机器人力控(英文版),布鲁诺.西西里安诺

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机器人力学控制,非常专业,非常明朗。布鲁诺.西西里安诺编写。
ROBOT FORCE CONTROL BRUNO SICILIANO AND LUIGI VILLANI PRISMA Lab Dipartmento di informatica e sistemistica Universita degli studi di napoli Federico Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Siciliano, Bruno. 1959 Robot force control / Bruno Siciliano and Luigi villani pcm.--(The Kluwer international series in engineering and computer science; SECS 540) Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN978-1-4613-6995-0 ISBN978-1-4615-4431-9 eBook) DOI10.1007/978-1-4615-4431-9 1. Robots--Control systems. I. Villani, Luigi, 1996-lITitle III Series T211.35S531999 629892-dc21 99-049469 Copyright C 1999 by Springer Science+Business Media New York Originally published by Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York in 1999 Softcover reprint of the hardcover Ist edition All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, photo- copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC Printed on acid-free paper To C.A. F 一BS To My Parents LV Contents Preface Acknowledgments 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Motion control vs. interaction control 2. Indirect vs direct force control 2 3. Experimental apparatus 2. MOTION CONTROL Modeling 1.1 Kinematics 8 1.2 Dynamics 10 2. Tracking control 12 2. 1 Dynamic model-based compensation 12 2.2 Euler angles error 14 2.3 Angle/axis error 16 2.4 Quaternion error 19 2.5 Computational issues 21 2.6 Redundancy resolution 3. Regulation 26 3. 1 Static model-based compensation 3.2 Orientation errors 27 4. Further reading 28 3. INDIRECT FORCE CONTROL 31 1. Compliance control 31 1. 1 Active compliance 32 1.2 Experiments 34 2. Impedance control 36 Active impedance 36 2.2 Inner motion control 38 2.3 Three-DOF impedance control 2.4 Experiments 40 vi11 ROBOT FORCE CONTROL 3. Six-DOF impedance control 43 3. 1 Euler angles displacement 44 3.2 Angle/axis displacement 46 3.3 Quaternion displacement 50 3.4 Experiments 51 3.5 Nondiagonal Six-DOF Stiffness 61 4. Further reading 63 4. DIRECT FORCE CONTROL 65 1. Force regulation 65 1. 1 Static model-based compensation 66 1.2 Dynamic model-based compensation 1.3 Experiments 68 2. Force and motion control 69 2. 1 Force and position regulation 70 2.2 Force and position control 72 2. 3 Moment and orientation control 75 2.4 Experiments 78 3. Force tracking 82 3. 1 Contact stiffness adaptation 82 3.2 Experiments 84 4. Further reading 86 ADVANCED FORCE AND POSITION CONTROL 89 1. Task space dynamics 89 2. Adaptive control 91 2.1 Regulation 91 2.2 Passivity-based control 97 2.3 Experiments 100 3. Output feedback control 103 3.1 Regulation 104 3.2 Passivity-based control 106 3.3 Experiments 110 4. Further reading 111 Appendices 113 A- Rigid Body Orientation 113 1. Rotation matrix 113 2. Euler angles 114 3. Anglelaxis 117 4. Quaternion 118 B- Models of Robot manipulators 121 1. Kinematic models 121 1.1 Six-joint manipulator 122 1.2 Seven-joint manipulator 127 Contents IX 2. Dynamic models 128 2. 1 Six-joint manipulator 2.2 Seven-joint manipulator 131 References 135 Index 145 Preface Research on robot force control has flourished in the past two decades. Such a wide interest is motivated by the general desire of providing robotic systems with enhanced sensory capabilities. Robots using force, touch, distance, visual feedback are expected to autonomously operate in unstructured environments other than the typical industrial shop floor It should be no surprise that managing the interaction of a robot with the environment by adopting a purely motion control strategy turns out to be inadequate. The unavoidable modeling errors and uncertainties may cause a rise of the contact forces ultimately leading to an unstable behavior during the interaction. On the other hand, since the early work on telemanipulation, the use of force feedback was conceived to assist the human operator in the remote handling of objects with a slave manipulator. More recently, cooperative robot systems have been developed where two or more manipulators(viz. the fingers of a dexterous robot hand)are to be controlled so as to limit the exchanged forces and avoid squeezing of a commonly held object. The subject of robot force control is not treated in depth in robotics textbooks, in spite of its crucial importance for practical manipulation tasks. In the few books addressing this topic, the material is often limited to single-degree-of- freedom tasks. On the other hand. several results are available in the robotics literature but no dedicated monograph exists. The book is thus aimed at filling this gap by providing a theoretical and experimental treatment of robot force control The topics covered are largely inspired by the research work of the authors and their colleagues in the robotics group at the University of Naples during the last decade, including the Doctorate thesis on force control by the second author. nonetheless, the book is not a mere collection of the results that can be found in archival publications. The presentation of the various concepts is rather motivated by the aim to lie the methodology behind the robot force xil ROBOT FORCE CONTROL control schemes in a uniform and instrumental yet mathematically rigorous fashion The force control problem is tackled as the natural evolution of the mo tion control problem, where feedback of the contact force as provided by a force/torque sensor is used to manage the interaction of a robot manipulator with a scarcely structured environment. In this respect, those control strategies e.g. hybrid position/force control, devised for interaction with an accurately modeled environment are not treated The contents of the book are organized as follows. The interaction control problem is discussed in Chapter 1, where the motivation for the material to follow is sketched. Classical motion control schemes are presented in chapter 2 with special concern to six-degree-of-freedom tasks and kinematic redundancy. Compliance control and impedance control are introduced in Chapter 3 as the basic strategies for indirect force control. Direct force control strategies are devised in Chapter 4 which are obtained via the closure of an outer force control loop while motion control is recovered by adopting a parallel composition of the two control actions. Chapter 5 is devoted to illustrating advanced force and position control strategies which include passivity-based, adaptive and output feedback control. Remarkably, most control schemes are experimentally tested on a setup consisting of a six-joint or a seven- joint industrial robot with open control architecture and force/torque sensor. Two appendices provide background material on rigid body orientation and the models of the robot manipulators used in the experiments The book is addressed to scholars and researchers entering the field of robot force control. The material can be used as a reference for part of a graduate course on robot control in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Naples, September 1999 Bruno Siciliano and Luigi villani

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