无线通信中的射频收发系统设计(英文版)

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无线通信中的射频收发系统设计(英文版) RF System Design of Transceivers for Wireless Communication 作者:顾其诤(Gu Qizhen)
RE SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Qizheng gu Nokia mobile phones. Inc Springer Qi RF system design of transceivers for wireless communications Qizheng gu Includes bibliographical references and inde ISBN0-387-24161-2(alk. paper)-ISBN0-387-24162-0(e-bo0k) 1. Radio--Transmitter-receivers. 2. Wireless communication systems--Equipment and plies. I. Title TK6560.G782005 621.384131-dc22 2005049760 isBn0-387-24161-2 e-ISBN 0-387-24162-0 Printed on acid-free paper IsBN978-0387-24161-6 C 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc SII rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without he written permission of the publisher(Springer Science+Business Media, Inc, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now lown or hereafter developed is forbidden The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks and similar terms even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights Printed in the united states of america 987654321 SPIN11049357 springeronline.com To my wife, Lixian and to our familys younger generations, Ye and ethan Contents Preface,……xii Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Wireless Systems 看·非 1. 1. Mobile Communications Systems..................1 1.2. Wireless local area network(WLAN)…… 3. Bluetooth 4. Global Positioning System(GPS) 1.5. Ultra Wide-band Communications 345 1. 2. System Design Convergence ·鲁。··。。。。。。。0。鲁·· 1.3. Organization of This book 681 References ··················.。a···········. Associated references Chapter 2. Fundamentals of system design 13 2.1. Linear Systems and transformations. 13 2.1.1. Linear Systen… 2. 1.2. Fourier Series and Transformation 15 2.1.3. Frequency response oflti Systems…… 2.1.4. Band-Pass to Low-Pass Equivalent Mapping and Hilbert Transform 2.2 Nonlinear System Representation and analysis approaches.. 29 2.2.1. Representation of Memoryless Nonlinear Systems…………30 2.2.2. Multiple Input Effects in Nonlinear Systems………….30 2.2.3. Memoryless Band- Pass Nonlinearities and Their Low-Pass Equivalents… 34 2. 3. Noise and random Process 37 2.3.1. Noise Power and Spectral representation………………138 VIll 2.3. 2 Noise and Random Process Through Linear Systems 46 2.33. Narrow-Band Noise representation……… 49 2.3. 4 Noise Figure and Noise Temperature 54 2.4. Elements of Digital Base- Band Systen.………,……58 24.1. Sampling Theorem and Sampling Process……………159 2.4.2. Jitter Effect of Sampling and Quantizing Noise……….64 2.4.3. Commonly Used Modulation Schemes.....67 2.4.4. Pulse-Shaping Techniques and Intersymbol Interference (ISi)...78 2.4.5. Error Probability of Detection, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and Carrier-to- Noise ratio(CNR)……… 88 2.4.6 RAKE Receiver 104 References 108 Associated References 109 Chapter 3. Radio Architectures and Design Considerations. 113 3.l. Superheterodyne Architecture,……,,,…,,114 3. 1. 1. Configuration of Superheterodyne Radio 3.1.2. Frequency Planning…..….…19 3. 1.3. Design Consideration of Superheterodyne Transceiver 133 3.2. Direct-Conversion(Zero IF) Architecture 142 3. 2. 1. Configuration of Direct-Conversion Radio ,143 3.2.2. Technical Challenges 146 3.2.3. Design Consideration of a Direct-Conversion Transceiver... 155 3.3. Low IF Architecture 3.3.1. Configuration of Low正 Radio.………………………172 3.3.2. Approaches to Achieve High Image Rejection 177 3.3.3. Some Design Considerations …185 3.4.Band- pass sampling Radio Architecture……,…188 34.1. Basics of band- pass Sampling…...……………189 3.4.2. Configuration of Band-pass Sampling Radio Architecture ... 194 3.4.3. Design Considerations 198 Appendix3A. Intermodulation distortion Formulas………… 211 Appendix 3 B Effective Interference Evaluation of Second-Order Distortion Products 213 Appendix 3C. I and Q Imbalance and Image-Rejection Formula..216 Appendix3D. Estimation of ADC equivalent Noise Figure…………,2l9 References 222 Associated References 223 Chapter 4. Receiver System Analysis and Design....... 229 4.1.Introduction,229 4.2. Sensitivity and Noise Figure of receiver…………………………230 4.2.1. Sensitivity Calculation............. 230 4.2.2. Cascaded Noise Figure 232 4.2.3. Receiver desensitization evaluation due to transmitter noise Emission in the receiver band . 4.2.4. Influence of Antenna VSwr to Receiver Noise Figure..... 241 4.3. Intermodulation Characteristics ..m mmmmmm. 246 4.3.1. Intermodulation Products and Intercept Points………….246 4.3.2. Cascaded Input Intercept Point 250 4,3.3. Calculation of Receiver Intermodulation Characteristics. ..... 258 4.4. Single- Tone desensitization……,…,,…,,,,,,,……,266 4. 41. Cross-Modulation Products …266 4.4.2. Determination of the Allowed Single-Tone Interferer...... 270 4.5. Adjacent /Alternate Channel selectivity and Blocking Characteristics.m..m..271 4.5. 1 Desired Signal Level and allowed Degradation 271 4.5.2. Formula of Adjacent/Alternate Channel Selectivity and blocking Characteristics 272 4.5.3. Two-Tone Blocking and AM Suppression Characteristics... 275 4.6. Receiver Dynamic Range and agc system 277 4.6. 1 Dynamic Range of a Receiver 07 着非,·,非 7 4.6.2. Receiver AGC System for Mobile Stations 278 4.6. 3. Dynamic Range and other characteristics of Adc 284 4.7. System Design and performance evaluation .ee...oo..... 287 4.7.1. Receiver system Design Basics..................287 4.7. 2 Basic Requirements of Key devices in Receiver System ......289 4.7.3. Receiver System Performance Evaluation …296 Appendix 4A. Conversion Between Power dBm and Electric Field Strength dBμV/m………………………………………………298 Appendix4B. Proof of relationship(4.4.6)……………… n300 Appendix 4C. A Comparison of wireless Mobile Station Minimum Performance Requirements.... 300 Appendix 4D. An Example of Receiver Performance Evaluation by Means of matlab. References 308 Associated References 308 Chapter 5. Transmitter System Analysis and Design 311 5.1. Introduction.mmsmmmommmmmmmmmmsmmmmomm 311 5.2. Transmission Power and spectrum………………312 53. Modulation Accuracy……………,,…,………,…314 5.3. 1 Error Vector Magnitude EVM and Waveform Quality Factor p 314 5.3. 2 Influence of Intersymbol or Interchip Interference to EVM......318 5.3.3. Influence of Close-in Phase noise of synthesized lo to eVm.. 322 5.3.4. Carrier Leakage Degrading the Modulation Accuracy 324 5.3. 5 Modulation Accuracy Degradations resulting from Other Factors 327 5.3.6. Total evm and waveform Quality factor 331 54. Adjacent and Alternate Channel Power……… q。鲁鲁·鲁·。·.。 32 5.4.1. Low-Pass Equivalent Behavioral Model Approach 333 5.4.2. Multitone Techniques .338 5.4.3. ACPR of Cascaded Stages in Transmitter Chain........ 340 5.5. Noise-Emission Calculation.mommmmosmomommso. 343 5.5.1. Formulas for noise-Emission Calculation ..................................343 5.5.2. Some Important notes in Noise- Emission Calculation 345 5.5.3. Noise Expressed in Voltage 347 5.5. 4 Examples of Noise -Emission Calculations............348 56.S0 me Important Considerations in System Design…………349 5.6. 1. Comparison of Architectures.......................... 349 5.6.2. Transmitter Chain Gain Distribution and Performance...... 351 5.6.3. AGC and Power Management 鲁鲁鲁 354 Appendix 5A. Approximate Relationship Between p and EVM…………359 Appendix 5B. Image Suppression of Transmission Signal-……………360 Appendix 5C. Amplifier Nonlinear Simulation: ACPR Calculation. 363 References.mosmssomnsmmo.. m 382 Associated References .m....m.m.m...383 Chapter6. Applications of System Design…………………387 61. Multimode and Multiband Superheterodyne transceiver………387 6.1. 1. Selection of a Frequency Plan .389 6. 1.2. Receiver System Design 391 6. 1.3. Transmitter System Design 413 6.2. Direct Conversion Transceiver. 6.2.1. Receiver System Design…………….……429 6. 2. 2. Transmitter System Design 449 References. mom mom.mm.. 462 Associated references 462 Index……1-1119467

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