Think Python-How to Think Like a Computer Scientist翻译版

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Allen Downey是FranklinW. Olin工学院一名计算机科学教授,他希望读者能使用该书愉快的工作,也希望它能帮助读者学习编程和思考, 至少有那么点像一个计算机科学家。
Think python How to Think like a Computer Scientist Version 2.0.5 December 2012 Allen downey Green Tea press Needham, Massachusetts Copyright o 2012 Allen Downey Green Tea press 9 Washburn ave Needham MA 02492 Permission is granted to copy, distribute, and or modify this document under the terms of the CreativeCommonsAttribution-noncommercial3.0UnportedLicensewhichisavailableathttp //creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ The original form of this book is IATrX source code. Compiling this IaTrX source has the effect of gen erating a device-independent representation of a textbook, which can be converted to other formats and printed TheIaTrxsourceforthisbookisavailablefromhttp://www.thinkpython.com Pl reface 刖音 The strange history of this book本书与众不同的历史 In January 1999 I was preparing to teach an introductory programming class in Java. I had taught it three times and I was getting frustrated. The failure rate in the class was too high and, cven for students who succeeded, the overall level of achievement was too low 1999年1月,我止准备使用Java教一门编程入门课程。我之前已经教了三次,并且感到很沮 丧。课程的不及格率太高,即仗对于及格的学生,整体的收获也太低。 One of the problems I saw was the books. They were too big with too much unnecessary detail about Java, and not enough high-level guidance about how to program. And they all suffered from the trap door effect: they would start out easy, proceed gradually, and ther somewhere around Chapter 5 the bottom would fall out. The students would get too much new material, too fast, and I would spend the rest of the semester picking up the pieces 我看到的问题之一是教材。它们都太大了,有太多不必要的关于Java的细节,并且缺乏关 于如何编程的上层的指导。同时,它们也缺乏陷阱门效应 trap door effect,即从简单 之处开始,并逐渐深入。因圠,大概到第五章左右,后面的学生开始掉队了。学生们获得 太多的材料,进展太快,并且我在剩下的学期选择一些片段。 Two weeks before the first day of classes, I decided to write my own book. My goals were 在开始上课前两周,我决定写一本自己的书。我的目标是: Keep it short. It is better for students to read 10 pages than not read 50 pages 尽量简短。对于学生,读10页比读50页好。 Be careful with vocabulary. I tried to minimize the jargon and define each term at first use 关注术语表。我试图使用最少的术语并且在第一次使用的时候给出定义。 Build gradually. To avoid trap doors, I took the most difficult topics and split them into a series of small steps 循序渐进。为了避免陷阱门,我将最难的主题拆分成一系列小的步骤 Focus on programming, not the programming language. I included the minimum useful subset of Java and left out the rest 聚焦于编程,而不是编程浯言。我只包括了Java最小的有用的子集,并且忽略其余 的 Chapter0. Preface前言 needed a title, so on a whim i chose How to Think like a Computer Scientist 我需要一个标题,所以一时兴起,我选择∫《如何像计算机科学家一样思考》 My first version was rough, but it worked. Students did the reading and they understood enough that I could spend class time on the hard topics, the interesting topics and(most important) letting the students practice 第一版很粗糙,但是它有效。学生们读它,并卩他们足够理解它。然后我可以将上课时间 花在那些难的、有趣的主题上,并且让学生们实践(这点最重要)。 I released the book under the gnu free documentation license which allows users to copy, modify, and distribute the book 我将此书以GNU免费文档许可的形式发布,该许可允许用户拷贝、修改并且发布此书 What happened next is the cool part. Jeff elkner, a high school teacher in virginia, adopted my book and translated it into Python. He sent me a copy of his translation, and I had the unusual experience of learning Python by reading my own book. As Green Tea Press, I published the first Python version in 2001 接下来发生的非常棒。弗吉尼亚一所高中的教师, Jeff elke修改了我的书并且翻译成 了 Python。他将他的翻译发给了我一份,我有了一个与众不同的学习 Python的体验,即 通过读我自己的书。2001年,通过绿茶出版社( Green Tea press,我发表了本书的第 个 Python版木 In 2003 I started teaching at Olin College and i got to teach Python for the first time. The contrast with Java was striking. Students struggled less, learned more, worked on more interesting projects, and generally had a lot more fun 2003年,我开始在 Olin College教书,并且第一次教 Python。与教Java的对比很显著,学 生需要付出的努力更少,学到的更多,他们致力于更有趣的项目,并且通常更快乐 Over the last nine years I continued to develop the book, correcting errors, improving some of the examples and adding material, especially exercises 过去9年我一直在改进这本书,纠正一些错误,改进一些实例,增加一些材料,特别是练习 The result is this book, now with the less grandiose title Think Python. Some of the changes are 本书的结果是,现在有了一个更具体的名字巛 Think Python》。下面是一些变化 I added a section about debugging at the end of each chapter. These sections present general techniques for finding and avoiding bugs, and warnings about Python pit falls 每章最后,我都增加了一节关于调试( debugging)的内容。这些小节给出关于发现 和避免一些错误的通常的技术,以及关于 Python的陷阱。 I added more exercises, ranging from short tests of understanding to a few substantial projects. And I wrote solutions for most of them 增加了更多的练习题,涵盖了从为了理解的简短的测试到真正的项目。并且为其中大 部分写了答案。 I added a series of case studies--longer examples with exercises, solutions, and discussion. Some are based on Swampy, a suite of Python programs I wrote for use in my classes. Swampy, code examples, and some solutions are available from ttp://thinkpython.com 我增加了一系列范例分析( case studies),即具有联系、答案以及讨论的更长的样 代码样例、以及一些答案可以从t:/t1yth:c0获得.”。samp I expanded the discussion of program development plans and basic design patterns 我扩展了关于程序开发规划和基本设计模式的讨论 I added appendices about debugging, analysis of algorithms, and UML diagrams with Lumpy 我增加了关于调试、算法分析以及使用 Lumpy画UML图的附汞 I hope you enjoy working with this book, and that it helps you learn to program and think, at least a little bit, like a computer scientist. 我希望你能使用该书愉快的工作,并且它能帮助你学习编程和思考,至少或多或少像一个 计算机科学家 Allen b.Downey Needham ma Allen Downey is a Professor of Computer Science at the Franklin W. Olin College of Engi- neerin Allen Downey是 Franklin w.Ooin工学院一名计算机科学教授 Acknowledgments Many thanks to Jeff Elkner, who translated my Java book into Python, which got this project started and introduced me to what has turned out to be my favorite language Thanks also to Chris meyers who contributed several sections to How to Think like a com puter Scientist Thanks to the Free Software Foundation for developing the gnu Free documentation Li- cense, which helped make my collaboration with Jeff and Chris possible, and Creative Commons for the license I am using now Thanks to the editors at Lulu who worked on How to Think Like a Computer Scientist Thanks to all the students who worked with earlier versions of this book and all the cor tributors dlisted below)who sent in corrections and suggestions Contributor list More than 100 sharp-eyed and thoughtful readers have sent in suggestions and corrections over the past few years. Their contributions, and enthusiasm for this project, have been a huge help Chapter0. Preface前言 Ifyouhaveasuggestionorcorrectionpleasesendemailtofeedback@thinkpython.com If I make a change based on your feedback, I will add you to the contributor list(unless you ask to be omitted) If you include at least part of the sentence the error appears in, that makes it easy for me to search. Page and section numbers are fine, too, but not quite as easy to work with. Thanks! Lloyd Hugh Allen sent in a correction to Section 8.4 Yvon Boulianne sent in a correction of a semantic error in Chapter 5 Fred bremmer submitted a correction in Section 2.1 Jonah Cohen wrote the Perl scripts to convert the LaTeX source for this book into beautiful HTML Michael Conlon sent in a grammar correction in Chapter 2 and an improvement in style in Chapter 1, and he initiated discussion on the technical aspects of interpreters Benoit girard sent in a correction to a humorous mistake in section 5. 6 Courtney Gleason and Katherine Smith wrote horsebet. py, which was used as a case stud in an earlier version of the book Their program can now be found on the website Lee harr submitted more corrections than we have room to list here, and indeed he should be listed as one of the principal editors of the text James Kay lin is a student using the text. He has submitted numerous corrections David Kershaw fixed the broken cattwice function in Section 3. 1 Eddie Lam has sent in numerous corrections to Chapters 1, 2, and 3. He also fixed the Makefile so that it creates an index the first time it is run and helped us set up a versioning scheme Man- Yong lee sent in a correction to the example code in Section 2. 4 David Mayo pointed out that the word"unconsciously "in Chapter 1 needed to be changed to subconsciously Chris mcaloon sent in several corrections to sections 3. 9 and 3.10 Matthew. moelter has been a long-time contributor who sent in numerous corrections and suggestions to the book. Simon Dicon Montford reported a missing function definition and several typos in Chapter 3 He also found errors in the increment function in Chapter 13 John Ouzts corrected the definition of return value"in Chapter 3 Kevin Parks sent in valuable comments and suggestions as to how to improve the distribution of the book David Pool sent in a typo in the glossary of Chapter 1, as well as kind words of encouragement Michael Schmitt sent in a correction to the chapter on files and exceptions Robin Shaw pointed out an error in Section 13.1, where the printTime function was used in an ng de Paul Sleigh found an error in Chapter 7 and a bug in Jonah Cohens Perl script that generates HTML from latex Craig T. Snydal is testing the text in a course at Drew University. He has contributed several aluable suggestions and corrections Ian Thomas and his students are using the text in a programming course they are the first ones to test the chapters in the latter half of the book, and they have made numerous corrections and suggestions Keith Verheyden sent in a correction in Chapter 3 Peter winstanley let us know about a longstanding error in our latin in Chapter 3 Chris Wrobel made corrections to the code in the chapter on file I/O and exceptions Moshe Zadka has made invaluable contributions to this project. In addition to writing the first draft of the chapter on Dictionaries, he provided continual guidance in the early stages of the book Christoph Zwerschke sent several corrections and pedagogic suggestions, and explained the difference between gleich and selbe James Mayer sent us a whole slew of spelling and typographical errors, including two in the contributor list Hayden McAfee caught a potentially confusing inconsistency between two examples Angel Arnal is part of an international team of translators working on the spanish version of the text. He has also found several errors in the English version. Tauhidul Hoque and Lex Berezhny created the illustrations in Chapter 1 and improved many the other illustrations e Dr. Michele Alzetta caught an error in Chapter 8 and sent some interesting pedagogic com- ments and suggestions about Fibonacci and Old maid Andy mitchell caught a typo in Chapter 1 and a broken example in Chapter 2 Kalin Harvey suggested a clarification in Chapter 7 and caught some typos Christopher P. Smith caught several typos and helped us update the book for Python 2.2 David Hutchins caught a typo in the Foreword Gregor Lingl is teaching Python at a high school in Vienna, Austria. He is working on a Ger man translation of the book and he caught a couple of bad errors in Chapter 5 Julie Peters caught a typo in the Preface Florin Oprina sent in an improvement in makeTime, a correction in printTime, and a nice typo D. J. Webre suggested a clarification in Chapter 3 Ken found a fistful of errors in Chapters 8, 9 and 11 Ivo Wever caught a typo in Chapter 5 and suggested a clarification in Chapter 3 Curtis Yanko suggested a clarification in Chapter 2 Ben Logan sent in a number of typos and problems with translating the book into HTML Jason Armstrong saw the missing word in Chapter 2 Louis Cordier noticed a spot in Chapter 16 where the code didnt match the text. Chapter0. Preface前言 Brian Cain suggested several clarifications in Chapters 2 and 3 Rob black sent in a passel of corrections, including some changes for Python 2.2 Jean-Philippe Rey at Ecole Centrale Paris sent a number of patches, including some updates for python 2.2 and other thoughtful improvements Jason Mader at George Washington University made a number of useful suggestions and cor- rections Jan gundtofte-Bruun reminded us that"a error" is an error Abel david and alexis dinn reminded us that the plural of matrix"is"matrices", not"ma trixes". This error was in the book for years, but two readers with the same initials reported it on the same day. Weird Charles Thayer encouraged us to get rid of the semi-colons we had put at the ends of some statements and to clean up our use of"argument"and" parameter Roger Sperberg pointed out a twisted piece of logic in Chapter 3 Sam bull pointed out a confusing paragraph in chapter 2 Andrew Cheung pointed out two instances of"use before def C. Corey Capel spotted the missing word in the Third Theorem of Debugging and a typo in Alessandra helped clear up some turtle confusion Wim Champagne found a brain-o in a dictionary exampl Douglas Wright pointed out a problem with floor division in ar Jared Spindor found some jetsam at the end of a sentence e Lin Peiheng sent a number of very helpful suggestions Ray Hagtvedt sent in two errors and a not-quite-error. Torsten Hubsch pointed out an inconsistency in Swampy Inga Petuhhov corrected an example in Chapter 14 Arne Babenhauserheide sent several helpful corrections. Mark e Casida is is good at spotting repeated words Scott Tyler filled in a that was missing. And then sent in a heap of corrections Gordon Shephard sent in several corrections all in separate emails Andrew Turner spotted Adam Hobart fixed a problem with floor division in arc Daryl Hammond and Sarah Zimmerman pointed out that I served up math. pi too early. And tted a ty typ George Sass found a bug in a Debugging section Brian Bingham suggested Exercise/l1.10

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