Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Second Edition ( PDFDrive.com ).pdf

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Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Second Edition
chaPman halcro CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY Series editor Douglas r. stinson Published titles Lidong Chen and Guang Gong, Communication System Security Shiu-Kai chin and Susan Older, Access Control, Security, and Trust A Logical Approach M. Jason Hinek, Cryptanalysis of RSa and its variants Antoine Joux, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis Jonathan Katz and yehuda lindell, Introduction to modern Cryptography, Second Edition Sankar K pal alfredo petrosino, and Lucia maddalena handbook on Soft Computing for video surveillance Burton Rosenberg, Handbook of Financial Cryptography and security Forthcoming Titles Maria Isabel Vasco, Spyros Magliveras, and Rainer Steinwandt Group Theoretic Cryptography ChaPMan hallicro CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY INTRODUCTION TO MODERN CRYPTOGRAPHY Second edition Jonathan katz University of Maryland College park, MD USA Yehuda lindell Barl|an∪n∨ ersity Ramat gan, Israel CRC) CRCPress Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group an informa business a chapman hall book CRC Press Taylor Francis group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca raton fl 33487-2742 o 2015 by Taylor Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version date: 20140915 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-7027-6(eBook-PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information stor age or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers Forpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthisworkpleaseaccesswww.copy rightcom(http://www.copyright.com/)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenter,Inc.(ccc),222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that pro vides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photo- copy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the crc press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com Contents Prefa I Introduction and Classical Cryptography 1 Introduction 1.1 Cryptography and Modern Cryptography 1. 2 Thc Sctting of Privatc-Kcy Encryption 1.3 Historical Ciphers and Their Cryptanalysis 348 1.4 Principles of Modern Cryptography 16 1.4.1 Principlc 1- Formal Dcfinitions 17 1.4.2 Principle 2- Precise AssuMptioNs 20 1.4.3 Principle 3- Proofs of Security 22 1.4.4 Provable Sccurity and Rcal-World Sccurity 22 References and Additional Reading 23 Exercises 24 2 Perfectly Sccrct Encryption 5 2.1 Definitions 26 2.2 The One-Time Pad 32 2.3 Limitations of Perfect Secrecy 35 2.4 *Shannon's Theorem 36 References and Additional Reading 37 Exercises II Private-Key(Symmetric)Cryptography 3 Private-Key Encryption 43 3.1 Computational security 3.1.1 The Concrete Approach 3.1.2 The Asymptotic Approach 45 3.2 Defining Computationally Sccurc Encryption 52 3.2. 1 The Basic Definition of Security 3.2.2*Semantic Securit 3.3 Constructing Secure Encryption Schemes 60 3.3.1 Pseudorandom generators and Stream Ciphers 60 3.3.2 Proofs by Reduction 65 3.3.3 A Secure Fixed-Length Encryption Scheme 66 3.4 Stronger Security Notions 71 3.4.1 Security for Multiple Encryptions 71 3.41. 2 Chosen-Plaintext attacks and cPA-securitv 3.5 Constructing CPA-Secure Encryption Schemes 3.5.1 PseudoralldoIn Functions anld Block Ciphers 3.5.2 CPA-Secure Encryption from Pseudorandom Functions 82 3.6 Modes of Opcration 3.6.1 Strealll-Ciphier Modes of OperatiON 3.6.2 Block-Cipher Modes of operation 3.7 Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks 96 3.7.1 Defining CCa-Security 96 3.7.2 Padding-Oracle Attacks References and Additional Reading 101 Exercises 102 4 Message Authentication Codes 107 4.1 Message Integrity 107 4.1.1 Secrecy vs. Integrit 107 4.1.2 EncryptiOn vs Message Authentication 108 4.2 Message Authentication Codes- Definitions 4.3 Constructing Secure Message Authentication Codes 116 4.3.1 A Fixed-Length MAC 4.3.2 Domain extension for macs 4.4 CBC-MAC 鲁 122 4.4.1 The Basic Construction 123 4.4.2 *Proof of Security 125 4.5 Authenticated Encryption 131 4.5.1 Definitions 131 4.5.2 Generic Constructions 132 4.5.3 Secure Communication Sessions 140 4.5.4 CCA-Secure Encryption 141 4.6 *Information-Theoretic MACS 142 4.6.1 Constructing Information-Theoretic Macs 143 4.6.2 Limitations on Information-Thcorctic MAc 145 References and AdditiOnal Reading 146 147 5 Hash Functions and Applications 153 5.1 Defil 5.1.1 Collision resistance 154 5.1.2 Weaker No of securit 156 5.2 Domain Extension: The Merkle-Damgard Transform 156 5.3 Message authentication Using hash Functions 5.3.1 Hash-and-MAC 159 5.3.2 HMAC 161 5.4 Generic Attacks on Hash Functions 164 5.4.1 Birthday attacks for Finding Collisions 164 5.4. 2 Small-Space Birthday Attacks 166 5.4.3 * Time/ Space Tradeoffs for Inverting Functions 168 5.5 The Ranldoll-Oracle Model 174 5.5.1 The Random-Oracle Model in Detail 175 5.5.2 Is the Random-Oraclc Methodology Sound? 179 5.6 Additional Applications of Hash FunctiOns 182 5.6. 1 Fingerprinting and Deduplication l82 5.6.2 Merkle Trees 183 5.6.3 Password lashing 184 5.6.4 Key de 186 5.6.5 Commitment Schemes .187 References and Additional reading 189 Exercises 189 6 Practical Constructions of Symmetric-Key Primitives 193 6.1 Stream Ciph 194 6.1.1 Linear-Feedback Shift Registers 195 6.1.2 Adding nonlir 197 6.1.3 Trivium 6.1.4RC4 199 6.2 Block Ciphers 202 6.2.1 Substitution-Permutation Networks 204 6.2.2 Feistel Networks 6.2.3 DES- The Data Encryption Standard 6.2.4 3DES: Increasing the Key Length of a Block Cipher 220 6.2.5 AES- The Advanced Encryption Standard 223 6.2.6 Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis 225 6.3 Hash functions 231 6.3.1 Hash Fu from block ciph 32 6.3.2MD5 234 6.3.3 SHA-0 SHA-1 and SHA-2 24 6.3.4 SHA-3(Kcccak 235 References and AdditiOnal Reading 236 7*Theoretical Constructions of Symmetric-Key Primitives 241 7.1 One-Way Functions 42 7.1.1 Definitions 7.1.2 Candidate One-Way functions 245 7.1.3 Hard-Core Predicates 7.2 From One-Way Functions to Pseudorandomness 7.3 Hard-Core Predicates from One-Way functions 250 7.3.1 A Simple Case 250

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