Computer Fundamentals

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Computer Fundamentals
Recommended reading This course doesnt follow any particular book exactly, but any of the following are useful Computer Organization Design(4th Ed) Patterson and Hennessy, Morgan Kaufmann 2008 also used in CST Part 1B Computer Design Digital Design and Computer Architecture, Harris and Harris, Morgan Kaufmann 2007 also used in CSt Part 1A Digital Electronics Structured Computer Organization( 5th Ed) Tannenbaum Prentice-Hall 2005 good general overview book somewhat broader in scope, and somewhat simpler to digest than above Course outline Well cover the following topics a Brief History of Computing Operation of a Simple Computer Input /Output MIPS Assembly Language This course is new this year, but derives from Part I of pre-2010 CST 1A "Operating Systems This will help in finding e.g. past exam questions Feel free to ask questions during the lecture or atter it, or via email -see course web page A Chronology of early Computing (several BC) abacus used for counting 1614: logarithms discovered John Napier 1622: invention of the slide rule(robert bissaker) 1642: First mechanical digital calculator(Pascal) Charles babbage(U. cambridge) invents 1812: Difference engine 1833: Analytical Engine 1890: First electro-mechanical punched card data processing machine(hollerith 1905: Vacuum tube/triode invented (De Forest The War Years 1935: the relay-based /BM 601 reaches 1 MPS 1939: ABC-first electronic digital computer(Atanasoff Berry 1941: Z3- first programmable computer(Zuse) Jan 1943: the harvard Mark /(aiken Dec 1943: Colossus built at Station X-bletchley Park 1945: ENIAC (Eckert Mauchley, U Penn 30 tons, 1000 square feet, 140 kW 18K vacuum tubes, 20x10-digit accumulators, 100KHZ. circa 300 MPS Used to calculate artillery firing tables (1946 blinking lights for the media But "programming is via plug-board: tedious and slow The von neumann architecture Memory nput Arithmetic Control Logical Unit Unit Output Accumulator 1945: von Neumann drafts EdVac report design for a stored-program machine Eckert Mauchley mista kenly unattributed Further Progress 1947: point contact"transistor invented (Shockley Bardeen Brattain 1949: EDSAC, the worlds first stored-program computer(Wilkes & Wheeler 3K vacuum tubes, 300 square feet, 12 kW 500KHZ. circa 650 IPS. 225 MPS 1024 17-bit words of memory in mercury ultrasonic delay lines -early dram 31 word" operating system"() 1954: tRADIC, first electronic computer without vacuum tubes(Bell Labs) The silicon Age 1954: first silicon (junction) transistor(Tl) 1959: first integrated circuit (Kilby noyce, TO) 1964: IBM System/360, based on ICs 1971: Intel 4004, first micro-processor(Ted Hoff) 2300 transistors 60 KIPS 1978: Intel 8086/8088(used in IBM PC) 1980: first VLSI chip(> 100, 000 transistors) Today: 800M transistors 45nm, 3 GHz Languages and levels Level 5 ML/Java Bytecode Leve/4 C/C++ Source Interpret compile Leve/ 3 ASM Source assemble other object Leve/ 2 Object File Files("Libraries") link Executable File execute Leve/ 1 (Machine Code") Computers programmable with variety of different languages e. g. ML, java, C/C++, python perl, fortran, Pasca Can describe the operation of a computer at a num ber of different levels; however all levels are functionally equivalent Levels relate via either(a translation or(b interpretation 10

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