计算机视觉 算法与应用 Computer Vision- Algorithms and Applications

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计算机视觉算法与应用 Computer Vision- Algorithms and Applications 英文原版
This book is dedicated to my parents Zdzistaw and Jadwiga, and my family, Lyn, Anne, and Stephen 1 Introduction What is computer vision?● a brief history● Book overview· Sample syllabus· Notation 2 Image formation 29 Geometric primitives and transformations o Photometric image formation The digital camera 3 Image processing 99 Point operators Linear filtering More neighborhood operators Fourier transforms Pyramids and wavelets Geometric transformations Global optimization 4 Feature detection and matching 205 Points and patches Edges· Lines 5 Segmentation 267 Active contours· Split and merge· Mean shift and mode finding· Normalized cuts· Graph cuts and energy-based methods 6 Feature-based alignment 309 2D and 3D feature-based alignment o Pose estimation● Geometric intrinsic calibration 7 Structure from motion 343 Triangulation Two-frame structure from motion Factorization Bundle adjustment Constrained structure and motion 8 Dense motion estimation 381 Translational alignment Parametric motion Spline- based motion· Optical flow· Layered motion 9 Image stitching 427 Motion models Global alignment Compositing 10 Computational photography 467 Photometric calibration High dynamic range imaging Super-resolution and blur removal Image matting and compositing Texture analysis and synthesis 11 Stereo correspondence 533 Epipolar geometry Sparse correspondence Dense correspondence● Local methods● Global optimization Multi-view stereo 12 3D reconstruction 577 Shape from X Active rangefinding Surface representations Point-based representations o Volumetric representations Model-based reconstruction Recovering texture maps and albedos 13 Image-based rendering 619 View interpolation· Layered depth images· Light fields and Lumigraphs Environment mattes Video-based rendering 14 Recognition 655 Object detection· Face recognition· Instance recognition Category recognition Context and scene understanding Recognition databases and test sets Preface The seeds for this book were first planted in 2001 when Steve Seitz at the University of Wash- ington invited me to co-teach a course called"Computer vision for Computer graphics.At that time computer vision techniques were increasingly being used in computer graphics to create image-based models of real-world objects, to create visual effects, and to merge real world imagery using computational photography techniques. Our decision to focus on the applications of computer vision to fun problems such as image stitching and photo-based 3D modeling from personal photos seemed to resonate well with our students Since that time a similar syllabus and project oriented course structure has been used to teach general computer vision courses both at the University of Washington and at Stanford (The latter was a course I co-taught with David Fleet in 2003. Similar curricula have been adopted at a number of other universities and also incorporated into more specialized courses on computational photography.(For ideas on how to use this book in your own course, please see Table 1.1 in Section 1.4.) This book also reflects my 20 years'experience doing computer vision research in corpo rate research labs, mostly at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Lab and at Microsoft Research. In pursuing my work, I have mostly focused on problems and solu- tion techniques (algorithms)that have practical real-world applications and that work well in practice. Thus, this book has more emphasis on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and less on more esoteric mathematics that has intrinsic elegance but less practical applicability This book is suitable for teaching a senior-level undergraduate course in computer vision to students in both computer science and electrical engineering. I prefer students to have either an image processing or a computer graphics course as a prerequisite so that they can spend less time learning general background mathematics and more time studying computer vision techniques. The book is also suitable for teaching graduate-level courses in computer vision(by delving into the more demanding application and algorithmic areas)and as a gen eral reference to fundamental techniques and the recent research literature. To this end, I have attempted wherever possible to at least cite the newest research in each sub-field, even if the VIll Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications(September 3, 2010 draft) technical details are too complex to cover in the book itself In teaching our courses, we have found it useful for the students to attempt a number of small implementation projects, which often build on one another, in order to get them used to working with real-world images and the challenges that these present. The students are then asked to choose an individual topic for each of their small-group, final projects (Sometimes these projects even turn into conference papers! The exercises at the end of each chapter contain numerous suggestions for smaller mid-term projects, as well as more open-ended problems whose solutions are still active research topics. Wherever possible, I encourage students to try their algorithms on their own personal photographs, since this better motivates them, often leads to creative variants on the problems and better acquaints them with the variety and complexity of real-world imagery In formulating and solving computer vision problems, I have often found it useful to draw inspiration from three high-level approaches e Scientific: build detailed models of the image formation process and develop mathe matical techniques to invert these in order to recover the quantities of interest(where necessary, making simplifying assumption to make the mathematics more tractable) Statistical: use probabilistic models to quantify the prior likelihood of your unknowns and the noisy measurement processes that produce the input images, then infer the best possible estimates of your desired quantities and analyze their resulting uncertainties The inference algorithms used are often closely related to the optimization techniques used to invert the(scientific) image formation processes Engineering: develop techniques that are simple to describe and implement but that are also known to work well in practice Test these techniques to understand their limitation and failure modes, as well as their expected computational costs(run-time performance) These three approaches build on each other and are used throughout the book. My personal research and development philosophy(and hence the exercises in the book) have a strong emphasis on testing algorithms. It's too easy in computer vision to develop an algorithm that does something plausible on a few images rather than something correct. The best way to validate your algorithms is to use a three-part strategy First, test your algorithm on clean synthetic data, for which the exact results are known Second, add noise to the data and evaluate how the performance degrades as a function of noise level. Finally test the algorithm on real-world data, preferably drawn from a wide variety of sources, such as photos found on the Web. Only then can you truly know if your algorithm can deal with real-world complexity, i.e., images that do not fit some simplified model or assumptions Preface In order to help students in this process, this books comes with a large amount of supple mentarymaterialwhichcanbefoundonthebooksweBsitehttp:/szeliski.org/book.This material, which is described in Appendix C, includes pointers to commonly used data sets for the problems, which can be found on the Web pointers to software libraries, which can help students get started with basic tasks such as reading/writing images or creating and manipulating images o Slide sets corresponding to the material covered in this book a BibTex bibliography of the papers cited in this book The latter two resources may be of more interest to instructors and researchers publishing new papers in this field, but they will probably come in handy even with regular students Some of the software libraries contain implementations of a wide variety of computer vision algorithms, which can enable you to tackle more ambitious projects (with your instructor's consent) Acknowledgements I would like to gratefully acknowledge all of the people whose passion for research and inquiry as well as encouragement have helped me write this book Steve Zucker at McGill University first introduced me to computer vision, taught all of his students to question and debate research results and techniques and encouraged me to pursue a graduate career in this area Takeo Kanade and Geoff Hinton, my Ph. D thesis advisors at Carnegie Mellon University taught me the fundamentals of good research, writing, and presentation. They fired up my interest in visual processing, 3D modeling, and statistical methods, while Larry matthies introduced me to Kalman filtering and stereo matching Demetri Terzopoulos was my mentor at my first industrial research job and taught me the ropes of successful publishing. Yvan Leclerc and Pascal Fua, colleagues from my brief in- terlude at SRI International, gave me new perspectives on alternative approaches to computer vISIon During my six years of research at Digital Equipment Corporations Cambridge Research Lab, I was fortunate to work with a great set of colleagues, including Ingrid Carlbom, Gudrun Klinker, Keith Waters, Richard Weiss, Stephane Lavallee, and Sing Bing Kang, as well as to supervise the first of a long string of outstanding summer interns, including David Tonnesen, Sing Bing Kang, James Coughlan, and Harry Shum. This is also where I began my long-term collaboration with Daniel Scharstein, now at middlebury college Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications(September 3, 2010 draft) At Microsoft research, I,'ve had the outstanding fortune to work with some of the worlds best researchers in computer vision and computer graphics, including Michael Cohen, Hugues Hoppe, Stephen Gortler, Steve Shafer, Matthew Turk, Harry Shum, Anandan, Phil Torr, An tonio Criminisi, Georg Petschnigg, Kentaro Toyama, Ramin Zabih, Shai Avidan, Sing bing Kang, Matt Uyttendaele, Patrice Simard, Larry Zitnick, Richard Hartley, Simon Winder, Drew Steedly, Chris Pal, Nebojsa Jojic, Patrick Baudisch, Dani lischinski, Matthew Brown Simon Baker, Michael Goesele, Eric Stollnitz, David Nister, Blaise Aguera y Arcas, Sudipta Sinha, Johannes Kopf, Neel Joshi, and Krishnan Ramnath. I was also lucky to have as in terns such great students as Polina golland, Simon Baker, Mei Han, Arno Schodl, Ron Dror Ashley Eden, Jinxiang Chai, Rahul Swaminathan, Yanghai Tsin, Sam Hasinoff, Anat Levin, Matthew brown Eric bennett Vaibhay Vaish. Jan-Michael frahm. James Diebel. Ce liu Garg, Tim Cho, Yekeun Jeong, Richard Roberts, Varsha Hedau, and Dilip Krishna, Rahul Josef Sivic, Grant Schindler, Colin Zheng, Neel Joshi, Sudipta Sinha, Zeev Farbman While working at Microsoft, I've also had the opportunity to collaborate with wonderful colleagues at the University of Washington, where I hold an Affiliate Professor appointment Im indebted to Tony DeRose and David Salesin, who first encouraged me to get involved with the research going on at UW, my long-time collaborators Brian Curless, Steve Seitz, Maneesh Agrawala. Sameer Agarwal. and Yasu Furukawa. as well as the students i have had the privilege to supervise and interact with, including Frederic Pighin, Yung-Yu Chuang Doug Zongker, Colin Zheng, Aseem Agarwala, Dan Goldman, Noah Snavely, Rahul Garg, and ryan Kaminsky. As I mentioned at the beginning of this preface, this book owes its inception to the vision course that Steve Seitz invited me to co-teach, as well as to steves encouragement, course notes, and editorial input I'm also grateful to the many other computer vision researchers who have given me so many constructive suggestions about the book, including Sing Bing Kang, who was my infor mal book editor, Vladimir Kolmogorov, who contributed Appendix B.5.5 on linear program ming techniques for MrF inference, Daniel Scharstein, Richard Hartley, Simon Baker, Noah Snavely, Bill Freeman, Svetlana Lazebnik, Matthew Turk, Jitendra Malik, Alyosha Efros, Michael Black, Brian Curless, Sameer Agarwal, Li Zhang, Deva Ramanan, Olga Veksler, Yuri Boykov, Carsten Rother, Phil Torr, Bill Triggs, Bruce Maxwell, Jana Kosecka, Eero Si- moncelli, Aaron Hertzmann, Antonio Torralba, Tomaso Poggio, Theo Pavlidis, Baba Vemuri Nando de Freitas, Chuck Dyer, Song Yi, Falk Schubert, Roman Pflugfelder, Marshall Tap pen, James Coughlan, Sammy rogmans, Klaus Strobel, Shanmuganathan, Andreas Siebert Yongjun Wu, Fred Pighin, Juan Cockburn, Ronald Mallet, Tim Soper, Georgios Evangelidis Dwight Fowler, Itzik Bayaz, Daniel O Connor, and Srikrishna Bhat. Shena deuchers did a fantastic job copy-editing the book and suggesting many useful improvements and Wayne Wheeler and Simon Rees at Springer were most helpful throughout the whole book pub lishing process. Keith Price's Annotated Computer Vision Bibliography was invaluable in

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