天线理论 分析和设计 Antenna Theory Analysis and Design(完整版)

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The third edition of Antenna Theory is designed to meet the needs of electrical engineering and physics students at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate levels, and those of practicing engineers. The text presumes that the students have knowledge of basic undergraduate electromagnetic the
Copyright c 2005 by John Wilcy sons, Inc. All rights reserved Published by John wiley sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultancously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to he Copyright Clearance Center, Inc 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600,oronthcwcbatwww.copyright.comrcQucststothcPublisherforpermissionshouldbc addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley sons, InC, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (201)7486011,fax(201)748-6008 Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in merchantability or fitness for a particular purposc. No warranty may be crcated or extended by salcs representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commcrcial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential or ther damages For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the u.s. at 877-762-2974. outside the u.s. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002 Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print howcvcr, may not bc available in electronic format Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available. ISBN:0-471-66782X Printed in the United States of america 10987654321 Copyrighted materials Copynighte2005Johnwiley&sonsRetrievedfromwww.knovel.com To the memory of my parents, uncle and aunt ∑τn队n(x) V yovE(V,τ ou BElou kaτ ms HEias队OU Copyrighted materials Copynighte2005Johnwiley&sonsRetrievedfromwww.knovel.com 回回回回回回回回回回回回 Contents Preface 1 Antennas 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Types of Antennas 1.3 Radiation Mechanism 1. 4 Current Distribution on a thin Wire Antenna 1.5 Historical advancement 20 1.6 Multimedia 24 References 24 2 Fundamental Parameters of Antennas 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Radiation pattern 27 2.3 Radiation Power Density 38 2. 4 Radiation Intensity 40 25 Beamwidth 42 2.6 Directivity 2.7 Numerical Techniques 2.8 Antenna Efficiency 64 2.9 Gain 2.10 Beam Efficiency 69 2.11 Bandwidth 70 2.12 Polarization 70 2.13 Input Impedance 2.14 Antenna Radiation Efficiency 85 2.15 Antenna Vector Effective Length and equivalent areas 87 2.16 Maximum Directivity and Maximum Effective Area 2.17 Friis Transmission Equation and Radar range equation 94 2.18 Antenna Temperature 104 2.19 Multimedia 108 References 12 Problems 114 VIII CONTENTS 3 Radiation Integrals and Auxiliary Potential Functions 3.1 Introduction 333 3.2 The vector Potential a for an electric Current source j 35 3.3 The Vector potential f for a magnetic Current Source m 1371 3.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields for Electric () and Magnetic (M) Current sources 38 3.5 Solution of the Inhomogeneous Vector Potential Wave Equation 139 3. 6 Far-Field Radiation l42 3.7 Duality Theorem 3.8 Reciprocity and Reaction Theorems References 440 Problems 150 4 Linear wire antennas 151 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Infinitesimal Dipole 51 4.3 Small Dipole 162 4.4 Region Separation 65 4.5 Finite Length dipole 4.6 Half-Wavelength dipole 4.7 Linear Elements Near or on Infinite Perfect Conductors 184 4. 8 Ground effects 205 4.9 Computer Codes 14 4.10 Multimedia 217 References 18 21 Problems 19 5 Loop Antennas 231 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Small Circular Loop 232 5.3 Circular Loop of Constant Current 246 5.4 Circular Loop with Nonuniform Current 25 5.5 Ground and Earth Curvature Effects for Circular Loops 261 5.6 Polygonal Loop Antennas 263 5.7 Ferrite Loop 266 5.8 Mobile Communication Systems Applications 268 5.9 Multimedia 269 References 273 Problems 275 6 Arrays: Linear, Planar, and circular 283 6.1 Introduction 283 6.2 Two-Element Array 28 6.3 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing 6.4 N-Element Linear Array: Directivity 313 CONTENTS X 6.5 Design Procedure 318 6.6 N-Element Linear Array: Three-Dimensional Characteristics 320 6.7 Rectangular-to-Polar Graphical Solution 322 6.8 N-Element Linear Array: Uniform Spacing, Nonuniform Amplitude 24 6.9 Superdirectivity 345 6.10 Planar Array 349 6.11 Design considerations 362 6.12 Circular Array 365 6.13 Multimedia 369 References 370 Problems 371 7 Antenna Synthesis and Continuous Sources 385 7.1 Introduction 385 7.2 Continuous Sources 386 7.3 Schelkunoff Polynomial method 7. 4 Fourier Transform method 393 7.5 Woodward-Lawson Method 399 7.6 Taylor Line-Source (tschebyscheff-Error 406 7.7 Taylor Line-Source (One-Parameter 410 7. 8 Triangular, Cosine, and Cosine-Squared Amplitude Distributions 417 7 Line-Source phase distributions 418 7.10 Continuous Aperture Sources 419 7.11 Multimedia 423 References 423 Problems 424 8 Integral Equations, Moment Method, and Self and Mutual Impedances 3 43 8.1 Introduction 433 8.2 Integral Equation Method 434 8. 3 Finite diameter wires 442 8. 4 Moment method solution 450 8.5 Self-Impedance 458 8.6 Mutual Impedance Between Linear Elements 468 8.7 Mutual Coupling in Arrays 478 8. 8 Multimedia References 491 Problems g Broadband Dipoles and Matching Techniques 9. 1 Introduction 497 9.2 Biconical Antenna 9. 3 Triangular Sheet. Bow-Tie and Wire Simulation 506 9. 4 Cylindrical Dipole 50 X CONTENTS 9.5 Folded Dipole 9.6 Discone and Conical skirt Monopole 521 9.7 Matching Techniques 623 9. 8 Multimedia 54 References 42 Problems 543 10 Traveling Wave and Broadband Antennas 549 10.1 Introduction 549 10.2 Traveling Wave antennas 549 10.3 Broadband Antennas 566 10.4 Multimedia 60 References Problems 02 1 Frequency Independent Antennas, Antenna Miniaturization, and Fractal Antennas 1.1 Introduction 11.2 Theory 1.3 Equiangular spiral antennas 614 11.4 Log-Periodic Antennas 1.5 Fundamental Limits of electrically Small antennas 637 11.6 Fractal Antennas 1.7 Multimedia 648 References 648 Problems 65 12 Aperture Antennas 653 2.1 Introduction 12. 2 Field Equivalence Principle: Huygens' Principle 653 12.3 Radiation equations 12.4 Directivity 662 12.5 Rectangular apertures 663 12.6 Circular Apertures 683 12.7 Design Considerations 692 12.8 Babinet's principle 697 12.9 Fourier Transforms in Aperture Antenna Theory 70 12.10 Ground Plane edge effects: The Geometrical Theory of Diffraction 12.11 Multimedia References 726 Problems 28 13 Horn Antennas 739 13.1 Introduction 39 13.2 E-Plane Sectoral horn CONTENTS 13.3 H-Plane sectoral horn 755 13. 4 Pyramidal horn 769 13.5 Conical horn 783 13.6 Corrugated horn 785 13.7 Aperture-Matched Horns 792 13. 8 Multimode horns 794 13.9 Dielectric-Loaded horns 797 13.10 Phase Cente 79 13.11 Multimedia 802 References 802 Problems 805 14 Microstrip Antennas 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Rectangular patch 816 14. 3 Circular Patch 843 14.4 Quality Factor, Bandwidth, and Efficiency 852 14.5 Input Impedance 855 14.6 Coupling 856 14. Circular polarization 859 14.8 Arrays and Feed Networks 865 14.9 Multimedia 872 References 872 Problems 876 15 Reflector Antennas 83 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Plane reflector 883 15.3 Corner Reflector 884 15.4 Parabolic reflector 15.5 Spherical reflector 934 15.6 Multimedia 936 References 937 Problems 93 16 Smart Antennas 945 16.1 Introduction 945 16.2 Smart-Antenna Analogy 946 16.3 Cellular Radio Systems Evolution 947 16.4 Signal propagation 954 16.5 Smart Antennas Benefits 957 16.6 Smart Antennas' Drawbacks 958 16.7 Antenna 958 16. 8 Antenna beamforming 962 16.9 Mobile Ad hoc Networks ( manets 977 16.10 Smart-Antenna System Design, Simulation, and Results p82 CONTENTS 16.11 Beamforming, Diversity Combining, Rayleigh-Fading, and Trellis-Coded Modulation 90 16.12 Other geometries 16.13 Multimedia 994 References 95 Problems 999 17 Antenna measurements 7.1 Introduction 00 17.2 Antenna ranges 1003 17.3 Radiation patterns 1021 17.4 Gain measurements l028 17.5 Directivity Measurements 1034 17.6 Radiation Efficiency l036 17.7 Impedance measurements 1036 17.8 Current Measurements 1038 17.9 Polarization measurements l038 17.10 Scale model measurements 1044 References 045 sin(r Appendix I: f(r) 1049 Appendix II: N(x)= sin(Nx) N=1,3,5,10,20 1051 N sin(r) A ppendix iii: Cosine and Sine Integrals 1053 Appendix Iv: Fresnel Integrals 1057 Appendix V: Bessel functions 1063 Appendix VI: Identities 1075 Appendix vil: Vector Analysis Appendix vill: Method of Stationary Phase 1089 Appendix IX: Television, Radio, Telephone, and radar Frequency Spectrums 1095 Index 1099

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