ASM官方文档

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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 2
Contents Preface… ∴XXV Audience XXV Documentation Accessibility XXV Related Documents XXVI Conventions XXVI What's New in Oracle Automatic Storage Management? ∴ⅩXVll Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g release 2(11.2.0.3)New Features... XXvii Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2(11.2.0.)New Features Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2(11. 2.0.1) New Features XXX Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g release 1(11.1) New Features.........XXXii 1 Introduction to Oracle Automatic Storage Management Overview of Oracle Automatic Storage Management Understanding Oracle ASM Concepts………… 1-2 About Oracle asm instances 12 About Oracle AsM Disk Groups 1-5 About Mirroring and Failure Groups About oracle asm disks 1-6 Allocation units 1-6 About Oracle asm files 1-7 Extents 1-7 Oracle ASM Stripir 1-8 File Templates 1-10 Understanding Oracle ASM Disk Group Administration 1-10 About Discovering Disks 1-10 About Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups 1-11 About Adding and Dropping Disks About Online Storage Reconfigurations and Dynamic Rebalancing 2 Considerations for Oracle ASM Storage Storage Resources for Disk Groups…… 2-1 Oracle ASM and Multipathing………… 2-3 Recommendations for Storage Preparation…… 番着番番看,垂 2-4 3 Administering Oracle ASM Instances Operating with Different Releases of Oracle ASM and Database Instances Simultaneously. 3-1 Configuring Initialization Parameters for Oracle ASM Instances 3-2 Initialization Parameter Files for an Oracle ASM Instance 3-3 Backing Up, Copying, and Moving an Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter File...3-4 Setting Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters 3-5 Automatic Memory Management for Oracle ASM 3-5 Oracle ASM Parameter Setting recommendations 3-6 ASM DISKGROUPS 3-7 ASM DISKSTRING 3-7 ASM POWER LIMIT ASM PREFERRED READ FAILURE GROUPS 3-9 DB CACHE SIZE 3-9 DIAGNOSTIC DEST 3-9 INSTANCE TYPE 3-10 LARGE POOL SIZE 3-10 PROCESSES 3-10 REMOTE LOGIN PASSWORDFILE 3-1 SHARED POOL SIZE 3-11 Setting Database Initialization Parameters for Use with Oracle ASM 3-11 Managing Oracle ASM Instances 3-12 Administering Oracle ASM Instances with Server Control Utility 3-12 Using Oracle Restart 3-13 Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance.……… 3-13 Connecting To and Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance………… 3-13 Starting Up an Oracle ASM instance with an Incorrect SPFILE Path 3-15 About Mounting Disk Groups at Startup 3-16 About Restricted mode 3-16 Shutting Down an Oracle ASM Instance…… 3-16 Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance in an Oracle Restart Configuration with Oracle Universal Installer 3-18 Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance from 11.1 to 11.2 in an Oracle Restart Configuration with Oracle Universal Installer 3-19 Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance from 11.2.0x to 11. 2.0.3 in an Oracle restart Configuration with Oracle Universal Installer 3-20 Downgrading an Oracle AsM Instance in an Oracle restart Configuration ...................3-21 Out of Place Upgrades…… Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure with the Configuration Wizar .3-24 3-24 Active Session History Sampling for Oracle ASM 3-24 Using Oracle ASM Rolling Upgrade 3-24 Patching Oracle ASM Instances in Oracle RAC Environments………… 3-25 Authentication for Accessing oracle asm instances 3-25 About Privileges for Oracle Asm 3-26 Using One Operating System Group for Oracle ASM Users 3-27 Using Separate Operating System Groups for Oracle ASM Users 3-27 The SYSASM Privilege for Administering Oracle ASM ,,+ 3-28 The SYSDBA Privilege for Managing Oracle ASM Components……… 3-29 Creating Users with the SYSASM Privilege………………… 3-29 Operating System Authentication for Oracle ASM 3-30 Password File authentication for Oracle Asm 330 Migrating a Database to Use Oracle ASM 3-31 Using Oracle Enterprise Manager to Migrate Databases to Oracle ASM 3-31 Using Oracle Recovery Manager to Migrate Databases to Oracle ASM……………3-31 Best Practices White Papers on Migrating to Oracle ASM 3-31 4 Administering Oracle ASM Disk Groups Disk Group Attributes ∴4-2 Creating Disk Groups Using the CREATE DISKGROUP SQL Statement…… 4-4 Example: Creating a Disk Group…… 4-6 Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation 47 Specifying the Allocation Unit Size 4-9 pecifying the Sector Size for Drives 4-9 Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Files in Oracle ASM Disk Groups 4-11 Altering Disk Groups 4-12 Managing Volumes in a Disk Group 4-13 Adding Disks to a Disk Group 4-14 Adding Disks to a Disk Group with SQL Statements 4-14 Dropping Disks from Disk GI roups 4-15 Intelligent Data Placement 4-16 Resizing Disks in Disk Groups 4-17 Undropping Disks in Disk Groups 4-18 Manually rebalancing Disk Groups 4-18 Tuning Rebalance Operations 4-19 Oracle ASM Disk Discovery 4-20 How A Disk is discovered 420 Disk Discovery rules 4-21 Improving Disk Discovery Time 4-22 Managing Capacity in Disk Groups………… 4-22 Negative Values of USABLE-_FILE_MB 4-24 Oracle ASM Mirroring and Disk Group Redundancy 4-24 Mirroring, Redundancy, and Failure Group Options 4-24 Oracle AsM Failure groups 4-26 How Oracle ASM Manages Disk Failures 4-26 Guidelines for Using Failure Groups 426 Failure group Frequently Asked Questions 4-27 Oracle ASM Recovery from Read and Write I/O Errors 4-27 Oracle AsM Fast Mirror resync 4-28 Preferred Read Failure Groups……… 4-30 Configuring and Administering Preferred Read Failure Groups .4-31 Performance and Scalability Considerations for Disk Groups 4-32 Determining the number of Disk groups 4-32 Performance Characteristics When Grouping Disks 4-32 Oracle ASM Storage Limits……… 4-32 Disk Group Compatibility……… 4-33 Overview of Disk Group Compatibility 4-34 Disk Group Compatibility Attributes…… 4-34 COMPATIBLE ASM 4-35 COMPATIBLE, RDBMS 4-35 COMPATIBLE. ADVM 435 Setting Disk Group Compatibility Attributes 4-35 Valid Combinations of Compatibility Attribute Settings 36 Using Create disKgroup with Compatibility Attributes 4-37 Using ALTER DISKGrOUP with Compatibility Attributes 4-37 Viewing Compatibility Attribute Settings…… 4-37 Features Enabled By Disk Group Compatibility Attribute Settings……… 4-38 Reverting Disk Group Compatibility 4-39 Considerations When Setting Disk Group Compatibility in Replicated Environments.4-40 Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for Disk Groups 4-40 About oracle asm file access control 4-41 Setting Disk Group Attributes for Oracle ASM File Access Control 4-42 Using Sol Statements to Manage Oracle ASM File Access Control 4-43 Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups…… 4-44 Mounting Disk groups Using the FORCE Option…… 4-45 Checking the Internal Consistency of Disk Group Metadata 4-46 Dropping Disk Groups……… 4-46 Renaming disks groups 4-47 5 Introduction to Oracle AcFs Overview of Oracle acFs ∴5-1 Understanding Oracle ACFS Concepts………… .5-4 About Oracle acfs 5-4 about oracle acfs and oracle database homes 5-5 About Oracle AsM dynamic volume manager 5-7 About the Oracle acFs Driver model 5-7 About the Oracle ACFS Mount Model and Namespace 5-7 About the Oracle ACFS Mount registry 5-8 About Oracle ACFS Snapshots…… 5-8 About Oracle aCFS and backup and restore 5-10 About Oracle AcFs Integration with Oracle AsM 5-10 About Oracle acFs and External Tables on windows 5-10 Understanding Oracle ACFS Administration…… 5-10 Oracle acFs and File Access and Administration Security Oracle ACFS and Grid Infrastructure Installation 5-1 OracleACFsandGridlnfrastructureconfiguration........5-1 Clusterware Resources and Oracle acfs administration 5-12 Oracle ACFS and Dismount or Shutdown Operations 5-13 Oracle ACFS Security……… 5-13 Oracle ACFS Encryption…… Oracle ACFS Replication 5-17 Oracle ACFS Tagging…… Overview of Oracle ASM Dynamic Volume Manager 5-20 6 Using Views to Display Information Views Containing Oracle ASM Disk Group Information 6-1 Viewing Oracle ASM File Access Control Information 6-4 Viewing Disk Region Information……… .6-5 Views Containing Oracle ACFS Information 6-6 7 Administering Oracle ASM Files, Directories, and Templates What Types of Files Does Oracle ASM Support? 7-1 About Oracle asm filenames 7-2 Single File creation Form 7-3 Multiple file creation Form 7-4 Fully Qualified File Name Form 7-4 Alias Oracle asm filename forms 7-5 Creating a Tablespace in Oracle ASM: Using a Data File with an Alias Name 7-6 Alias Oracle ASM Filename with Template Form 7-6 Incomplete Oracle AsM Filename Form Incomplete Oracle ASM Filename with Template Form 7-7 Creating and Referencing Oracle ASM Files in the Database 7-7 Creating Oracle ASM Files Using a Default File Location for Disk Group Specification ....7-7 Using Oracle ASM Filenames in SQL Statements 7-9 Managing Alias Names for Oracle ASM Filenames……… 7-9 Adding an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM Filename 7-10 Renaming an alias Name for an Oracle AsM filename .7-10 Dropping Files and Associated Aliases from a Disk Group Managing Disk Group Directories…………… ……… Dropping an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM Filename……………… .7-10 7-10 7-11 Creating a Directory… 7-11 Renaming a directory 7-12 Dropping a Directory 7-12 Accessing Oracle ASM Files with the XML DB Virtual Folder……… 7-12 Inside/sys/asm…… 713 Using DBMS_ FILE Transfer Utility for Oracle ASM 7-14 Managing Disk Group Templates........………. 7-15 Template Attributes 715 Adding Templates to a Disk Group 7-17 Modifying a Disk Group Template 7-17 Dropping Templates from a Disk Group……… 7-18 Creating Tablespaces in Oracle ASM: Specifying Attributes with Templates 7-18 8 Performing Oracle ASM Data Migration with RMAN Overview of Oracle ASM Data Migration 8-1 Purpose of oracle asm data migration 8-1 Basic Concepts of Oracle ASM Data Migration 8-2 Basics Steps of Data Migration to Oracle ASM Using RMAN 8-2 VIl Migrating the Database to Oracle ASM Using RMAr ng RMAN Preparing to Migrate the Database to Oracle ASM Usi 8-3 8-5 Migrating a Database from Oracle asm to Alternative Storage.................8-9 Moving Data Files Between Oracle ASM Disk Groups Using RMAN…………….8-9 9 Administering Oracle ASM with Oracle Enterprise Manager Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home page 9-1 Accessing the Oracle ASM Home Page in Single-Instance Oracle Databases ..........9-2 Accessing the Oracle ASM Home Page in Oracle RAC Databases Configuring Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters with Oracle Enterprise Manager..........9-3 Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise Manager 普·音垂垂音音音普 9-4 Managing Disk Groups with Oracle Enterprise Manager……………....9-5 Creating Disk Groups Adding Disks to Disk Groups 7 Bringing Disks Online and Offline…… 9-9 Dropping Disks from Disk Groups…………… Dropping Disk Groups 9-12 Monitoring Disk Group Usage 9-13 Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups……… 9-14 Administering Advanced Disk Group Properties 9-14 Configuring Disk Group Compatibility Attributes 9-15 Configuring Disk repair Time 9-16 Configuring smart Scan Compatibility 9-16 Configuring File Access Control 9-16 Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control with Oracle Enterprise Manager......9-16 Managing Directories, Files, and Aliases with Oracle Enterprise Manager........9-19 Managing Disk Group Templates with Oracle Enterprise Manager……… 9-20 Monitoring Oracle ASM Performance with Oracle Enterprise Manager 9-21 Monitoring General Oracle ASM Performance…… 9-21 Checking Disk Group Integrity 9-22 Backing Up Oracle ASM Files with Oracle Enterprise Manager 9-23 Performing Bad Block Recovery with Oracle Enterprise Manager 9-23 Migrating to Oracle ASM with Oracle Enterprise Manager 9-24 Oracle ASM Support Workbench…………….…… 9-25 Oracle by Example series 9-28 10 Administering Oracle ACFS with Oracle Enterprise Manager Managing Oracle ACFS with Oracle Enterprise Manager 10-1 Creating Oracle ACFS Volumes and File Systems……… 10 Viewing and Modifying Oracle ACFS Volumes and File Systems 10-3 Managing Oracle A CFS Snapshots with Oracle Enterprise Manager 10-5 11 Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant GUI Tool……… Starting Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant 11-1 Creating Oracle ASM Instances with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant 11-2 VIll Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant.....11-3 Managing Disk Groups with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant 1-6 Managing Oracle advm volumes with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Managing Oracle ACFS File Systems with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant 11-11 anaging Security and Encryption for Oracle ACFS File Systems with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant 11-13 Creating an Oracle ACFS File System for a Database Home………… 11-15 Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command- Line Interface………… 11-16 Running AsMCA Command-Line 11-16 ASMCA Commands 11-17 Configure an oracle asm instance………………… 11-18 Upgrade an Oracle ASM Instance 11-18 Configure parameters for an Oracle ASM Instance 11-19 Delete Oracle ASM Instances 11-20 Create a Disk Group 11-20 Add a Disk to a Disk Group 11-22 Create a volume 11-22 Create an Oracle AcFS File system 11-23 12 Oracle AsM Command-Line Utill About asmcmd 2-1 Types of ASMCMD Commands…… 12-1 about oracle asm files, filenames, Directories, and aliases 12-2 System-Generated Filename or Fully Qualified Filename 12-2 Directory… 122 Alias 12-3 Absolute path and relative path Wildcard characters… 12-5 Preparing to Run ASMCMD…… .12-6 Running ASMCMD in Interactive Mode 12-7 Running ASMCMD without Any Options 12-7 pecifying the Type of Connection .12-8 Specifying the Verbose Mode 2-8 Including the Current Directory in the ASMCMD Prompt 12-8 Displaying the ASMCMD Version Number 12-8 Running ASMCMD in Noninteractive Mode 128 Getting Help…… 12-10 ASMCMD Instance Management Commands 12-10 asset 12-11 asset 12-11 Isct 12-12 Isop 12-13 pwusr,.,,. 12-13 orapwusr 12-14 shutdown 12-15 sbackup 12-15 Scopy 12-16 pg 12-18 remove 12-18 spset 12-19 tartup .12-19 ASMCMD File Management Commands 12-20 12-21 122 dt 1222 find 12-23 12-24 省鲁鲁 12-26 mkalias 1227 mkdir 1227 PW 12-28 rm 12-28 marias 12-30 ASMCMD Disk Group Management Commands…… 12-30 chds g 12-31 chkds 1233 drops… 12-33 iostat 12-34 Isattr 12-36 g 12-37 12-38 0a,,,,,,, ,,出当,,B号,4,普,,千分8·垂,, 12-40 md backup 12-41 md restore 12-42 mount 12-45 offline 12-46 online 12-46 reba 12-47 remap… 12-48 setattr 12-49 umount 12-49 ASMCMD Template Management Commands 12-50 chtml .12-50 Simpl aaeae88846e 12-51 nktm 12-52 rmtmpl 12-52 ASMCMD File Access Control Commands 12-53 grp 12-53 chmod 12-54 chown 12-55 groups 12-56 grpmod 12-56 grp 12-57 X

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