
antennas, especially the amplitude patterns. This feature was hailed as an innovative
and ﬁrst of its kind addition in a textbook on antennas. Additional graphs have been
added to illustrate features of the radiation characteristics of some antennas. However,
there have been many new features added to this edition. In particular,
A new chapter on Smart Antennas (Chapter 16)
A section on Fractal Antennas (Section 11.6)
Summary tables of important equations in the respective chapters (Chapters 2, 4,
5, 6, 12–14)
New ﬁgures, photos, and tables
Additional end-of-the-chapter problems
CD with the following Multimedia Material:
Power Point view graphs of lecture notes for each chapter, in multicolor
End-of-the-chapter Interactive Questionnaires for review (40–65 for each chap-
ter) based on Java
Animations based on Java
Applets based on Java
MATLAB programs translated from the FORTRAN programs of the second
A number of new MATLAB programs
FORTRAN programs from the second edition.
The CD is attached to the book, and it will open automatically once inserted in
the computer. It is highly recommended that the reader uses the Internet Explorer
(IE) to open the Multimedia Material; other browsers may not perform well. For
additional instructions on how to open and use the material in the CD, there is a
HELP ﬁle in the CD.
The book’s main objective is to introduce, in a uniﬁed manner, the fundamental princi-
ples of antenna theory and to apply them to the analysis, design, and measurements of
antennas. Because there are so many methods of analysis and design and a plethora of
antenna structures, applications are made to some of the most basic and practical con-
ﬁgurations, such as linear dipoles; loops; arrays; broadband, and frequency-independent
antennas; aperture antennas; horn antennas; microstrip antennas; and reﬂector antennas.
A tutorial chapter on Smart Antennas has been included to introduce the student in
a technology that will advance antenna theory and design, and revolutionize wireless
communications. It is based on antenna theory, digital signal processing, networks and
communications. MATLAB simulation software has also been included, as well as a
plethora of references for additional reading.
Introductory material on analytical methods, such as the Moment Method and
Fourier transform (spectral) technique, is also included. These techniques, together with
the fundamental principles of antenna theory, can be used to analyze and design almost
any antenna conﬁguration. A chapter on antenna measurements introduces state-of-the-
art methods used in the measurements of the most basic antenna characteristics (pattern,
gain, directivity, radiation efﬁciency, impedance, current, and polarization) and updates
progress made in antenna instrumentation, antenna range design, and scale modeling.
Techniques and systems used in near- to far-ﬁeld measurements and transformations
are also discussed.
A sufﬁcient number of topics have been covered, some for the ﬁrst time in an under-
graduate text, so that the book will serve not only as a text but also as a reference for the
practicing and design engineer and even the amateur radio buff. These include design
procedures, and associated computer programs, for Yagi–Uda and log-periodic arrays,
horns, and microstrip patches; synthesis techniques using the Schelkunoff, Fourier
transform, Woodward–Lawson, Tschebyscheff, and Taylor methods; radiation charac-
teristics of corrugated, aperture-matched, and multimode horns; analysis and design
of rectangular and circular microstrip patches; and matching techniques such as the
binomial, Tschebyscheff, T-, gamma, and omega matches.
The text contains sufﬁcient mathematical detail to enable the average undergraduate
electrical engineering and physics students to follow, without too much difﬁculty,
the ﬂow of analysis and design. A certain amount of analytical detail, rigor, and
thoroughness allows many of the topics to be traced to their origin. My experiences as
a student, engineer, and teacher have shown that a text for this course must not be a
book of unrelated formulas, and it must not resemble a “cookbook.” This book begins
with the most elementary material, develops underlying concepts needed for sequential
topics, and progresses to more advanced methods and system conﬁgurations. Each
chapter is subdivided into sections or subsections whose individual headings clearly
identify the antenna characteristic(s) discussed, examined, or illustrated.
A distinguished feature of this book is its three-dimensional graphical illustrations
from the ﬁrst edition, which have been expanded and supplemented in the second
and third editions. In the past, antenna texts have displayed the three-dimensional
energy radiated by an antenna by a number of separate two-dimensional patterns. With
the advent and revolutionary advances in digital computations and graphical displays,
an additional dimension has been introduced for the ﬁrst time in an undergraduate
antenna text by displaying the radiated energy of a given radiator by a single three-
dimensional graphical illustration. Such an image, formed by the graphical capabilities
of the computer and available at most computational facilities, gives a clear view of
the energy radiated in all space surrounding the antenna. It is hoped that this will lead
to a better understanding of the underlying principles of radiation and provide a clearer
visualization of the pattern formation in all space.
In addition, there is an abundance of general graphical illustrations, design data,
references, and an expanded list of end-of-the chapter problems. Many of the principles
are illustrated with examples, graphical illustrations, and physical arguments. Although
students are often convinced that they understand the principles, difﬁculties arise when
they attempt to use them. An example, especially a graphical illustration, can often
better illuminate those principles. As they say, “a picture is worth a thousand words.”
Numerical techniques and computer solutions are illustrated and encouraged. A
number of MATLAB computer programs are included in the CD attached to the book.
Each program is interactive and prompts the user to enter the data in a sequential man-
ner. Some of these programs are translations of the FORTRAN ones that were included
in the ﬁrst and second editions. However, many new ones have been developed. Every
chapter, other than Chapters 3 and 17, have at least one MATLAB computer program;
some have as many as four. The outputs of the MATLAB programs include graphical
illustrations and tabulated results. For completeness, the FORTRAN computer pro-
grams are also included, although there is not as much interest in them. The computer
programs can be used for analysis and design. Some of them are more of the design
type while some of the others are of the analysis type. Associated with each program
there is a READ ME ﬁle, which summarizes the respective program.
The purpose of the Lecture Notes is to provide the instructors a copy of the text
ﬁgures and some of the most important equations of each chapter. They can be used by
the instructors in their lectures but need to be supplemented with additional narratives.
The students can use them to listen to the instructors’ lectures, without having to take
detailed notes, but can supplement them in the margins with annotations from the
lectures. Each instructor will use the notes in a different way.
The Interactive Questionnaires are intended as reviews of the material in each
chapter. The student can use them to review for tests, exams, and so on. For each ques-
tion, there are three possible answers, but only one is correct. If the reader chooses
one of them and it the correct answer, it will so indicate. However, if the chosen
answer is the wrong one, the program will automatically indicate the correct answer.
An explanation button is provided, which gives a short narrative on the correct answer
or indicates where in the book the correct answer can be found.
The Animations can be used to illustrate some of the radiation characteristics, such
as amplitude patterns, of some antenna types, like line sources, dipoles, loops, arrays,
and horns. The Applets cover more chapters and can be used to examine some of the
radiation characteristics (such as amplitude patterns, impedance, bandwidth, etc.) of
some of the antennas. This can be accomplished very rapidly without having to resort
to the MATLAB programs, which are more detailed.
For course use, the text is intended primarily for a two-semester (or two- or three-
quarter) sequence in antenna theory. The ﬁrst course should be given at the senior
undergraduate level, and should cover most of the material in Chapters 1 through 7,
and Chapters 16 and 17. The material in Chapters 8 through 16 should be covered in a
beginning graduate-level course. Selected chapters and sections from the book can be
covered in a single semester, without loss of continuity. However, it is almost essential
that most of the material in Chapters 2 through 6 be covered in the ﬁrst course and
before proceeding to any more advanced topics. To cover all the material of the text
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