Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux-7-System_Administrators_Guide-en-US

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The System Administrator's Guide documents relevant information regarding the deployment, configuration, and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is oriented towards system administrators with a basic understanding of the system. To expand your expertise, you might also be interested in the Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) , Red Hat System Administration II (RH134), Red Hat System Administration III (RH254), or RHCSA Rapid Track (RH199) training courses. If you want to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 with the Linux Containers functionality, see Product Documentation for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host . For an overview of general Linux Containers concept and their current capabilities implemented in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, see Overview of Containers in Red Hat Systems. The topics related to containers management and administration are described in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7 Managing Containers guide.
Red Hat Enterprise linux 7 System administrators guide Deployment, Configuration, and Administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Marie dolezelova Red Hat customer Content services mdolezelaredhat. com Marc muehlfeld Red hat customer content services mmuehlfeld@redhat.com Maxim svistunoy Red Hat Customer Content services Stephen Wadley Red hat customer content services Tomas Capek Red hat customer content services Jaromir hradilek Red hat customer content services Douglas silas Red Hat customer content services Jana heves Red hat customer content services Petr Kovar Red hat customer Content services Peter Ondrejka Red hat customer Content services Petr Boko Red hat customer content services Martin Prpic Red Hat Product Security Eliska slobodova Red Hat customer content services Eva Kopalova Red hat customer content services MeaEPNStRbeda Red hat customer content services Copyright C 2017 Red Hat, Inc. David o'brien Reis dafemsnotise fcensedbseetest under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. If you distribute this document, or a modified version of it, you must provide AuahtasdibndeoRed Hat, Inc. and provide a link to the original. If the document is modified, all Red Rettrad eusttensbbterereeveides Red eamasghe licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Bedthobat 4dlisfacoe Byestetod fedr best extent permitted by applicable law RedrHae, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, Open Shift, Fedora, the Infinity ReabHtatd RltoEmereCtpadentdiAsvofeRed Hat, Inc, registered in the United States and other countries. Linux is the registered trademark of linus torvalds in the United states and other countries. Java@ is a registered trademark of oracle and/or its affiliates XFS is a trademark of silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/ or other countries MySQL is a registered trademark of My sQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries Node js is an official trademark of Joyent. Red Hat Software Collections is not formally related to or endorsed by the official Joyent Node. js open source or commercial project The open stack @e Word Mark and open stack logo are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the open stack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the Open stack Foundation's permission. We are not affiliated with endorsed or sponsored by the open Stack Foundation, or the open stack community All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Abstract The System Administrator's Guide documents relevant information regarding the deployment, configuration, and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is oriented towards system administrators with a basic understanding of the system To expand your expertise, you might also be interested in the red hat system Administration I(RH124), Red Hat System Administration I(RH134), Red hat system Administration III(RH254), or RHCSa Rapid Track (RH199)training courses. If you want to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 with the Linux Containers functionality, see Product Documentation for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host. For an overview of general Linux Containers concept and their current capabilities implemented in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, see Overview of Containers in Red Hat Systems. The topics related to containers management and administration are described in the red hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7 Managing Containers guide Table of contents Table of contents PART BASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION CHAPTER1. SYSTEM LOCALE AND KEYBOARD CONF| GURATION,。,。。 ·D看。 899 11. SETTING THE SYSTEM LOCALE 1.2. CHANGING THE KEYBOARD LAYOUT 12 1.3, ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 13 CHAPTER 2 CONFIGURING THE DATE AND TIME 15 21. USING THE TIMEDATECTL COMMAND 15 2.2, USING THE DATE COMMAND 18 23. USING THE HWCLOCK COMMAND 20 24. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 22 CHAPTER 3. MANAGING USERS AND GROUPS 24 3.1. INTRODUCTION TO USERS AND GROUPS 24 3.2. MANAGING USERS INA GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT 25 3.3. USING COMMAND-LINE TOOLS 27 3, 4 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES CHAPTER A ACCESS CONTROL LISTS 38 41. MOUNTING FILE SYSTEMS 38 4.2 SETTING ACCESS ACLS 38 4.3 SETTING DEFAULT ACLS 40 4. 4. RETRIEVING ACLS 40 45 ARCHIVING FILE SYSTEMS WITH ACLS 41 46. COMPATIBILITY WITH OLDER SYSTEMS 42 47. ACL REFERENCES 42 CHAPTER 5. GAINING PRIVILEGES 43 5.1 CONFIGURING ADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS USING THE SU UTILITY 43 5.2. CONFIGURING ADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS USING THE SUDO UTILIT 44 5.3 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 45 PART IL SUBSCRIPTION AND SUPPORT 47 CHAPTER 6 REGISTERING THE SYSTEM AND MANAGING SUBSCRIPTIONS 48 6.1. REGISTERING THE SYSTEM AND ATTACHING SUBSCRIPTIONS 48 6.2. MANAGING SOFTWARE REPOSITORIES 49 6.3. REMOVING SUBSCRIPTIONS 49 6.4 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 50 CHAPTER Z ACCESSING SUPPORT USING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL 71. INSTALLING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL 51 72 REGISTERING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL USING THE COMMAND LINE 51 73. USING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL IN INTERACTIVE SHELL MODE 74. CONFIGURING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL 7.5 OPENING AND UPDATING SUPPORT CASES USING INTERACTIVE MODE 76. VIEWING SUPPORT CASES ON THE COMMAND LINE 77. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 55 PART IIL INSTALLING AND MANAGING SOFTWARE 56 CHAPTER 8. YUM ..·····..······· 8.1 CHECKING FOR AND UPDATING PACKAGES 57 System Administrator's Guide 8.2 WORKING WITH PACKAGES 63 8.3 WORKING WITH PACKAGE GROUPS 8. 4. WORKING WITH TRANSACTION HISTORY 8.5 CONFIGURING YUM AND YUM REPOSITORIES 82 8. 6. YUM PLUG-INS 94 8.7 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 97 PART IV INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES 98 CHAPTER 9. MANAGING SERVICES WITH SYSTEMD 99 9.1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMD 9 9.2, MANAGING SYSTEM SERVICES 102 9.3 WORKING WITH SYSTEMD TARGETS 110 9. 4. SHUTTING DOWN. SUSPENDING, AND HIBERNATING THE SYSTEM 115 9.5. CONTROLLING SYSTEMD ON A REMOTE MACHINE 117 9.6. CREATING AND MODIFYING SYSTEMD UNIT FILES 118 9.7. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 135 CHAPTER 10. CONFIGURING A SYSTEM FOR ACCESSIBILITY 137 101. CONFIGURING THE BRLTTY SERVICE 137 10.2. SWITCH ON ALWAYS SHOW UNIVERSAL ACCESS MENU 141 10.3 ENABLING THE FESTIVAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS SYSTEM 142 CHAPTER 11. OPENSSH 144 11.1 THE SSH PROTOCOL 144 11.2 CONFIGURING OPENSSH 147 11.3 OPENSSH CLIENTS 155 11. 4. MORE THAN A SECURE SHELL 159 11.5. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 160 CHAPTER 12 TIGERVNC 162 121 VNC SERVER 162 12.2. SHARING AN EXISTING DESKTOP 166 123 VNC VIEWER 166 12.4. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES PART V SERVERS 171 CHAPTER 13. WEB SERVERS 172 13.1 The ApachE Http ServeR 172 CHAPTER 14. MAIL SERVERS 1着。。B 197 141. EMAIL PROTOCOLS 197 142. EMAIL PROGRAM CLASSIFICATIONS 200 14. 3. MAIL TRANSPORT AGENTS 201 14. 4. MAIL DELIVERY AGENTS 213 145. MAIL USER AGENTS 220 14.6 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 222 CHAPTER 15. FILE AND PRINT SERVERS 224 15.1. SAMBA 224 15.2.FTP 279 15.3 PRINT SETTINGS 286 CHAPTER 16. CONFIGURING NTP USING THE CHRONY SUITE ......305 16.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE CHRONY SUITE 305 Table of contents 16.2, UNDERSTANDING CHRONY AND ITS CONFIGURATION 307 16.3. USING CHRONY 313 16. 4. SETTING UP CHRONY FOR DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS 318 16.5. USING CHRONYC 319 16.6, CHRONY WITH HW TIMESTAMPING 319 16.7. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 323 CHAPTER 17. CONFIGURING NTP USING NTPD 324 17.1. INTRODUCTION TO NTP 324 17.2 NTP STRATA 324 173. UNDERSTANDING NTP 325 17.4. UNDERSTANDING THE DRIFT FILE 326 17.5. UTC, TIMEZONES, AND DST 326 176 AUTHENTICATION OPTIONS FOR NTP 327 17.7. MANAGING THE TIME ON VIRTUAL MACHINES 327 178. UNDERSTANDING LEAP SECONDS 327 179. UNDERSTANDING THE NTPD CONFIGURATION FILE 328 17.10. UNDERSTANDING THE NTPD SYSCONFIG FILE 329 17.11. DISABLING CHRONY 329 17.12 CHECKING IF THE NTP DAEMON IS INSTALLED 330 17.13. INSTALLING THE NTP DAEMON (NTPD) 330 17.14 CHECKING THE STATUS OF NTP 330 17.15 CONFIGURE THE FIREWALL TO ALLOW INCOMING NTP PACKETS 331 1716. CONFIGURE NTPDATE SERVERS 331 17.17 CONFIGURE NTP 332 17.18 CONFIGURING THE HARDWARE CLOCK UPDATE 337 1719. CONFIGURING CLOCK SOURCES 340 17.20, ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 340 CHAPTER 18 CONFIGURING PTP USING PTPAL .342 18.1. NTRODUCTION TO PTP 342 18.2 USING PTP 344 18.3 USING PTP WITH MULTIPLE INTERFACES 346 18. 4. SPECIFYING A CONFIGURATION FILE 348 18.5. USING THE PTP MANAGEMENT CLIENT 348 18.6 SYNCHRONIZING THE CLOCKS 349 18.7. VERIFYING TIME SYNCHRONIZATION 350 18.8, SERVING PTP TIME WITH NTP 353 18.9 SERVING NTP TIME WITH PTP 353 18.10 SYNCHRONIZE TO PTP OR NTP TIME USING TIMEMASTER 354 18.11. IMPROVING ACCURACY 357 18.12. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 358 PART VI MONITORING AND AUTOMATION 359 CHAPTER 19 SYSTEM MONITORING TOOLS 360 19.1. VIEWING SYSTEM PROCESSES 360 19.2. VIEWING MEMORY USAGE 363 19.3. VIEWING CPU USAGE 365 19.4 VIEWING BLOCK DEVICES AND FILE SYSTEMS 365 19.5. VIEWING HARDWARE INFORMATION 371 19.6. CHECKING FOR HARDWARE ERRORS 373 197 MONITORING PERFORMANCE WITH NET-SNMP 374 19.8. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 388 3 System Administrator's Guide CHAPTER 20 OPENLMI D看垂非。bc·t,看。D看。D省。垂垂 390 201. ABOUT OPENLMI 390 20.2. INSTALLING OPENLMI 391 20.3 CONFIGURING SSL CERTIFICATES FOR OPENPEGASUS 393 20, 4. USING LMISHELL 397 205. USING OPENLMI SCRIPTS 434 206. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 435 CHAPTER 21. VIEWING AND MANAGING LOG FILES 436 211. LOCATING LOG FILES 436 212. BASIC CONFIGURATION OF RSYSLOG 436 213. USING THE NEW CONFIGURATION FORMAT 452 21. 4. WORKING WITH QUEUES IN RSYSLOG 454 21.5, CONFIGURING RSYSLOG ON A LOGGING SERVER 463 21.6, USING RSYSLOG MODULES 466 21.7. INTERACTION OF RSYSLOG AND JOURNAL 474 218 STRUCTURED LOGGING WITH RSYSLOG 474 21.9, DEBUGGING RSYSLOG 477 2110. USING THE JOURNAL 478 21.11 MANAGING LOG FILES IN A GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT 483 21.12 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 488 CHAPTER 22 AUTOMATING SYSTEM TASKS .,490 22.1. SCHEDULING A RECURRING JOB USING CRON 490 22.2. SCHEDULING A RECURRING ASYNCHRONOUS JOB USING ANACRON 493 22.3. SCHEDULING A JOB TO RUN AT A SPECIFIC TIME USING AT 494 22.4 SCHEDULING A JOB TO RUN ON SYSTEM LOAD DROP USING BATCH 497 225 SCHEDULING AJOB TO RUN ON NEXT BOOT USING A SYSTEMD UNIT FILE 498 22.6. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 500 CHAPTER 23. AUTOMATIC BUG REPORTING TOOL (ABRT)...... 501 23.1. INTRODUCTION TO ABRT 501 23.2 INSTALLING ABRT AND STARTING ITS SERVICES 501 23.3 CONFIGURING ABRT 503 23, 4. DETECTING SOFTWARE PROBLEMS 510 235. HANDLING DETECTED PROBLEMS 512 23.6. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 514 CHAPTER 24 OPROFILE 516 241. OVERVIEW OF TOOLS 516 242. USING OPERF 518 243. CONFIGURING OPROFILE USING LEGACY MODE 520 244. STARTING AND STOPPING OPROFILE USING LEGACY MODE 527 245. SAVING DATA INLEGACY MODE 527 24.6. ANALYZING THE DATA 528 24.7. UNDERSTANDING THE /DEV/OPROFILE/ DIRECTORY 533 248. EXAMPLE USAGE 533 249 OPROFILE SUPPORT FORJAVA 534 24.10 GRAPHICAL INTERFACE 534 24.11. OPROFILE AND SYSTEMTAP 537 24.12. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 537 PART VIL KERNEL MODULE AND DRIVER CONFIGURATION 538 CHAPTER 25. WORKING WITH GRUB 2 539 Table of contents 25.1. INTRODUCTION TO GRUB 2 539 25.2 CONFIGURING GRUB 2 540 25.3 MAKING TEMPORARY CHANGES TO A GRUB 2 MENU 540 25. 4. MAKING PERSISTENT CHANGES TO A GRUB 2 MENU USING THE GRUBBY TOOL 541 25.5 CUSTOMIZING THE GRUB 2 CONFIGURATION FILE 543 25.6 PROTECTING GRUB 2 WITH A PASSWORD 548 257 REINSTALLING GRUB 2 549 25.8, UPGRADING FROM GRUB LEGACY TO GRUB 2 550 25.9 GRUB 2OVERA SERIAL CONSOLE 555 25.10 TERMINAL MENU EDITING DURING BOOT 556 25.11 UNIFIED EXTENSIBLE FIRMWARE INTERFACE (UEFD SECURE BOOT 562 25.12. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 563 CHAPTER 26 MANUALLY UPGRADING THE KERNEL 564 26.1 OVERVIEW OF KERNEL PACKAGES 564 26.2 PREPARING TO UPGRADE 565 263. DOWNLOADING THE UPGRADED KERNEL 566 26. 4 PERFORMING THE UPGRADE 567 26.5 VERIFYING THE INITIAL RAM DISK IMAGE 567 26.6 VERIFYING THE BOOT LOADER 571 CHAPTER 27. WORKING WITH KERNEL MODULES 572 27.1. LISTING CURRENTLY-LOADED MODULES 572 27.2. DISPLAYING INFORMATION ABOUT A MODULE 573 273. LOADING A MODULE 576 274. UNLOADING A MODULE 576 27.5 SETTING MODULE PARAMETERS 577 276. PERSISTENT MODULE LOADING 579 27.7. INSTALLING MODULES FROM A DRIVER UPDATE DISK 579 27.8 SIGNING KERNEL MODULES FOR SECURE BOOT 581 279. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 588 PART VIIL SYSTEM BACKUP AND RECOVERY 590 CHAPTER 28. RELAX-AND-RECOVER(REAR) ,,,591 28.1 BASIC REAR USAGE 591 28.2. INTEGRATING REAR WITH BACKUP SOFTWARE 597 APPEND|XA.RPM,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,602 A 1. RPM DESIGN GOALS 602 A2 USING RPM 603 A. 3. FINDING AND VERIFYING RPM PACKAGES 609 A. 4. COMMON EXAMPLES OF RPM USAGE 611 A. 5. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 611 APPENDIX B CHOOSING SUITABLE RED HAT PRODUCT 春,垂省垂B看。垂垂自D自看些非垂 613 APPENDIX C. RED HAT CUSTOMER PORTAL LABS RELEVANT TO SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION 614 ISCSI HELPER 614 NTP CONFIGURATION 614 SAMBA CONFIGURATION HELPER 614 VNC CONFIGURATOR 614 BRIDGE CONFIGURATION NETWORK BONDING HELPER 614 LVM RAID CALCULATOR 614 5

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