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Database Modeling and Design focuses on techniques for database design in relational database systems. The book discusses the entity-relationship approach and the unified modeling language approach; both are used throughout the book when it refers to logical database design for the specification of data requirements and conceptual modeling. The book starts with a description of the life cycle of databases, and it goes on to discuss the entity-relationship model and unified modeling languages. It demonstrates how data modeling concepts are used in the process of database design. The book covers database normalization, including information about equivalence on the function of the entity-relationship and unified modeling language conceptual models, and the relational model of the Boyce Codd normal form. The book explores the difference between object-oriented database systems and relational database systems. It includes a description on handling the impedance mismatch problem by the extensions made to relational systems. Web technologies, including an overview and specific database design issues on XML, are also covered in this book. Lastly, IBMs Rational Data Architect, Computer Associates AllFusion ERwin Data Modeler, and Sysbases PowerDesigner are discussed, and their uses for handling complex data modeling problems are demonstrated. This book will serve as a guide for both novice and experienced professional database practitioners. In-depth detail and plenty of real-world, practical examples throughout Loaded with design rules and illustrative case studies that are applicable to any SQL, UML, or XML-based system Immediately useful to anyone tasked with the creation of data models for the integration of large-scale enterprise data. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. The Entity-Relationship Model Chapter 3. The Unified Modeling Language Chapter 4. Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Data Modeling Chapter 5. Transforming the Conceptual Data Model
The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems(Selected Titles) Joe Celko' s data, Measurements and Location-Based services Web Farming for the Data Warehouse Standards in SQL Jochen Schiller and agnes voisard Richard d. hackathorn Joe Celko Managing Time in Relational Databases: Management of Heterogeneous and Information Modeling and relational How to Design, Update and Query Autonomous Database Systems Databases edition Temporal data Edited by Ahmed Elmagarmid, Marek Terry Halpin, Tony Morgan Tom Johnston and randall weis Rusinkiewicz. amit sheth Joe Celko's Thinking in Sets Database Modeling with Microsoft visio Object-Relational DBMSs: 2/ Edition Joe celko for Enterprise Architects Michael stonebraker and paul brown Business metadata Terry Halpin, Ken Evans, Patrick Hallock, with Dorothy Moore Bill Inmon, Bonnie O'Neil, Lowell Fryman Bill Maclean Universal database Management: A Guide Unleashing Web 2.0 Designing data-Intensive Web Applications to Object/Relational Technology Gottfried Vossen, Stephan Hagemann Stephano ceri, Piero Fraternali, Aldo Cynthia Maro Saracco Enterprise Knowledge management Bongio, Marco Brambilla, Sara Comai, Readings in Database Systems, 3 Edition David loshin Maristella matera Edited by Michael Stonebraker, Joseph M Business Process Change, 2 Edition Mining the Web: Discovering knowledge Hellerstein Paul harmon from Hypertext Data Understanding SQLs Stored Procedures: A Soumen chakrabarti IT Manager's Handbook, 2/ edition Complete guide to SQL/PSM Bill holtsnider Brian Jaffe Advanced sQL: 1999--Understanding Jim Melton Object-Relational and Other Advanced Joe Celko's Puzzles and Answers, 2 Edition features Principles of multimedia database Systems Joe Celko Jim melton V S Subrahmanian Architecture and Patterns for IT Service Management, Resource Planning, and Database Tuning: Principles, Experiments, Principles of Database Query Processing and Troubleshooting Technique Governance for Advanced Applications Dennis Shasha, Philippe Bonnet Charles betz g SQL: 1999--Understanding relational Joe Celko's Analytics and OLAP in SQL Advanced Database Systems Language components Joe Celko Carlo Zaniolo, Stefano Ceri, Christos Jim Melton, Alan R. Simon Faloutsos, Richard T Snodgrass, VS Data Preparation for Data Mining Using SAs Information Visualization in Data Mining Subrahmanian, Roberto Zicari Mamdouh refaat and knowledge discovery Principles of Transaction Processing, Querying XML: XQuery, XPath, and SQL/ Edited by Usama Fayyad, Georges G XML in Context Grinstein, Andreas Wierse Philip a Bernstein, Eric Newcomer Jim Melton and Stephen buxton Transactional Information Systems Using the New DB2: IBMs Object-Relational Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques, Gerhard Weikum and gottfried vossen Database System Spatial databases Don chamberlin Jiawei Han and micheline Kamber Philippe Rigaux, Michel Scholl, and Distributed algorithms Database Modeling and Design: Logical gnes voisard Nancy A Lynch Design, 5 Edition Toby J, Teorey, Sam S Lightstone, Managing Reference Data in Enterprise Active Database Systems: Triggers Databases Thomas P. Nadeau, and H. V. Jagadish and rules for advanced database Malcolm chisholm Processing Foundations of multidimensional and Metric data structures Understanding SQL and Java Together Edited by Jennifer Widom, Stefano Ceri Jim Melton and Andrew Eisenberg Hanan samet Migrating Legacy Systems: Gatewa Database: Principles, Programming, and Interfaces, the Incremental Approach Joe Celko's SQL for Smarties: Advanced Performance, 2 edition Michael l. brodie, michael stonebraker SQL Programming, 4 Edition Patrick and elizabeth o'neil Joe Celko Atomic transactions The Object Data Standard Nancy lynch, Michael Merritt, William Moving Objects Databases Edited by R GG. Cattell, Douglas Barry Weihl, Alan Fekete Ralf Hartmut Guting and Markus Schneider Data on the web From relations to Query Processing for Advanced database Joe Celko s SQL Programming Style Semistructured data and Xml Systems Joe Celko Serge Abiteboul, Peter Buneman, Dan Suciu Edited by Johann Christoph Freytag, Data Mining, Second Edition: Concepts Data Mining, Third edition practical David maier. Gottfried Vossen nd techniques Machine Learning Tools and Techniques Transaction Processing Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei with Java implementations Jim Gray, Andreas Reuter Ian Witten, Eibe Frank, and Mark A Hall Database Transaction Models for for Data Mining and Exploration Joe Celko's Data and Databases: Concepts Advanced Applications Earl c in practice Edited by Ahmed K. Elmagarmid Data Modeling Essentials, 3 Edition Joe Celko A Guide to Developing Client/Server SQL Graeme C. Simsion and graham C. witt Developing Time-Oriented Database applications Developing High quality Data Models Applications in SQL Setrag Khoshafian, Arvola Chan, Anna Matthew West Richard T. Snodgrass Wong, Harry K. T. Wong DATABASE MODELING AND DESIGN Logical Design Fifth edition TOBY TEOREY SAM LIGHTSTONE TOM NADEAU HV JAGADISH AMSTERDAM· BOSTON·HE| DELBERG· LONDON NEW YORK· OXFORD·PAR|s· SAN DIEGO M< SAN FRANC|sco· SINGAPORE· SYDNEY· TOKYO ELSEVIER Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is an imprint of Elsevier Acquiring editor: Rick Adams Development Editor: David Bevans Project Manager: Sarah Binns Designer: Joanne Blank Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is an imprint of elsevier 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA This book is printed on acid-free paper. o 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein) Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. To the fullest extent of the law neither the publisher nor the authors contributors or editors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Database modeling and design: logical design/ Toby Teorey ..[et al. ].-5th ed p Cm Rev. ed of: Database modeling design /Tobey Teorey, Sam Lightstone, Tom Nadeau. 4th ed 2005 ISBN978-0-12-382020-4 1. Relational databases. 2. Database design. I. Teorey, Toby J Database modeling design QA76.9D26T452011 005.75′6-dc22 2010049921 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data a catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. For information on all Morgan Kaufmann publication Printed in the united states of america 111213141554321 Working together to grow libraries in developing countries elsevier booked Sabre foundation To Julie, for her wonderful support Toby Terrey To my wife and children, Elisheva, Hodaya, and avishai Sam lightstone To Carol, Paula, Mike, and Lagi Tom nadeau To Aradhna, Siddhant, and Kamya -H JAgadish PREFACE Database design technology has undergone significant evolution in recent years, although business applications continue to be dominated by the relational data model and relational database systems. The relational model has Flowed the database designer to separately focus on logi- cal design(defining the data relationships and tables)and physical design(efficiently storing data onto and retrieving data from physical storage). Other new technologies such as data warehousing, OLAP, and data mining, as well as object-oriented, spatial, and Web-based data access, have also had an important impact on database design In this fifth edition we continue to concentrate on tech- niques for database design in relational database systems However, because of the vast and explosive changes in new physical database design techniques in recent years,we have reorganized the topics into two separate books: data base modeling and Design: Logical Design(5 Edition) and Physical Database Design: The Database Professional's guide (st Edition) Logical database design is largely the domain of applica tion designers, who design the logical structure of the data base to suit application requirements for data manipulation and structured queries. The definition of database tables for a particular vendor is considered to be within the domain of logical design in this book, although many database practitioners refer to this step as physical design Physical database design, in the context of these two books, is performed by the implementers of the database servers, usually database administrators DBas) who must decide how to structure the database for a particular machine(server), and optimize that structure for system performance and system administration. In smaller com panies these communities may in fact be the same people, but for large enterprises they are very distinct We start the discussion of logical database design with the entity-relationship(Er)approach for data requirements specification and conceptual modeling. We then take a X PREFACE detailed look at another dominating data modeling approach the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Both approaches are used throughout the text for all the data modeling examples, so the user can select either one(or both) to help follow the logical design methodology. The discussion of basic principles is supplemented with common examples that are based on real-life experiences Organization The database life cycle is described in Chapter 1. In Chap ter 2, we present the most fundamental concepts of data modeling and provide a simple set of notational constructs (the Chen notation for the er model to represent them. The er model has traditionally been a very popular method of conceptualizing users' data requirements. Chapter 3 introduces the UMl notation for data modeling. UML(actu- ally UML-2)has become a standard method of modeling large-scale systems for object-oriented languages such as C++ and Java, and the data modeling component of UML is rapidly becoming as popular as the er model. We feel it is important for the reader to understand both notations and how much they have in common Chapters 4 and 5 show how to use data modeling con cepts in the database design process. Chapter 4 is devoted to direct application of conceptual data modeling in logical database design. Chapter 5 explains the transformation of the conceptual model to the relational model, and to Structured Query Language(SQL) syntax specifically. Chapter 6 is devoted to the fundamentals of database normalization through third normal form and its variation, Boyce-Codd normal form, showing the functional equiva lence between the conceptual model (both ER and uml and the relational model for third normal form The case study in Chapter 7 summarizes the techniques presented in Chapters l through 6 with a new problem environment Chapter 8 illustrates the basic features of object-oriented database systems and how they differ from relational data base systems. An " impedance mismatch"problem often arises due to data being moved between tables in a PREFACE XI relational database and objects in an application program Extensions made to relational systems to handle this prob lem are described Chapter 9 looks at Web technologies and how they impact databases and database design. XMl is perhaps the best known Web technology. An overview of XMl is given, and we explore database design issues that are spe cific to Xml Chapter 10 describes the major logical database design Issues in business intelligence- data warehousing, online analytical processing (OLAP) for decision support systems, and data mining Chapter 1l discusses three of the currently most popu lar software tools for logical design: IBMs Rational Data Architect, Computer Associates AllFusion ERwin Data Modeler, and Sybase's Power Designer. Examples are given to demonstrate how each of these tools can be used to handle complex data modeling problems The appendix contains a review of the basic data definition and data manipulation components of the relational database query language SQL (SQL-99) for those readers who lack familiarity with database query languages. a simple example database is used to illustrate the sql query capability The database practitioner can use this book as a guide to database modeling and its application to database design for business and office environments and for well structured scientific and engineering databases. Whether you are a novice database user or an experienced profes sional, this book offers new insights into database modeling and the ease of transition from the er model or uml model to the relational model, including the building of standard sql data definitions. Thus, no matter whether you are using IBMs DB2, Oracle, Microsofts SQL Server, Access, or MySQL for example, the design rules set forth here will be applicable. The case studies used for the examples throughout the book are from real-life databases that were designed using the principles formulated here This book can also be used by the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate student to supplement a course textbook in introductory database management, or for a stand-alone course in data modeling or database design XII PREFACE Typographical Conventions For easy reference, entity and class names(Employee, Department, and so on) are capitalized from Chapter 2 for- ward. Throughout the book, relational table names (pro duct, product_ count) are set in boldface for readability Acknowledgments We wish to acknowledge colleagues that contributed to the technical continuity of this book: James Bean, Mike blaha Deb Bolton, Joe Celko, Jarir Chaar, Nauman Chaudhry, david Chesney, David Childs, Pat Corey, John DeSue, Yang Dongqing, Ron Fagin, Carol Fan, Jim Fry, Jim Gray, Bill grosky, Wei guangping, Wendy Hall, Paul Helman, Nayantara Kalro, John Koenig, Ji-Bih Lee, Marilyn Mantei Tremaine, Bongki Moon, Robert Muller, Wee-Teck Ng, Dan O'Leary, Kunle Olukotun, Dorian Pyle, Dave roberts, behrooz seyed- Abbassi, Dan Skrbina, Rick Snodgrass, Il-Yeol Song, Dick Spencer, Amjad Umar, and Susanne Yul. We also wish to thank the Department of Electrical Engineering and Com puter Science(EECS), especially Jeanne Patterson, at the Uni versity of Michigan for providing resources for writing and revising. Finally, thanks for the generosity of our wives and children that has permitted us the time to work on this text Solutions manual a solutions manual to all exercises is available. contact the publisher for further information

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