云计算与分布式系统

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DistributedSystemsPrinciplesandParadigms(2nd edition)-2007-Tanenbaum 与云计算有关的电子书,非常好的资源,详细介绍了分布式计算,云计算的架构,还有关于实践的方向的提示。
about the authors Andrew S. Tanenbaum has an S.b. degree from M.t. and a ph. D. from the university of California at berkeley. he is currently a Professor of Computer science at the vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where he heads the Computer Systems Group Until stepping down in Jan. 2005, for 12 years he had been Dean of the Advanced School for Computing and Imaging, an interuniversity graduate school doing research on advanced parallel, distributed, and imaging systems In the past. he has. done research on compilers, operating systems, networking, and local-area distributed systems. His current research focuses primarily on computer secu rity, especially in operating systems, networks, and large wide-area distributed systems Together, all these research projects have led to over 125 refereed papers in journals and conference proceedings and five books, which have been translated into 21 languages Prof. Tanenbaum has also produced a considerable volume of software. He was the oilers, as well as of MINIX, a small UNIX clone aimed at very high reliabilty oftable com- principal architect of the Amsterdam Compiler Kit, a toolkit for writing pe It is avail- able for free at wiwi minix or o. This system provided the inspiration and base on which Linux was developed. He was also one of the chief designers of Amoeba and globe His Ph D. students have gone on to greater glory after getting their degrees. He is very proud of them. In this respect he resembles a mother hen Prof. Tanenbaum is a Fellow of the aCm, a Fellow of the the ieee, and a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also winner of the 1994 ACM Karl V Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award, winner of the 1997 ACM/SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contributions to Computer Science Education, and winner of the 2002 Texty award for excellence in textbooks. In 2004 he was named as one of the five new Academy Professors by the Royal Academy. His home page is at ywM. Vu.. Maarten van Steen is a professor at the vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, where he teaches operating systems, computer nctworks, and distributed systems. He has also given various highly successful courses on computer systems related subjects to ICT professionals from dustry governmental organizations Prof. van Steen studied Applied Mathematics at Twente University and received a Ph. D. from Leiden University in Computer Science. After his graduate studies he went to work for an industrial research laboratory where he eventualy became head of the Com puter Systems Group, concentrating on programming support for parallel applications After five years, of struggling simultaneously do research and management, he decided to return to academia, first as an assistant professor in Computer Science at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. and later as an assistant professor in Andrew Tanenbaum's group the vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Going back to university was the right decision; his wife thinks so. too His current research concentrates on large-scale distributed systems. Patt of his research focuses on Web-based systems, in particular. adaptive distribution and replication in Globule, a content delivery network of which his colleague guillaume Pierre is the chief designer. Another subject of extensive rescarch is fully decentralized(gossip-bascd) pcer to-pcer systems of which results have been included in Tribler, a Bittorrent application developed in collaboration with colleagues from the Technical University of Delft DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS Principles and paradigms Second edition Andrew s Tanenbaum Maarten van steen Vre universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands PEARSON Preeti Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Library of congress ca. aloging-in Public ation Data THnenbauul. Andrew S Distributed systems: principles and paradigms Andrew S Tanenbaum, Maarten Van Steen Includes bibliographical. references and index 0-13-239227 I. Electronic- data processing--Distributed. i processing. 2. Distributed operating systems(Computers) I: Steen, Maarten van.ⅡTiue QA76.9.D5T362006 0054476-dc22 2006024063 Vice president and editorial director ecs Marcia horton Exccutivc Editor: Tracy Dunkelberger Editorial Assistant: Christianna LeR Associtate Editor:: Carole Stiver Executive Managing Editor: Vince O'Brien Managing Editor: Csmille Tremecoste Editor Craig little Director of Creative Services: Paul Balfanti Crcativc Director: Juan lope Caver Designer: Tamara Newnam Art Editor: Xiaohong Z/ Manufacturing Manager, ESM: Alexis Heydt-LOon Manufacturing Buyer: Lisa McDowell Executive Marketing Manager: Robin OBrien Marketing Assistant:. Mack Patterson 2007 Pearson Education. In Pearson prentice hall IWil Upper Saddle Rivcr, NJ07458 Pcarson Education. Inc All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher Pearson Prentice Ilall- is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The author and damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing peformance, or use of these program Sequenti (on publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or the documentat contained in this book. The author and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental ol Printed in the United States of America 109 65432 工SBN:0-13-239227-5 Pearson Education Ltd. Lendo Pearson Education Australia Pearson Education Singapore. Pte. Ltd Pearson Education North Asia Ltd, Hong Kong Pcarson Education Canada. Inc. Toronto Pcarson Educacibn dc mcxico, S.A. dc. CV Pearson Fducation- Japan,.: Tokyo Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Itd Pearson Education, Inc, Upper Saddle river, New Jersey o Suzanne, Barbara, Marvin, and the memory of Bram and Sweetie it AST To Marielle max, and Elke MVS CONTENTS PREFACE XVII 1 INTRODUCTION LI DEFINITION OF A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM 2 1.2 Goals 3 1.2. 1 Making Resources Accessible 3 1.2.2 Distribution Transparency 4 1.2.3 Openness 7 1.2. 4 Scalability 9 1.2, 5 Pitfalls 16 13 TYPES OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 17 1.3.1 Distributed Computing systems 17 1.3.2 Distributed Information Systems 20 1.3.3 Distributed Pervasive Systems 24 L 4 SUMMARY 30 2 ARCHITECTURES 33 2.1 ARCHITECTURAL, STYLES 34 2.2 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES 36 2.2.1 Centralized architectures 36 2.2.2 Decentralized Architectures 43 2.2.3 Hybrid Architectures 52 2,3 ARCHITECTURES VERSUS MIDDLEWARE 54 2.3.1 Interceptors 55 2.3.2 General Approaches to Adaptive Software 57 2. 3. Discussion 58 CONTENTS 2.4 SELF-MANAGEMENT IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 59 2.4.1 The Feedback Control model 60 2.4.2 Example: Systems Monitoring with Astrolabe 61 2. 4.3 Example: Differentiating Replication Strategies in Globule 63 2. 4.4 Example: Automatic Component Repair Management in Jade 65 25 SUMMARY 66 3 PROCESSES 69 3.1 THREADS 70 3. 1.1 Introduction to Threads 70 3.1 2 Threads in Distributed Systems 75 3.2 VIRTUALIZation 79 3.2. 1 The role of virtualization in Distributed Systems 79 3.2.2 Architectures of Virtual Machines 80 3.3 clientS 82 3.3.1 Networked User Interfaces 82 33.2 Client-Side Software for Distribution Transparency 87 3.4 serVers 88 3. 4.1 General Design Issues 88 3. 4.2 Server Clusters 92 3.4.3 Managing Scrvcr C 3.5 CODE MIGRATION 103 3.5.1 Approach 3.5.2 Migration and Local Resources 107 3.5.3 Migration in hcto cous Systems 110 3.6 SUMMARY 112 COMMUNICATION 115 4.1 FUNDAMENTALS 116 4. 1.1 Layered Protocols 116 4.1.2 Types of Communication 124 4.2 REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL 125 4.2, I Basic rPC Operation 126 4.2.2 Parameter Passing 130 CONTENTS 4.2.3 Asynchronous RPC 134 4.24 Example: DCE RPC 135 4.3 MESSAGE-ORIENTED COMMUNICATION 140 4.3.1 Message-Oriented Transient Communication 141 4.3.2 Mcssagc-Orientcd Persistent Communication 145 4.3.3 Example: ffiM,'s WebSphere Message-Queuing System 152 44 STREAM-ORIENTED COMMUNICATION 157 4 4.1 Support for Continuous Media 158 4.4.2 Streams and Quality of Service 160 4.43 Stream Synchronization 163 4.5 MULTICAST COMMUNICATION 166 4.5. 1 Application-Level Multicasting 166 4.5.2 Gossip-Based Data Dissemination 170 4.6 SUMMARY 175 5 NAMING 179 5.1 NAMES. IDENTIFIERS. ANDI ADDRESSES 180 5.2 FLAT NAMING 182 5. 2.1 Simple Solutions 183 5.2.2 Homc-Bascd Approaches 1?6 5.2.3 Distributed Hash Tables 188 5.2.4 Hierarchical Approaches 191 5.3 STRUCTURED NAMING 195 5.3.1 Name Spaces 195 5.3.2 Name Resolution 198 5.33 The Implementation of a Name Space 202 5.3.4 Example: The Domain Name System 209 5.4 ATTRIBUTE-BASED NAMING 217 54.1 Directory Services 217 5. 4.2 Hierarchical Implementations: LDAP 218 飞m 5.43 Decentralized Implementations 222 5.5 SUMMARY

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