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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Fourth edition PAULR, GRAY University of california, Berkeley PAUL J. HURST Unirersity of california, Da'i. STEPHEN H. LEWIS Universit of California, Dayas ROBERT G. MEYER Universit of Califonia, Berkeley JOHN WILEY SONS, INC. New York/Chichester /Weirheim/ Brisbane /Singapore /Turnto CQUISITIONS EDITOR William Zobrist EDITORIAL ASSISTAN'L SuSannah barr SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER. Katherine Hepburn PRODUCTIN SERVICLS MAN AGER leslie lurian PRODUCTION EDITOR Sundr且Ruse DESIGN DIRECTOR Madelyn Lesure FRODUCTTON MANAGEMENT SERVICES Publicdliou Services lnc Cover courtesy of Dr: Kenncth C. Dyer and Melgar photography This book was sel: 1012 Times Roman by Publication Scivices, lnc and printed and bound b Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was printed by Lehigh Press, Inc This book was prin ed on Ecid-frcc papere Copyright 2001 Jobu Wiley sor s, Itc. Atl rights reserved NO purl of tl Duced, stared in a in any lorm or hy any Reins. clec-onic, mechamical, photocopying, recordinig. scanning itted under stations 10/4r 1us ol the ig't6 Unted statcs Copyright Acl, without either the prior wtited permission of the Pubiishcr,cr chorization throngh payment uf thc al fee to the c t MA01923,(978)750-8400 (918)73024470 Requests o the Publisher for permission sh yld be addressee to the Pellnissions Derartmeut, Jahn Wiley sons, Jnc, 605 Thire Av w York Ny 10158-0012,{2|2)850-6011,(2185-600:E-nui:PermrEqclWiley.com To order books or for custormer service please call 1-810-CALL-WILEY (255-5945) hitto: f/w iley camcalegegray Library gf Congress Catoluging-in-Publiccstwun Daka Analysis arid slesign of analog integraed circuits/Paul R Gray. r[ et al. ] --4th ed p Inclodes bib chical references and index ISB0-471-32168-0(cloTh: alk. paper) 1. Linear integrated Circuits - Ce mputer-aidcd design, 2. Metal oxide ycmiro: ductoryumpjtcr-aidcd desig n 3. Bipola transisnrs-C1umplltcr-aidt'd dchig n L Gray, aulD.1942. TK7R74.A5882D 621.粥815dC U-438¨3 Printed in the United states of A 1098765432 D liz. barbara. robin, and u Preface In the 23 years since the publication of the first edition of this book, the field of analog integrated circuits has develeped and matured. 'The initial groundwork was laid in bipolar technology, followed by a rapid evolution of mos analog integrated circuits. Further more, BiCMOS technology (incorporating both bipolar and CMOS devices on one chip) has emerged as a serious contender to the original technologies, a key issue is that CMos technologies have become dominant in building digital circuits bccausc CMos digital circuits are smaller and dissipate less power than their bipolar counterparts. To reduet system cost and power dissipation, analog and digital circuits are now often integrated together, providing a strong cconomic incentive to usc CMOS-compatible analog circuits As a result, an impOrtant question in many applications is whether to use pure CMOs or a BiCMOS technology. Although somewhat more expensive to fabricate, BiCMOS allows the designer to use both bipolar and mos devices to their best advantage and also al- lows innayatiye combinations uf ihe churueterislies of buth devives. in addition bicMOs can reduce the design time by allowing direct use of many existing cells in realizing a given analog circuit function. On the other hand, the main advantage of pure CMOS is that it offers the lowest overall cost. Twenty years ago, CMOS technologies were only fast enough to support applications at audio frequencies. Ho wever, the continuing reduction of the minimum feature size in integrated-circuit (C) technologies has greatly increased che maximum operating frequencies, and CMOS technologies have become East enough for many new applications as a result. For example, the required bandwidth in video appli cations is about 4 MHz, requiring bipolar technologies as recently as 15 years ago. Now, however, CMOS can easily accommodate the required handwidth for video and is even being used for radio-frequency applications In this fourth edition, we have combined the consideration of mos and bipolar cil cults into a unified treatment that also includes mos bip(laT cotinecLiunl itRade possible by BiCMOS technology. We have written this edition so that instructors can easily se lect topies related to only CMOS circuits, only bipolar circuits, or a combination of both We believe that it has become increasingly important for the analog circuit designer to have a thorough appreciation of the similarities and differences between M10s and bipolar devices, and to be able to design with either one where this is appropriate Since the SPice computer analysis program is now readily available to virtually all electrical engineering students and professionals, we have included extensive use of SPICE in this edition, particularly as an integral part of many problens. We have used computer analysis as it is most commonly employed in the engineering design process both as a more accurate check on hand calculations and also as a tool to examine complex circuit behavior beyond the scope of hand analysis. In the problem sets, we have also in cluded a number of open-ended design problens to expose the reader lo real-world silua Licos where a whule range uf circuil solutions may be found to satisfy a given performance specification This book is intended to be useful both as a text for students and as a reference book for practicing engineers. For class use, each chapter includes many worked problems; the problem sets at the end of each chapter ilustrate the practical applications of the material in the text. All the authors have had extensive industrial experience in IC design as well VIII Preface as in the teaching of courses on this subject, and this experience is reflected in the choice of text matetial and in the problea sets Although this book is concemed largely with thc analysis and design of ICs, a consid- erable amount of material is also included on applications. In practice, these two subjects are closely linked, and a knowledge of both is essential for designers and users of ICs The lattcr compose thc: largcr group by far, and we bclicve that a working knowledge of IC design is a great advantage 10 an [C user. This is particularly apparent when the user mulst choose fmm among a numher of competing designs t satisfy a particular nccd. An understanding of the iC structure is then useful in eval uating the relative desirability of the different designs under extremes of cnvironment or in the presence of variations in supply oltage Ia addition, the iC user is in a much better position to interpret a manufacturers lila if fe or she has a working knwledge of the internal operation of the integrated circuit The contents of this Look sle largely frun courses On analog integrated circuits given at the University of Calitornia at the Berkeley and Davis campuses. The courses are un dergraduate electives and first-year graduate courses. The book is strictured so that it can be used as the basic text for a sequence of such courses. The more advanced mate rial is found at the end of each chapter or in an appendix so that a first course in analog intcgrated circuits can omit this material without Ioss of continui y. An outline of each chapter is given below Icgethcr with suggestions for material to be covered in such a first course.It is assumed that the course consists of three hours of lecture per week over a 15-week semester and that the students have a working knowledge of Laplace transforms and frequency-domain circuit analysis. Il is also asstlincd that the students havc had an introductory course in electronics so thal they ate familiar with the principles of transistor iperation and with the functioning of simple analog circuits. Unless otherwise stared each chapter requre s tee to four lecture hours to cover. Chapter I contains a summary of bipolar transistor and Mos transistor device physics We suggest spending OLLe week antt selected upis lron uhi chprer, the choice ul Lopivs depending on the background of the students. The material of Chapters l and 2 is quite important in Ic design because there is significant interaction between circuit and device design, as will bc seen in later chapters. A thorough understanding of the influence of device fabrication on device characteristics is essential Chaptcr z is concerned wih thc technology of ic fabrication and is largely descriptive One lecture on this material should suffice if the students are assigned to read the chapter. Chapter a deals with the characteristics of elementary transistor connections. The ma- terial on one-transistor amplifiers should be a review for students at the senior and gradu ate levels and can be assigned as reading. The section on two-transistor amplifiers can covered in ahout three hours, with greatest emphasis an differential pairs. The material on devicc inuismalch cllecls in differential amplifiers can be covered lo the cxtent that time mows In Chapter 4. the important topics of current mirrors and activc loads are considered These configurations are basic building blocks in moden analog IC design, and this ma terial should be covered in full. with the exception ef the material on band- gap references and the material in the appendices Chaptcr 5 is concerned with output stages and mcthods of delivering output power to a load. Integrated-circuit realizations of Class A, Class B, and Class AB output stages are described, as well as methods of output-stage proteclion. A selection of topics from this hapter should bc covered Chapier h deals with the dcsign of operational amplifiers(op amps ] llusttativc exam oles of de and ac analysis in both Mos and bipolar op amps are performed in detail, and the limitations of the basic op amps are described. The design of op amps with improved Preface台Ix charactcristics in both MOS and bipolar technologies is considered. 'This key chapter on amplifier design requires at least six hours. In Chapter 7, the frequency response of amplifiers is considered, The zero-value time constant technique is introduced for the calculations of the -3-dB frequency of complex circuits, The material of this chapter should be considered in full Chapter 8 describes the analysis of feedback circuits. Two different types of analysis are presented: two-port and returm-ratio analyses. Either approach should be covered in full with the section on voltage regulators assigned as reading Chapter 9 deals with the frequency response and stability of feedback circuits and should be covered up to the section on rooL locus. lime may not pennit a detailed discussion of root locus, hult. same introduction lu this lupi can be given In a 15-week semester, coverage of the above material leaves about two weeks for Chapters 10, 11, and 12. A selection of topics from these chapters can be chosen as follows Chapter 10 deals with nonlinear analog circuits, and portions of this chapter up to Section 10.3 could be covered in a first course. Chapter 1l is a comprehensive treatment of noise in integrated circuits, and material up to and including Section 11.4 is suitable. Chapter 12 describes fully differential operational amplifiers and common-mode feedback and may be best suited for a second course We are grateful to the following colleagues for their suggestions for andor eval- uation of this edition: R. Jacob Baker. Bemhard E. Boser. A. Paul Brokaw, John N Churchill, David W. Cline, Ozan E Erdogan, John W. Fattaruso, Weinan Gao, Edwin W. Greeneich, Alex Gros-Balthazard, Tunde GyuricS, Ward J. Helms, Timothy H Hu, Shafiq A Jamal John P. Keane. Haideh Khorramabadi, Pak-Kim Lau, Thomas W. Matthews, Krishnaswamy Nagaraj, Khalil Najafi, Borivoje Nikolic, Robert A. Pease, Lawrence T Pileggi, Edgar Sanchez-Sinencio, Bang-Sup Song, Richard R, Spencer, Eric J. Swanson, Andrew Y.J. Szeto Yannis P. Tsividis, Srikanth Vaidianathan, T.R. Viswanathan, Chomg Kuang Wang, and Dong Wang. We are also grateful to Kenneth C Dyer for allowing us to se on the cover of this book a die photograph of an integrated circuit he designed and to Zoe Marlowe for her assistance with word processing Finally, we would like to thank the people at Wiley and Publication Services for their efforts in producing this fourth edition The material in this book has been greatly influenced by our association with Donald o. Pederson and we acknowledge his contributions Berkeley and Davis, CA 200f PauR gra Paulf. Hurst Stephen h. lewis Robert G. heyer Contents CHAPTER 1.5.2 Coinparisa of Operating Regions Models for Integrated-Circuit Active at Bipolar and mos transistors Devices I 4: 1.1 Introduction 1 5.3 Decomposition of Gatc Source voltairE: 47 1.2 Dcplction Region of a pa Junction 1 1.5.4 Threshold temperature 1. 2. 1 Dcpletion-Region Capacitance 5 Dependence 47 1.2.2 Junction Breakdowr t 5.5 MOS Device voltage limitations 1, 3 Large-Signal Behavior of Bipolar 6 Small-Signal Models of the mos Transistors s Transistors 4 1.3. 1 Large-Signal Models in the 6. 1 Transconductance 50 Forward-Active region 9 1.6.2 InTrinsic Gate-Source and 1. 3. 2 Effects of Collector Voltage or Gialc-Drain Capacitance 51 Large-Signai Characteristics in the 1.6.3 Input Resis tance 52 ForwaTd-Active rerion 4 13, 3 Saturation and Inverse active Qutput Resistance 52 16 1.6.5 Basic Smaall-Signal Model ot 1.3. 4 Transistor Breakdown voltages MOS Transistor 52 1.6.6 Body Transconductance 53 4.3, 5 Dcpcndence of Transistor Currcnt 1. 6. Parasitic e:cments in the Gain B on Operating Condilions Sm阻]- Signal model54 1.6.8 MOS Transistor Frequency 1.4 Small-Signal Models of Bipolar Resnonse 55 Transistors 26 7 Short-Channel Effects in MOS 1. 4.1 Transconductance 27 1. 4.2 Base-Charging Capaciance 28 1.1 velocily Saturation from the 1.4.3 Input Resistance 29 Horizonal ficld 59 .7.2 Transconductance and Transition 1.4.4 Oulput resistanee 29 Frequency 63 1. 4.5 Basic Small-signal Moucl of the 1.7.3 Mobility Degradation from the Bipolar Transistor 30 Field 65 1.4.6 Collcctor -Base Resistance 30 1. 8 Weak Inversion in mos transistors 1, 4.7 Parasitic Elements 'n the Small-Signal Model 31 1.8.1 Drain Current in Weak inversion 1.4.8 Specification of Transistor Frequency Response 34 1. 8.2 Transconductance and Transition 1.5 Large Signal Behavior of Frequency in Weak Inversion 68 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductot 1.9 Substrate Curent Flow in MOS Field-Effect Transistars 35 Transistors Tl 1.5.1 Transter Chatacteristics of MOs A.1.1 Summary of' Active-Devic Devices 38 P 73 Contents CHAPTER 2 2.9.1 n-Channei transistors 31 Bipolar, Mos, and BiCMOS Integraled- Circuit Technology 78 2.9.2 p-Channel Transistors 141 2.1 Introduction 78 2.9.3 Depletion Devices 142 2.2 Basic Processes in Integrated-Circuit 2.9.4 Bipolar Transistors 142 Fabrication 79 2.10 Passive Components in MOS 2.2.1 Electrical resistivity of silicon Technology ]44 2.10.1 Resistors [44 2.2.2 Solid-State diffusion 80 2.10.2 Capacitors in MOs Technology 2.2 3 Clectrical Properties of Diffused l45 Layers 82 2.141.i [accoun in cMS Technology 2.2.4 Photolithography 84 148 2.2.5 Epitaxial Growth 85 2.11 BICMOS Technology 150 2.2.6 lon lmplantation &7 2. 12 Heterojunction bipolar Transistors 152 2.2.7 Local Oxidation S 2.2.8 Polysilicon Deposition 87 2.13 Interconnect Delay 153 2, 3 High-Voltage bipolar 2. 14 Economics of Integrated-Circuit Inte grated-Circuit Fabrication 88 Fabrication 154 2.4 Advanced Bipolar Integrated-Circuit 2.14.1 Yield Considerations in Integraled-Circuit Fabrication Fabrication 92 2.5 Active devices in Bipolar analog 2. 14,2 Cost Considerations in Integrated Circuits 95 Integrated-Circuit Fabrication 2.5.1 Integratcd-Circuin npn transistor 9 2.15 Packaging Considerations for 2.5.2 Integrated-Circuit pnp transistors Integrated circuits 159 107 2. 15. 1 Maximum Power Dissipation 159 2.6 Passive Components in Bipolar 2.15.2 Reliability Considerations in Integrated Circuits 115 Integrated Circuit Packaging 162 2.6.1 Diffused resistors 15 A 2.1 SPICE Model-Parameter files 163 2.6.2 Epitaxial and Epitaxial pinch Resistors】19 2.6.3 Integrated-Circuit Capacitors 120 CHAPTER3 Single-Transistor and Multiple-Transistor 2_6.4 Zener diodes 12E Amp fliers 170 2.6.5 Junction diodes 122 3. 1 Device Model selection for 2.7 Modifications to the basic bipolar Approximate Analysis of analog Process 123 Circuits 171 2.71 Dielectric isolation 123 3. 2 Two-Port Modeling of Amplifiers 172 2.7.2 Compatible Prccessing for High-Performance active Devices 3.3 Basic single-Transistor Amplifier 124 Stages 134 2.7.3 High-Performance Passive 3.3. t Common-Emitter Configuration Components 127 2. 8 MOS Integrated-Circuit fabrication 3.3.2 Common- Sourcc Configuration 179 127 3.3. 3 Carmmia-Base Configuration 183 2.9 Active Devices in Mos Integrated Circuits 131 3.3.4 Common-Gate Configuration 186

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