高性能步进电机驱动芯片静音节能力矩检测TMC2209_TMC2226

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德国TRINAMIC公司开发最新一代经济款步进电机驱动芯片适应脉冲/方向控制的两相步进电机,峰值2.8A-第二代静音专利技术Stealthchop-UART可选通讯-第四代无传感器力矩检测技术StallGuard4
TMC220%, TMC2226 DATASHEET(Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 APPLICATION EXAMPLES: SIMPLE SOLUTIONS- HIGHLY EFFECTIVE he TMC22xx family scores with power density, integrated power MOSFETs, smooth and quiet operation, and a congenial simplicity. The TMC22xx covers a wide spectrum of applications from battery systems to embedded applications with up to 2A motor current per coil. TRINAMICs unique chopper modes spread Cycle and Stealth Chop2 optimize drive performance. Stealth Chop reduces motor noise to the point of silence at low velocities. Standby current reduction keeps costs for power dissipation and cooling down. Extensive support enables rapid design cycles and fast time-to-market with competitive products STANDALONE REPLACEMENT FOR LEGACY STEPPER DRIVER In this example, configuration is hard wired via pins. Software based motion control generates STEP and DIR RROR, INDEX TMC22xx0A (direction) signals, INDEX and ERROR signals report back status information UART INTERFACE FOR FULL DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROL A CPU operates the driver via step and direction signals. It accesses diagnostic information and configures the High-Level CPU TMC22xX TMC22xx via the uart interface, the 0B+ CPU manages motion control and the TMC22xx drives the motor and smoo- Sense Resistors may be omitted thens and optimizes drive performance The TMC2 2XX-EVAL is part of TRINAMICs universal evaluation board system which provides a convenient handling of the hardware as well as a user-friendly software evaluation the tmc22xx evaluation board system consists of three parts: STaRtRaMPe (base board). TMC2209 BRIDGE (connector board with several test points and stand-alone settings). and tMC22XX-EVAl ORDER CODES Order code PN Description Size [mm2] TMC2209-LA 00-0173 Stealth Chop standalone driver; QFN28(RoHS compliant)5x5 TMC22XX-LA-T t denotes tape on reel packing of devices TMC2226-SA Option package 9x9 HTSSOP28- please request for availability! TMC2209-EVAL 40-0169 Evaluation board for tMc2209 stepper motor driver 85×55 ESELSBRUCKE 40-0098 Connector board fitting to Landungsbrucke 61x38 LANDUNGSBRUCKE40-0167 Baseboard for TMC2209-EVAL& further evaluation boards 85x 55 www.trinamic.com TMC220%, TMC2226 DATASHEET(Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 Table of contents PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION 9.1 ANALOG CURRENT SCALING VREF 52 10 INTERNAL SENSE RESISTORS 54 1,1 KEY CONCEPTS ONTROL INTERFACES 11 STALLGUARD4 LOAD MEASUREMENT……56 1.3 MOVING AND CONTROLLING THE MOTOR..6 1.4 STEALTH CHOP2& SPREADCYCLE DRIVER..6 11.1 STALLGUARDA VS. STALLGUARD2 56 1.5 STALLGUARD4- MECHANICAL LOAD SENSING 11.2 TUNING STALLGUARD4 11.3 STALLGUARD4 UPDATE RATE 1.6 COOLSTEP LOAD ADAPTIVE CURRENT 11.4 DETECTING A MOTOR STALL 57 11.5 LIMITS OF STALLGUARD4 OPERATION 57 CONTROL,…, 国套1面 1.7 AUTOMATIC STANDSTILL POWER DOWN.. 8 12 COOLSTEP OPERATION 58 1.8 INDEX OUTPUT 121 USER BENEFITS 1.9 PRECISE CLOCK GENERATOR AND CLK INPUT.8 58 12.2 SETTING UP FOR COOLSTEP 58 2 PIN ASSIGNMENTS……9 12.3 TUNING COOLSTEP 60 2.1 PACKAGE OUTLINE TMC2209.....9 13 STEPIDIR INTERFACE. 2.2 SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS TMC2209 9 2.3 PACKAGE OUTLINE TMC2226 13.1 TIMING 10 13.2 CHANGING RESOLUTION 62 2. 4 SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS TMC2226 11 13.3 MICROPLYER STEP INTERPOLATOR AND STAND 3 SAMPLE CIRCUITS…, 12 STILL DETECTION 13.4 INDEX OUTPUT 1 STANDARD APPLICATION CIRCUIT 12 INTERNAL RDSON SENSING……12 14 INTERNAL STEP PULSE GENERATOR.. 65 3.3 5V ONLY SUPPLY. 13 15 DRIVER DIAGNOSTIC FLAGs...... 66 34 CONFIGURA∏ ON PINS 14 3.5 HIGH MOTOR CURRENT 14 15.1 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 66 3.6 LOW POWER STANDBY 15 15.2 SHORT PROTECTION 66 3. 7 DRIVER PROTECTION AND EME CIRCUITRY. 15 15.3 OPEN LOAD DIAGNOSTICS 4 UART SINGLE WIRE INTERFACE....16 154 DIAGNOS∏ OUTPUT∴. 4.1 DATAGRAM STRUCTURE 16 16 QUICK CONFIGURATION GUIDE……58 4.2 CRC CALCULATION… 88 17 EXTERNAL RESET. 4.3 UART SIGNALS 4. 4 ADDRESSING MULTIPLE SLAVES. 18 CLOCK OSCILLATOR AND INPUT……72 19 5 REGISTER MAP….20 19 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS.....73 20 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 5. 1 GENERAL REGISTERS 5. 2 VELOCITY DEPENDENT CONTROL 26 20.1 OPERATIONAL RANGE STALLGUARD CONTROL 27 20.2 DC AND TIMING CHARACTERISTICS...74 54 SEQUENCER REGISTERS…… 20.3 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS 78 5. 5 CHOPPER CONTROL REGISTERS 30 21 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS 79 6 STEALTHCHOPTM 36 211EXP0 SED DIE PAD.… 6.1 AUTOMATIC TUNING 36 21.2 WIRING GND 79 6.2 STEALTHCHOP OPTIONS 38 213 SUPPLY FILTERING…… 6.3 STEALTHCHOP CURRENT REGULATOR 38 21.4 LAYOUT EXAMPLE TMC2209......80 6.4 VELOCITY BASED SCALING 6.5 COMBINE STEALTHCHOP AND SPREAD CYCLE. 42 22 PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA.. 81 6.6FLAGSINSTEALTHCHOP…243 22.1 DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS QFN28 67 FREEWHEELING AND PASSⅣ VE BRAKING……4 22.2 DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS HTSSOP28,. 8 22.3 PACKAGE CODES .84 SPREADCYCLE CHOPPER TABLE OF FIGURES 85 1 SPREADCYCLE SETTINGS 47 24 REVISION HISTORY 86 8 SELECTING SENSE RESISTORS……50 25 REFERENCES 86 9 MOTOR CURRENT CONTROL. 51 www.trinamic.com TMC2209 TMC2226 DATASHEET (Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 4 1 Principles of Operation The Tmc22xx family of stepper drivers is intended as a drop-in upgrade for existing low-cost stepper driver applications. Their silent drive technology Stealth chop enables non-bugging motion control for home and office applications. a highly efficient power stage enables high current from a tiny package The TMC22xx requires just a few control pins on its tiny package. It allows selection of the most important setting: the desired microstep resolution. a choice of 8, 16, 32 or 64 microsteps, or from fullstep up to 11256 step adapts the driver to the capabilities of the motion controller Even at low microstepping rate, the tMc22xx offers a number of unique enhancements over comparable products: TRINAMICs sophisticated StealthChop2 chopper plus the microstep enhancement Micro Plyer ensure noiseless operation, maxi mum efficiency and best motor torque. Its fast current regulation and optional combination with Spread cycle allow for highly dynamic motion. Protection and diagnostic features support robust and reliable operation. a simple-to-use 8 bit UART interface opens up more tuning and control options. Application specific tuning can be stored to on-chip OTP memory Industries' most advanced step direction stepper motor driver family upgrades designs to noiseless and most precise operation for cost-effe ctive and highly competitive solutions TMC2209!2226 STEP Step and Direction motion control DIR Step&Dir input regulator Ise 0A1 BRA (GND or VCC IO Confiquration PDN/UART L 256 Microstep Integrated REI optional UART interface Rsens∈ INDEX stallGLard4TMH opt. ext. CLK IN Trimmed r【 oscillator 33V or 5V VCC TO opt. low power sta ndby opt. driver enable Figure 1.1 TMC22xx basic application block diagram THREE MODES OF OPERATION: OPTION 1: Standalone STEP/DIR Driver (Legacy Mode) a CPU (uC) generates step direction signals synchronized to additional motors and other components within the system. the tmc22xX operates the motor as commanded by the configuration pins and STEP/DIR signals. Motor run -current either is fixed, or set by the Cpu using the analog input VREF. The pin PDN UART selects automatic standstill current reduction Feedback from the driver to www.trinamic.com TMC2209 TMC2226 DATASHEET (Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 the cpu is granted by the indeX and diag output signals. Enable or disable the motor using the enn OPTION 2: Standalone STEP/DIR Driver with OTP pre-configuration Additional options enabled by pre-programming oTP memory (label uarT & OTP) Tuning of the chopper to the application for application tailored performance ost reduction by switching the driver to internal sense resistor mode Adapting the automatic power down level and timing for best application efficiency mh图> CPU LEMROR INDEX TMC22xX 0 bang uArt Other drivers programming I Fiqure 1.2 Stand-alone driver with pre-confiquration To enable the additional options, either one-time program the driver's OTP memory, or store configuration in the CPu and transfer it to the on-chip registers following each power-up. Operation uses the same signals as Option 1. Programming does not need to be done within the application-it can be executed during testing of the pcb! alternatively use bit-banging by cpu firmware to configure the driver. Multiple drivers can be programmed at the same time using a single TXD line OPTION 3: STEP/DIR Driver with Full Diagnostics and Contro Similar to Option 2, but pin PDN_UaRT is connected to the CPU uart interface Additional options (label UARD Detailed diagnostics and thermal management Passive braking and freewheeling for flexible, lowest power stop modes More options for microstep resolution setting (fullstep to 256 microstep) Software controlled motor current setting and more chopper options Use StallGuard for sensorless homing and CoolStep for adaptive motor current and cool motor This mode allows replacing all control lines like ENN, DIAG, INDEX, MS1, MS2, and analog current setting vReF by a single interface line. This way, only three signals are required for full control: STEP. DIR and PDN_UART. Even motion without external STEP pulses is provided by an internal programmable step pulse generator Just set the desired motor velocity. However no ramping is provided by the tmc2 2XX. 1.1 Key concepts The TMC22xx implements advanced features which are exclusive to TRINAMIC products. These features contribute toward greater precision, greater energy efficiency, higher reliability, smoother motion, and cooler operation in many stepper motor applications Stealth Chop2TM No-noise, high-precision chopper algorithm for inaudible motion and inaudible standstill of the motor. allows faster motor acceleration and deceleration than Stealth ChopTM and extends stealth Chop to low stand still motor currents SpreadcycleM High-precision cycle-by-cycle current control for highest dynamic movements MicroPlyer Microstep interpolator for obtaining full 256 microstep smoothness with lower resolution step inputs starting from fullstep StallGuard4 M Sensorless homing safes end switches and warns in case of motor overload CoolstepTM Uses StallGuard measurement in order to adapt the motor current for best efficiency and lowest heat-up of motor and driver www.trinamic.com TMC2209 TMC2226 DATASHEET (Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 In addition to these performance enhancements, tRINAMIC motor drivers offer safeguards to detect and protect against shorted outputs, output open-circuit, overtemperature and undervoltage conditions for enhancing safety and recovery from equipment malfunctions 1.2 Control interfaces The tMC22xx supports both, discrete control lines for basic mode selection and a uart based single wire interface with CRC checking. The UarT interface automatically becomes enabled when correct uaRT data is sent. When using UART, the pin selection may be disabled by control bits 121 UART Interface The single wire interface allows unidirectional operation (for parameter setting only), or bi-directional operation for full control and diagnostics. It can be driven by any standard microcontroller UART or even by bit banging in software. Baud rates from 9600 Baud to 500k Baud or even higher (when using an external clock) may be used. No baud rate configuration is required, as the tmc2 2XX automatically adapts to the masters' baud rate. The frame format is identical to the intelligent TRINAMIC controller &driver ICs tmc5130, TMC516x and tmc5072. a crc checksum allows data transmission over longer distance. For fixed initialization sequen ces, store the data including Crc into the uc, thus consuming only a few 100 bytes of code for a full initialization Crc may be ignored during read access, if not desired. This makes Crc use an optional feature! The Ic supports four address settings to access up to four ICs on a single bus. Even more drivers can be programmed in parallel by tying together all interface pins, in case no read access is required. An optional addressing can be provided by analog multiplexers, like 74HC4066 From a software point of view the TMC22xx is a peripheral with a number of control and status registers. Most of them can either be written only or are read only Some of the registers allow both, read and write access. In case read- modify-write access is desired for a write only register, realize a hadow register in master software 1.3 Moving and Controlling the Motor 13.1 STEP DIR Interface The motor is controlled by a step and direction input. Active edges on the step input can be rising edges or both rising and falling edges as controlled by a special mode bit(DEDGE). Using both edges cuts the toggle rate of the SteP signal in half, which is useful for communication over slow interfaces such as optically isolated interfaces. The state sampled from the dIR input upon an active StEP edge determines whether to step forward or back. Each step can be a fullstep or a microstep, in which there are 2, 4,8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256 microsteps per fullstep. A step impulse with a low state on DIR increases the microstep counter and a high decreases the counter by an amount controlled by the microstep resolution. An internal table translates the counter value into the sine and cosine values hich control the motor current for microstepping 1.3.2 Internal Step Pulse Generator Some applications do not require a precisely co-ordinate motion- the motor just is required to move for a certain time and at a certain velocity the tmc22xx comes with an internal pulse generator for these applications: Just provide the velocity via UaRT interface to move the motor the velo city sign automatically controls the direction of the motion. However, the pulse generator does not integrate a ramping function Motion at higher velocities will require ramping up and ramping down the velocity value via software STEP/DIR mode and internal pulse generator mode can be mixed in an application 1.4 Stealth Chop2 Spread cycle driver Stealth Chop is a voltage-chopper based principle. It especially guarantees that the motor is absolutely quiet in standstill and in slow motion, except for noise generated by ball bearings. Unlike other voltage mode choppers, Stealth Chop2 does not require any configuration. It automatically learns the www.trinamic.com TMC2209 TMC2226 DATASHEET (Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 best settings during the first motion after power up and further optimizes the settings in subsequent motions. An initial homing sequence is sufficient for learning. Optionally, initial learning parameters can be stored to OTP. Stealth Chop2 allows high motor dynamics, by reacting at once to a change of motor velocity For highest velo city applications, Spread Cycle is an option to Stealth Chop. It can be enabled via input pin or via UART and OTP. Stealth Chop2 and Spreadcycle may even be used in a combined configuration for the best of both worlds: Stealth Chop tor no-noise stand still, silent and smooth performance, Spread Cycle at higher velocity for high dynamics and highest peak velocity at low vibration pread Cycle is an advanced cycle-by-cycle chopper mode. It offers smooth operation and good resonance dampening over a wide range of speed and load. The Spread Cycle chopper scheme automatically integrates and tunes fast de cay cycles to guarantee smooth zero crossing performance Benefits of using Stealth chop Significantly improved microstepping with low cost motors Motor runs smooth and quiet absolutely no standby noise Reduced mechanical resonance yields improved torque 1.5 StallGuard4- Mechanical Load Sensing StallGuard4 provides an accurate measurement of the load on the motor It can be used for stall detection as well as other uses at loads below those which stall the motor, such as CoolStep load adaptive current reduction. This gives more information on the drive allowing functions like sensorless homing and diagnostics of the drive mechanics 1.6 CoolStep- Load Adaptive Current Control coolstep drives the motor at the optimum current. It uses the stallGuard4 load measurement information to adjust the motor current to the minimum amount required in the actual load situation This saves energy and keeps the components cool Benefits are Energy efficiency power consumption decreased up to75% Motor generates less heat mproved mechanical precision Less or no cooling improved reliability Use of smaller motor less torque reserve required cheaper motor does the job Less motor noise Due to less energy exciting motor resonances standard operation with 50 of torque reserve. coolStep is enabled above 60RPM in the exampe 'ed to Figure 1.3 shows the efficiency gain of a 42mm stepper motor when using coolStep compa 0.9 Efficien cy with coolStep Efficiency with 50% torque reserve 06 0,5 0 50 100 150 300 Velocity [RPM Figure 1.3 Energy efficiency with coolStep(example www.trinamic.com TMC2209 TMC2226 DATASHEET (Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 8 1.7 Automatic standstill power down An automatic current reduction drastically reduces application power dissipation and cooling requirements. Per default, the stand still current reduction is enabled by pulling PDN_UART input to GND. It reduces standstill power dissipation to less than 33 by going to slightly more than half of the run current Modify stand still current, delay time and decay via Uart, or pre-programmed via internal OTP Automatic freewheeling and passive motor braking are provided as an option for stand still. Passive braking reduces motor standstill power consumption to zero, while still providing effective dampening and braking! STEP 凵凵LL」」凵凵」 CURRENT HOLD POWERDOWN IHOLDDELAY pcwer down power down RMS motor current trace with pin PDN=D Figure 1.4 Automatic Motor Current Power Down 1.8 Index Output The index output gives one pulse per electrical rotation, i. e. one pulse per each four fullsteps.It shows the internal sequencer microstep 0 position (MSTEP near 0). This is the power on position. In combination with a mechanical home switch, a more precise homing is enabled 1.9 Precise clock generator and clK input he TMC22xX provides a factory trimmed internal clock generator for precise chopper frequency and erformance. However an optional external clock input is available for cases, where quartz precision is desired, or where a lower or higher frequency is required For safety, the clock input features timeout detection and switches back to internal clock upon fail of the external source www.trinamic.com TMC2209 TMC2226 DATASHEET (Rev. 1.02/2019-MAY-14 2 Pin Assignments The Tmc22xx family comes in two package variants in order to fit different requirements for power dissipation. Please check for avai lability 2.1 Package outline TMC2209 OB2 0A2 ENN STDBY GND TMC2209 CPO GND QFN28 CPI VREF VCP STEP SPREAD VCC IO 自受受昌雪 Figure 2.1 TMC2209 Pinning Top view -type: QFN28, 5x5mm2, 0.5mm pitch 2.2 Signal Descriptions TMC2209 Pin Number Typ Function OB2 Motor coil b output 2 ENN DI Enable not input. The power stage becomes switched off (all motor outputs floating) when this pin becomes driven to a high level GND 3,18 GND. Connect to GND plane near pin. CPO Charge pump capacitor output CPI Charge pump capacitor input. Tie to CPO using 22nF 50V capacitor. VCP Charge pump voltage. Tie to vs using 100nF capacitor SPREAD DI (pd) Chopper mode selection: Low=Stealth Chop, High=Spread Cycle (may be left un connected) Output of internal 5v regulator. Attach 2. 2hF to 4.7HF ceramic SVOUT capacitor to GNd near to pin for best performance. Provide the shortest possible loop to the GNd pad MS1_AD0 9 DI(pd) Microstep resolution configuration (internal pull- down resistors) MS2 AD1 10 DI【pd) MS2,MS1:00:18,01:132,10:16411:1/16 For UaRT based configuration selection of UART Address 0.3 Diagnostic and stallguard output. hi level upon stall detection or DIAG 11 DO driver error. Reset error condition by enn=high INDEX 12 D0 Configurable index output Provides index pulse. CLK 13 DI CLK input. Tie to GNd using short wire for internal clock or supply www.trinamic.com

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