工业4.0参考架构 (RAMI4.0)-英文版

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德国工业4.0参考架构英文版,Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0 (RAMI4.0)
Reference architecture model Industrie 4.0 1 Foreword The main discussion on future trends in manufactur- WG2. the Technical Committee 7.21, the focus group ing is very much focused on the use of Internet IT- Industrie 4.0"of the VDI VDE Society Measurement technologies. This global trend, which is often named and Automatic Control(GMA) and the mirror Wor- as Intcrnct of Things (loT), is driven in Germany by king Pancl SG2 of ZvEI workcd in closc coopcration the so called platform "Industrie 4.0" a joint activity of The result of that work is documented in chapter 6 of the industrial associations zvel. vdma and bitkom the Implementation Strategy for Industrie 4.0 issued supported very actively by researchers and the vDi by the three industrial associations. This chapter is Several working groups(WG) were initiated to define published here in English translation to open the a consensual base for later product developments ideas to all interested engineers worldwide. This also emphasizes broad consensus in the various sectors a first very important step was the definition of a of industry and the academic world. To that extent, it reference architecture for "Industrie 4.0". Under can be assumed to constitute a foundation which may the common umbrella of this national platform the be built upon for the next step Dusseldorf, July 2015 Dr Ing. Peter Adolphs Prof. Dr. Ulrich Epple Chairman of wg2 at plattform industrie 4.0 Hcad of tcchnical committee 7,21 "Industrie 4.0 of Member of the board of the vDlVDE Society the VDIVDE Society Measurement and Automatic Measurement and Automatic Control (GMA) Control(Gma) Member of zvei sg2 Chairman of the Industrie 4.0 Steering Group of DKE Member of ZVEI Sg2 Www.vol.0e Reference architecture model Industrie 4.0 3 Contents 1 Summary 2 Reference architecture 2.1 Consensus among the associations 2.2 Introduction 2.3 Reference architecture model for ndustrie 4.0 (ramia. 0) 455551 2.4 Reference model for the 14.0 components 2.5 Industrie 4.0 glossary 23 Www.vol.0e 4 Reference architecture model Industrie 4.0 1 Summary The physical and virtual worlds are increasingly are termed Industrie 4.0 components(referred to converging Morc and morc physical objects can bclow as 14.0 componcnts)arc also dcscribcd. Where draw on smart sensor and actor tcchnology, and arc appropriate, parts of thc rcfcrcncc architccturc modcl becoming networked in the evolutionary develop- and the 14.0 components draw upon existing and rele ment of the Internet of Things. The availability of all vant standards, so as to gain acceptance more rapidly relevant information in real time by networking of all Where necessary, the implementation strategy the instances involved in adding value, and the ability denlilies and describes additional standardization to use those data to establish the optimum value requirements strcam at any particular timc arc triggering a furthcr industrial rovolution(known as Industric 4.0) in busi As a result of the increasing networking and controll ness processes, and facilitating new business models ability of physical objects and the simultaneous rise In that connection, the focus is on optimization of in the threat level posed by hackers, secret services the following core industrial processes: research and espionage and so on, special security requirements development, production, logistics and service are necessary. These are outlined in chapter 7 of the implementation stratcgy for Industric 4.0. With a view to securing the future of Germany as a business location and of its industry, the implemen The status report is addressed to readers from tation stratcgy for Industric 4.0 has bccn cstablishcd German industry, the relevant technology-oriented by Plattform Industrie 4.0 in cooperation with the sectors, research and government. In particular, it is ssociations bitKoM. VdMa and zvel, and various intended for managers, experts and consultants, and German industrial enterprises. Chapter 6 of the imple all parties intcrostcd in thc future of Industric 4.0 in mentation strategy for Industrie 4.0(1 was planned Germany or wish to assist in shaping it in advance in such a way that it could be extracted and published as a GMa Status Report. The result is this papcr Note This gima Status Report presents a reference archi English translation of the gcrman Status Rcport tecture model (RAM14.0)for semantic technologies Rcfcrcnzarchitckturmodcll Industric 40(RAMI40 and their benefits for automation and its associated which was published in April 2015 by VDI VDD technologies. The structures and functions of what Society Measurement and Automatic Control (GMA) www.ydi.de Reference architecture model Industrie 4.0 5 2 Reference architecture 2.1 Consensus among the associations closed loop control circuits with polling rates in milli- econds, controlling dynamic cooperation between The reference architecture for Industrie 4 0 described scvcral factories. within a common addcd valuc network here is the result of cooperation between several insti- and with additional commercial issues. in a model. In lutions. In particular, experts from Technical Commit- this connection, the perspectives of different application tees 7.21, Industrie 4.0", and 7. 20, Cyber-Physi domains had to be understood, and their fundamentals Systcms"of thc VDI VDE Socicty for Mcasurcmcnt dentified and united in a common model and Automatic Control(GMa) have made a major con tribution to the results This work follows on from that Before work proper could commence on the reference described in the three status reports [2-4 published to architecture model ram40 then it was necessar date, which, together with this paper are available for to establish an overview of the existing approaches downloadatnochargefromwww.vdi.de/industrie40 and methods. It rapidly became clear that there was This present status report was created in cooperati- already a series of existing and usable approaches on with thc Zvei mirror committee sg2, which also which however as a rule only addressed partial contributed to the development of the model described aspccts of thc holistic vicw of Industric 4.0 outlined here. The german Commission for Electrical engineer- abovc. Thc following individual aspccts wcrc con ing (dKe)was also involved in all the work sidered in greater detail The role of coordinating the activities in the numerous a Approach for implementation of a Communication subcommittees and ensuring consistency therefore fell primarily to WG2 of Platorm Industrie 4.0, enabling the OPC UA: Basis iec 6254 1 platform to perform its intended task of ensuring con- Approach for implementation of an Information certed action by a broad range of different organizations Layer and associations. Thc broadly bascd rosults prcscntcd IEC Common Data Dictionary below are therefore an important step towards pre- IEC61360 Series/S013584-42) serving the competitiveness of German industry Characteristics, classification and tools to eCl@ss Elcctronic Devicc Description(EDD Field Device Tool (fDt 2.2 Introduction a Approach for implementation of a Functional and Information Layer Onc of the fundamental idcas on the refcrence ar Field Device Integration(FDI) as integration chitecture of Industrie 4.0 is the grouping of highly technology diverse aspects in a common model. Vertical integra u Approach for cnd to cnd cnginccring tion within the factory describes the networking of means of production, e. g automation devices or Prostep iviP services. As a new aspect in Industrie 4.0, the product @ss(charac or workpiece is also involved. The corresponding model must reflect this aspect. But Industrie 4.0 Thc first step was a fundamcntal examination of whether goes considerably further. End-torend engineering these approaches match the reference architecture throughout the value stream means that the technical model presented in section 2.3. It was found in principle administrative and commercial data created in the that they do, although the concepts and methods con ambit of a means of production or of the workpiece sidered still require more detailed examination are kept consistent within the entire value stream and can be accessed via the nctwork at all times. a third aspect in Industrie 4.0 is horizontal integration via 2.3 Reference architecture model for added value networks, extending beyond individual Industrie 4.0 (ramil.o) factory locations and facilitating the dynamic creation of such added value networks Highly divergent interests mcct in thc discussion con cerning Industrie 4.0: industries from process to factor The task to be performed was to represent these aspects automation with totally different standards, information in a model. It should, after all, be possible Lo represenL and communication technologies and automatic control Www.vol.0e 6 Reference architecture model Industrie 4.0 the associations bitkom, vdMA ZVEI and vdi and the into question are, then, to be identified, consequently standardization organizations IEC and ISO with their revealing where there may he a need for additions or national mirror committees in dke and din amendments, or where standards are missing. Overlaps will then also become visible and open to discussion In order to achieve a common understanding of what If consideration of the model reveals that there are standards, use cases, etc are necessary for Industrie everal standards for the same or similar matters a 4.0, it became necessary to develop a uniform archi- preferred standard can be discussed within the scope of tecture modcl as a rofcrcncc, serving as a basis for tho the reference architecture model discussion of its interrelationships and details The aim is to cover the issues with as few standards The result is the reference architecture model for as possible. Industrie 4.0(RAMI40). See ligure 1 Compliance with standard It contains the fundamental aspects of Industrie 4.0, and expands the hicrarchy lcvcls of IEC 62264 The concepts and nethods described in the selected by adding the"Product"or workpiece level at the standards are to be reviewed to ascertain the extent bottom, and the Connected World going beyond the boundaries of the individual factory at the top. The left to which they are suitable for applications in the horizontal axis is used to represent the life cycle of Industrie 4.0 environment. Implementation of part of a standard may be sufficient for an initial 14.0 systems or products, also establishing the distinction betwcen“Typc"and“ Instance”. Finally, thc six layers applicaLion. This would accelerate the implementation detine the structure of the IT representation of an 14.0 and introduction of non-proprietary solutions which are essential for industrie 40. and would also enable component smaller companies to adapt to Industrie 4.0 and The special characteristics of the reference architecture master its challenges more rapidly model are therefore its combination of life cycle and value stream with a hierarchically structured approach Use cases for the dcfinition of 14.0 componcnts. Maximum flexibility for the description of an 14.0 environment The reference architecture model also provides an is provided in this way. The approach also permits opportunity to locate 14.0 use cases, so as for example to encapsulation of functionalities where appropriate identify the standards required for the relevant use case By means of the reference architecture model, the Identification of relationships conditions have thus been created for the description and implementation of highly flexible concepts. In Various topics can bc represented as subspaccs of thc that context, the model permits step by step migration reference architecture model. Industrie 4 0 essenti- trom the world of today to that of 14.0, and the defi- ally depends upon the ability to detect and process nition of applicalion domains with special stipulations relationships, e. g. those between these subspaces, nd requirements electronically The reference architecture modcl rama.0 has bccn Definition of higher level rules put forward for standardization as DIN SPEC 91345 The reference architecture model permits the derivation of rules for the implementation of 14.0 2.3.1 Requirements and objectives applications on a higher level abjectives he objectives at a glance Industrie 4.0 is a specialization within the " Internet a Simple and manageable architecture model as the of Things and Services". Around 15 industries have to eference be involved in the deliberations. Using the reference rchitecture modcl, tasks and workflows can bc broken a Identification of existing standards down into manageable parts. In this way, the subject a Idcntification and closure of gaps and loopholes in matter is to be made so accessible that a productive standards discussion for instance on standardization issues a Identification of overlaps and stipulation of becomes possible. The existing standards which come preferred solutions www.ydi.de Reference architecture model Industrie 4.07 Minimization of the number of standards involved A further important criterion is the product life cycle a Identification of subsections of standards for rapid ith the value streams it contains. This is displayed implementation of parts thereof in Industrie 4.0 along the left-hand horizontal axis (figure 1). Depen (“14.0 ready") denies, e.g. constant data acquisition throughout the Identification of use case contents life cycle, can therefore also be represented well in the reference architecture model Identification of relationships Definition of higher level rules The third important criterion, represented in the third (right-hand horizontal) axis, is the location of functio- nalities and responsibilities within the factories/ 2.3.2 Brief description of the reference plants. This represents a functional hierarchy, and architecture model not the equipment classes or hierarchical levels of the classical automation pyramid A three-dimensional model is hest suited to represent the 14.0 space. The basic features of the model reflect those of the smart grid Architecture Model(SGAM Note: CEN/CENELEC/ETSI SG-CG, Overview of SG-CG 2.3.3 Layers of the reference Methodologies, Version 3.0, Annex SGAM User Manu- architecture mode al, 2014), which was dcfincd by thc Europcan Smart Grid Coordination group (SG cg) and is accepted The smart grid architecture Model (SGAM)is a good worldwide. It was adapted and extended to meet the initial approach for representation of the circum- 14.0 requirements stances to be described. It deals with the electricity grid, from generation through transmission and Layers are used in the vertical axis to represent the distribution to the consumer Industrie 4.0 focuses various perspectives, such as data maps, functional on product development and production scenarios descriptions, communications bchaviour, hardwarc Conscqucntly, it is ncccssary to dcscribc how develop- assets or business processes. This corresponds to IT ment processes, production lines, manufacturing thinking where complex projects are split up into machinery, field devices and the products themselves clusters of manageable parts are configured and how they function e Layers Life Cycle value Stream EC82890 Ca2264EC61512 Hie Business Functional Information Communication Integration cted Work Centers rp ntr D Pro Figure 1. Reference architecture model for Industrie 4.0(RAMI4 0 Copyright Umsetzungsstrategie Industrie 4.0-Ergebnisbericht, Berlin, April 2015 di de 8 Reference architecture model Industrie 4.0 For all components, no matter whether they are a Functional layer machine or a product, it is not only the information and communication functionality which is of interest Formal description of functions In the simulation of a systen, e. g. a complete a Platform for horizontal integration of the various machine. its cables. linear drive and also its mecha- functions nical structure are also considered. They are part of the reality, without any active communication ability Run time and modelling environment for services Their information has to be available as a "virtual re- which support business processes presentation". For that purpose they are, for example, Run time environment for applications and techni- connected to a database entry via a 2D code cal functionality For better description of machines, components and Rules and decision-making logic are generated inside factories in comparison with SGAM, the component the Functional Layer. Depending on the use case, layer has been replaced by an Asset Layer at the bot these can also be executed in the lower layers (Infor- tom of the model with the newly inserted Integration mation Laycr or Intcgration Laycr Layer ahove. This facilitates digitization of the assets Rcmotc acccss and horizontal intcgration only tako for virtual representation. The Communication layer deals with protocols and the transmission of dala place within the Functional layer. This ensures the integrity of the information and conditions in the nd files, the Information Layer contains the relevant data, the Functional Layer all the necessary (formally process and the integration of the technical level The asset layer and Integration Layer may also be detined) functions, and the Business l ayer maps the accessed temporarily for maintenance purposes relevant business processes Such access is in particular used to call up information Note: A high level of cohesion is to prevail within the and processes which are only relevant to subordinate layers, with loose connections bctwccn thcm. Evcnts layers. Examples includc flashing of sensors/actuators may only be exchanged between two adjacent layers or the reading of diagnosis data. this maintenance- and within each layer related temporary remote access is not relevant to permanent functional or horizontal integration Several systems are grouped together to form larger overall systems. Both the individual systems and the Information layer overall system must follow the reference architecture model. The contents of the lavers must be compatible Run timc environment for (prc ) proccssing of with each other events Execution of event-related rules The individual layers and their interrelationships are described below Formal description of rules Context: event pre-processing Business layer In that context, rules are applied to one or more n Ensuring the integrity of the functions in the value events to generate one or more further events, which then initiate processing in the Functional Layer Mapping the business models and the resulting Persistence of the data which represent the models overall process Ensuring data integrity Legal and regulatory framework conditions a Consistent integration of different data a Modelling of the rules which the system has to a Obtaining new, higher quality data(data, information follow nowledge) Orchestration of services in the functional laver Provision of structured data via service interfaces Link between different business processes Receiving of events and their transformation to match a Receiving events for advancing of the business the data which are available for the Functional layer processes Communication Layer The Business layer does not concern concrete systems such as an ERP system. ERP functions in the process a Standardization of communication, using a uniform context are typically located in the Functional Layer dala format, in the direction of the Information Layer www.ydi.de

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