柯朗 微积分和数学分析引论-第一卷-英文版-Springer-高清文字版PDF-Vol_1.pdf

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柯朗 微积分和数学分析引论-第一卷-英文版-Springer-高清文字版PDF-Vol_1.pdf
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg gmbH Richard Courant Fritz John Introduction to calculus and analysis Volume Reprint of the 1989 Edition sPRinger Originally published in 1965 by Interscience Publishers, a division of John wiley and Sons, Inc. Reprinted in 1989 by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc Mathematics Subject Classification(1991): 26-XX, 26-01 Cataloging in Publication Data applied for Die Deutsche Bibliothek- CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Courant, Richard: Introduction to calculus and analysis/Richard Courant; Fritz John.Reprint of the 1989 ed -Berlin; Heidelberg: New York; Barcelona; Hong Kong; London; Milan; Paris; Singapore; Tokyo: Springer (Classics in mathematics) Vol.1(1999) ISBN9783-540-650584SBN978-3-642-58604-0( eBook) DOI10.1007978-3-642-58604-0 Photograph of Richard Courant from: C. Reid, Courant in Gottingen and New York. The Story of an Improbable mathematician Springer New york 1976 Photograph of Fritz John by kind permission of The Courant Institute of mathematical Sciences. New York ISSN1431-0821 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Lay o Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999 Originally published by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York in 199 The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks etc in this publication do even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protec regulations and therefore free for general use. SPIN 11309222 41/3111-54- Printed on acid-free paper Richard Courant fritz john Introduction to Calculus and analysis Volume i with 204 lustrations Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Richard Courant(1888-1972) fritz john Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York university New York NY 10012 Originally published in 1965 by Interscience Publishers, a division of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Mathematical Subject Classification: 26Xx, 26-01 Printed on acid-free paper Copyright 1989 Springer Science+ Business Media New York Originally published by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc in 1989 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc. in this publication, even if the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names,as understood by the Trade marks and Merchandise Act, may accordingly be used freely by anyone 98765432 ISBN978-3-540-65058-4 ISBN9783-642-58604-0(Book) DOI10.1007978-3-642-58604-0 reface During the latter part of the seventeenth century the new mathe matical analysis emerged as the dominating force in mathematics It is characterized by the amazingly successful operation with infinite processes or limits. Two of these processes differentiation and inte gration, became the core of the systematic Differential and Integral Calculus often simply called"Calculus, 'basic for all of analysis The importance of the new discoveries and methods was immediately felt and caused profound intellectual excitement. Yet, to gain mastery of the powerful art appeared at first a formidable task, for the avail able publications were scanty, unsystematic, and often lacking in clarity. Thus, it was fortunate indeed for mathematics and science in general that leaders in the new movement soon recognized the vital need for writing textbooks aimed at making the subject ac cessible to a public much larger than the very small intellectual elite of the early days. One of the greatest mathematicians of modern times Leonard Euler, established in introductory books a firm tradition and these books of the eighteenth century have remained sources of inspira tion until today, even though much progress has been made in the clarification and simplification of the material After euler, one author after the other adhered to the separation of differential calculus from integral calculus, thereby obscuring a key point, the reciprocity between differentiation and integration. Only in 1927 when the first edition of R. Courant's German Vorlesungen uber Differential und Integralrechnung appeared in the Springer-Verlag was this separation eliminated and the calculus presented as a unified subject From that German book and its subsequent editions the present work originated. With the cooperation of James and virginia mcshaue a greatly expanded and modified English edition of the"Calculus"wes prepared and published by Blackie and Sons in Glasgow since 1934, and ⅤiPre/ace distributed in the United States in numerous reprintings by Inter science-Wiley During the years it became apparent that the need of college and uni- versity instruction in the United States made a rewriting of this work desirable. Yet, it seemed unwise to tamper with the original versions which have remained and still are viable Instead of trying to remodel the existing work it seemed preferable to supplement it by an essentially new book in many ways related to the European originals but more specifically directed at the needs of the present and future students in the United States. Such a plan became feasible when Fritz John, who had already greatly helped in the prepara- tion of the first English edition, agreed to write the new book together with r. courant While it differs markedly in form and content from the original, it is animated by the same intention: To lead the student directly to the heart of the subject and to prepare him for active application of his knowledge. It avoids the dogmatic style which conceals the motivation and the roots of the calculus in intuitive reality To exhibit the interac tion between mathematical analysis and its various applications and to emphasize the role of intuition remains an important aim of this new book. Somewhat strengthened precision does not, as we hope, inter fere with this aim Mathematics presented as a closed, linearly ordered, system of truths without reference to origin and purpose has its charm and satisfies a hilosophical need but the attitude of introverted science is unsuitable for students who seek intellectual independence rather than indoctrina tion;disregard for applications and intuition leads to isolation and atrophy of mathematics. It seems extremely important that students and instructors should be protected from smug purism The book is addressed to students on various levels to mathema ticians, scientists, engineers. It does not pretend to make the subject easy by glossing over difficulties, but rather tries to help the genuinely interested reader by throwing light on the interconnections and purposes of the whole Instead of obstructing the access to the wealth of facts by lengthy discussions of a fundamental nature we have sometimes postponed such discussions to appendices in the various chapters Numerous examples and problems are given at the end of various chapters. Some are challenging, some are even dificult; most of them supplement the material in the text. In an additional pamphlet more Preface vil problems and exercises of a routine character will be collected, and moreover,answers or hints for the solutions will be given Many colleagues and friends have been helpful. albert A. blank not only greatly contributed incisive and constructive criticism, but he also played a major role in ordering, augmenting, and sifting of the problems and exercises and moreover he assumed the main responsi bility for the pamphlet. Alan Solomon helped most unselfishly and effectively in all phases of the preparation of the book. Thanks is also due to Charlotte John, Anneli Lax, R. Richtmyer, and other friends including James and virginia McShane The first volume is concerned primarily with functions of a single theories of calculus for functions of several variableg e more ramified variable. whereas the second volume will discuss the more ramified A final remark should be addressed to the student reader It might prove frustrating to attempt mastery of the subject by studying such a book page by page following an even path. Only by selecting shortcuts first and returning time and again to the same questions and difficulties can one gradually attain a better understanding from a more elevated point. An attempt was made to assist users of the book by marking with an asterisk some passages which might impede the reader at his first at- tempt. Also some of the more difficult problems are marked by an asterisk We hope that the work in the present new form will be useful to the young generation of scientists. We are aware of many imperfections and we sincerely invite critical comment which might be helpful for later improvements Richard Courant Fritz John June 1965

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