Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference

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Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference Fourth edition Edited Art Kay and Tim green Special thanks for technical contribution and review Kevin di Rafael ordonez John caldwell Collin wells lan williams Thomas Kuehl C Copyright 2014, 2015 Texas Instruments Incorporated. All rights reserved Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference Message from the editors This pocket reference is intended as a valuable quick guide for often used board-and system level design formulae. This collection of formulae is based on a combined 50 years of analog board- and system-level expertise. Much of the material herein was referred to over the years via a folder stuffed full of printouts. Those worn pages have been organiz tion is now available via this guide in a bound and hard-to-lose toma y zed and the informa- Here is a brief overview of the key areas included Key constants and conversions · Discrete components AC and DC analog equations Op amp basic configurations OP amp bandwidth and stability ● verview of sensors PCB trace RL c Wire l.r. c Binary, hex and decimal formats Ad and d/a conversions We hope you find this collection of formulae as useful as we have. Please send any comments and/or ideas you have for the next edition of the analog engineer's Pocket reference to artkay_timgreen@list.ti.com Additional resources .bRowseTiPrecisionLabs(www.ti.com/precisionlabs),acomprehensiveonlinetraining curriculum for analog engineers, which applies theory to real-world, hands-on examples Search for complete board-and-system level circuits in the Ti Designs - Precision referencedesignlibrary(www.ti.com/precisiondesigns Read how-to blogs from ti precision analog experts at the precision hub (www.ti.com/thehub) Find solutions, get help, share knowledge and solve problems with fellow engineers and otiexpertsintheTiE2etmCommunity(www.ti.com/e2e) Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference Contents Conversions44-44444444444424424412442444 Physical constants Standard decimal prefixes.===-5i Metric conversions emperature conversions 上上上上占占二上上 rror conversions (ppm and percentage 10 Discrete componen以出动出:211 Standard resistor values pRactical capacitor model and specifications 4 L AA.4 AA. A. 14 Practical capacitors vs frequency Capacitor type overview Standard capacitance valyes i A··“}: I Capacitance marking and tolerance ·a DIodes and leds 会a94:::2:::19 Inductor equations (series.卫创9ny斗 Capacitor charge and discharge 占s白白s上 RMs and mean voltage example logarithmic ical definitions db definitions : Log scale pole and zero definitions and example如:也30 Time to- phase shi、,,,Δ,,,,,,,,,,,→34 35 Basic op amp configurating9出出出 36 op amp bandwidth 241 Full power bandwidth Small signal ste? respon=·±口如如血回回出如回血出如如如会E幽回当如三 Noise equations pHase margin tability open loop spice a0aNSS2如如如心出如250 instrumentation Amp filter.. ∴...:..:∴ PCB and wire PCB conductor spacing. 中YQ@平2g如也生如如如如包 age types and dimens PCB parallel plate capacitance 61 TPCB microstrip capacitance and inductance. A A:4 L! L L: -- 62 diament c。 pper trace capacitanc小以 PCB via capacitance and inductance斗斗斗斗出斗斗国斗2斗564 ICommon coaxial cable specifications_ -A:, A-A 4L 4 4L9 L A, 4 - 65 cable esistance per length for different wire types AWg5点5555555点 Maximum current for wire types Sensor.:4L-S44544454454L-5544.69 Temperature sensor_overview亠如▲khhh B9npec气电气了 Thermistor Diode temperature characteristics ",·"··"a·· ThermTocouple7J and K 76 AD conversion Binary/hex conversions 一4,831 A的 d DtAtranster-Tunctron LsB Data formats下sR ooantizat Rionero SIgnal-to-noise ratio ISNRI 91 i Signal-to-noise and distortion siNaD) aa 44 Aa 94 Effectiv e number of bits IEl "· Noise free resolution and effective resolution.出E·2:95 SEtting time and conversion accuracy Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference Conversions Standard decimal prefixes o Metric conversions co00ec Temperature scale conversions o Error conversions(ppm and percentage). Conversions ti. com/precisionlabs 6o①c Table 1: Physical constants Constant Symbol Value Speed of light in a vacuum 299792458X10 s Permittivity of vacuum 8854187817620X1012 F/m Permeability of free space 1.2566370614X106 H/m Plank' s constant 662606957×1034 Boltzmanns constant 1.3806488X1023 J/K Faraday's constant 9.64853399X104 C/mol Avogadro's constant 602214129X10 1/mol Unified atomic mass unit m 1.660538921X10 Electronic charge q 1602176565×1019 C Rest mass of electron m 9.10938215×1031 Mass of proton m 1672621777X10-27 Gravitational constant G 667384×1011 Nm Standard gravity 980665 s ce poin 273.15 Maximum density of water 100x103 Density of mercury(0oC PHg 1.3628X104 kg/my Gas constant R 8.3144621 J/(K●mo) Speed of sound in air (at 273K) Cair 3.312X10 /s Table 2: Standard decimal prefixes Multiplier Prefix Abbreviation tera gIga G M kilo m micro nano CO p femto 10-18 atto a Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference ti. com/precisionlabs Conversions Table 3: Imperial to metric conversions Unit Symbol Equivalent Unit Symbol Inches 25. 4 mm/in millimeter 0.0254 mm/mil millimeter mm feet ft 0.3048m/t meters yards 0.9144myd meters 16093km/mi kilometers km circular mil 067×104mm2/cimi square millimeters square yards 08361m square meters pt 0.5682Lpt liters L ounces 2835g0z grams pounds 04536kg/b kilograms kg calories 4.184J/cal joules horsepow 745. W/hp watts W Table 4: Metric to imperial conversions Unit Symbol Conversion Unit Symbol millimeter mm 0.0394in/mm inch In millimeter mm 9. 4 mil/mm meters m 3.2808fm meters m 1.0936yd/r ard kilometers 0.6214mi/km miles square mIllimeters 1974 cir mil/mm circular mil square meters 1.1960yd2/ square yards liter 1.7600pt/L pr pt grams 0.03530z/g ounces kilograms 2.2046|b/kg pounds b joules 0.239 cal/J calories cal watts 1341X103hp/W horsepower Example Convert 10 mm to mil Answer mil 10mmx39.4 =394mi mm Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 9 Conversions ti. com/precisionlabs Table 5: Temperature conversions °C=(°F-32) Fahrenheit to celsius °F=CC)+32 Celsius to fahrenheit K=C+273.15 Celsius to Kelvin °C=K-273.15 Kelvin to celsius Table 6: Error conversions Measured -Ideal Error(%) 100 Error in measured value Measured Error(% Fsr)= Full-scale x 100 Error in percent of full-scale range %= ppm ×100 Part per million to percent m%= ppm 100×1000 Part per million to milli-percent 10 ppm=%×104 Percent to part per million ppm=m%×10 Milli-percent to part per million Example Compute the error for a measured value of 0. 12V when the ideal value is 0. 1V and the range is 5 Answer 0.12V-0.1V Error(%)= 100=20% Error in measured value 0.1V 0.12-0.1V Error(% FSr) 100=0.4% Percent Fsr 5V Example Convert 10 ppm to percent and milli-percent Answer 10 ppm 106×100=0.001% Part per million to percent 106×100×1000=1m% Part per million to milli-percent Texas Instruments Analog engineer's Pocket Reference

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