A Practical Introduction to Computer Vision with OpenCV

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A Practical Introduction to Computer Vision with OpenCV
A PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERⅤ ISION WITH OPENCV A PRACTICAL NTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER VISION WITH OPENCV Kenneth Dawson-Howe Trinity College Dublin, Ireland WILEY This edition first published 2014 o 20 14 John wiley sons ltd Registered office John wiley sons ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, Po19 8SQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permissiontoreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwww.wiley.com The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data applied for. ISBN:9781118848456 Set in 10/12pt Times by Aptara Inc, New Delhi, India 12014 I am grateful to many people for their help and support during the writing of this book. The biggest thanks must go to my wife Jane, my children William and Susie, and my parents, all of whose encouragement has been unstinting g I must express my thanks to my students for their interest and enthusiasm in this subject. It is always refreshing to hear students discussing how to solve vision problems in tutorials and great to hear their solutions to problems which are often different (and sometimes better) than my own I thank my colleagues (in particular Arthur Hughes, Jeremy Jones and Hilary McDonald) for their encouragement and support Contents Preface Introduction 1.1 A Difficult problem 1.2 The human Vision System 3 Practical Applications of Computer Vision 1. 4 The Future of Computer Vision 1.5 Material in This textbook 6 Going Further with Computer Vision Images 1123567999 2.1 Cameras 2.1.1 The simple pinhole camera Model 2.2 Images 10 2.2. Sampler 2g 2.2.2 Quantisation 2.3 Colour Images 13 2.3.1 Red-Green-Blue(RGB)images 14 2.3.2 Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (CMr)Images 7 2.3.3 YUvimages 17 2.3.4 Hue Luminance Saturation(HLS)Images 18 2.3.5 Other Colour spaces 0 2.3.6 Some Colour Applications 0 2. 4 Noise 22 2.4.1 Types of noise 23 2. 4.2 Noise models 25 2.4.3 Noise generation 26 2.4.4 Noise evaluation 26 2.5 Smoothing 7 2.5./ Image averaging 7 2.5.2 Local averaging and Gaussian Smoothing 28 2.5.3 Rotating Mask 2.5.4 Median filter VII Contents Histograms 35 ID Histograms 35 3.1.1 Histogram Smoothing 36 3.1.2 Colour Histograms 37 3.2 3D Histograms 3.3 Histogram/Image Equalisation 3.4 Histogram Comparison 3.5 Back-projection 43 3.6 k-means Clustering 44 BinaryⅤ ISIon 4.1 Thresholding 49 4.1.1 hresholding problems 50 4.2 Threshold detection methods 4.2.1 Bimodal histogram analysis 52 4.2.2 Optimal Thresholding 52 4.2.3 Otsu Thresholding 4.3 Variations on Thresholding 56 4.3.1 Adaptive th 56 4.3.2 Band Thresholding 4.3.3 Semi-thresholding 58 4.3.4 Multispectral Thresholding 58 4.4 Mathematical Morphology 4.4.1 60 4. 4.2 Erosion 62 4.4.3 Opening and Closing 63 4.4.4 Grey-scale and Colour Morphology 65 4.5 Connectivit 66 4.5.1 Connectedness. Paradoxes and solutions 66 4.5.2 Connected Components analysis 67 5 Geometric transformations 5.1 Problem Specification and Algorithm 5.2 Affine Transformations 73 5.2.1 Known Affine Transformations 74 5.2.2 Unknown Affine Transformations 75 5.3 Perspective Transformations 76 5.4 Specification of more Complex transformations 78 5.5 Interpolation 78 5.5./ Nearest Neighbour interpolation 5.5.2 Bilinear interpolation 79 5.5.3 Bi-Cubic Interpolation 80 5.6 Modelling and Removing Distortion from Cameras 80 5.6.1 Camera distortions 8 5.6.2 Camera Calibration and Removing distortion 82

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