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HVAC Systems and Equipment
The four-volume ASHRAE Handbook is a reference for engineers working in HvaC&R and for professionals in allied fields. The print edition is revised on a four-year cycle, with one volume published each year Tables of contents for the four most recent volumes appear on these pages, and a composite index is at the end of this volume. In addition to the CD-ROM accompanying this book, AsHRAE offers subscriptions to ASHRAE Hand book Online containing all four volumes in searchable format. The Society also produces educational materials, standards, design guides, databases dmanyotherusefulpublicationsSeetheAshraeBookstore(gotowww.ashrae.org)forinformationonthesepublications 2012 HVAC SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT AIR-CONDITIONING AND IIEATING SYSTEMS IIEATING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter 1. HVAC System Analysis and Selection Chapter 31 c Fuel-Burning Systems Decentralized cooling and heating boilers 3. Central Heating and Coolin 33 Furnaces 4. Air Handling and Distribution 34. Residential In-Space Heating Equipment 5. IIl-Roon Terninal SysteIns 35. Chimney, Vent, and Fireplace Systems g 7. Combined Heat and Power Systems Hydronic Heat-Distributing Units and Radiators 8. Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling 9. Applied Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Systems 37. Solar Energy Equipment Small Forced-Air Heating and cooling systems COOLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Steam Systems Chapter 38. Compressors 12. District Hcating and Cooling 13. Hydronic Heating and Cooling 39. Condensers 14. Condenser Watcr Syste 40. Cooling Towers Medium- and High-Temperature Water Heating 41. Evaporative Air-Cooling Equipment 16. Infrared Radiant heatin 42 Liquid coolers 17 Ultraviolet Lamp systems 3. Liquid-Chilling Systems 18. Variable-Refrigerant-Flow Systems GENERAL COMPONENTS AIR-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS 44. Centrifugal Pum Chapter 19. Duct Construction Motors, Motor Controls, and Variable-Speed Drives 20. Room Air Distribution equipment 46. Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings 47. Valves 22. Humidifiers lleat Exchangers 23. Air-Cooling and Dehumidifying Coil PACKAGED UNITARY AND SPLIT-SYSTEM 24. Desiccant Dehumidification and Pressure-Drying EQUIPMENT 25. Mechanical Dehumidifiers and related Components Chapter 49. Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 26. Air-to-Air Energy recovery equipment Room Air conditioners and packaged Terminal air 27. Air-Heating Coils Conditioners 28. Unit Ventilators, Unit Heaters, and Makeup Air Units 29 Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants GENERAL Industrial gas Cleaning and air pollution Chapter 51. Thermal Storage Control equipment 52. Codes and standards 2011 HVAC APPLICATIONS COMFORT APPLICATIONS ENERGY-RELATED APPLICATIONS Residences Chapter 34 Geothermal ene Retail facilities 35. Solar Energy Use 3. Commercial and Public buildings 4. Tall buildi BUILDING OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT 5. Places of Assembly otcs Chapter 36. Energy Use and Managenent 7. Educational facilities 37. Owning and Opcrating Costs 8. Ilealth-Care faciliti 38. Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing 9. Justice Facilities 39. Operation and Maintenance Management Automobiles 40. Computer Application Mass transit Building Energy Aircraft 42. Supervisory Control Strategies and Optimization HVAC Commissioni INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS GENERAL APPLICATIONS Chapter 14. Industrial Air Conditioning 15. Enclosed Vehicular facilities Chapter 44. Building Envelopes 45. Building Air Intake and exhaust Design 17. Engine Test Facilities Control of gaseous indoor air Contaminants 8. Clean Spaces 47. Design and Application of Controls 19. Data Processing and Telecommunication Facilities Noisc and vibration Control 20. Printing plants 49 Water Treatment Textile Processing plants ? Photographic Material Facilities Service Water heater 23. Muscums, Gallcrics, Archives, and Libraries 51. Snow Melting and freeze protection Environmental Control for Animals and plants Evaporative Cooling Drying and Storing Selected Farm Crops 53. Fire and Smoke Management 26. Air Conditioning of Wood and Paper Product 54. Radiant heating and Cooling abilities 55. Seismic- and wind-Resistant Design 27. Power plants Electrical Considerations 28. Nuclear facilities 57 Room air distribution 9. Mine Air Conditioning and Ventilation 30. Industrial Drying 58. Integrated Building design Ventilation of the Industrial er HVAC Security 2. Industrial l ocal exhaust 60. Ultraviolet Air and Surface treatment 33. Kilchen Ventilalion 61 es and standards CD-ROM with all content from 2012 HVAC Systems and Equipment inside back cover 2010 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES 26. Marine Refrigeration Chapter 1 alocarbon Refrigeration Systems 27. Air Transport Ammonia Refrigeration Systems FOOD BEVERAGE AND FLORAL APPLICATIONS 3. Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Systems Liquid Overfeed Systems Chapter 28. Methods of Precooling Fruits, Vegetables, and Cut 5. Component Balancing in Refrigeration Systems Flo 6. Refrigerant System Chemistry Industrial Food-Freezing Systems Control of moisture and other Contaminants in Meat products Refrigerant Systems 3 Poultry Products 8. Equipment and Systcm Dchydrating, Charging, and 32 Fishery products 33 Dairy products 9. Refrigerant Containment, Recovery, Recycling, and Eggs and Egg Products Reclamation Deciduous tree and vine fruit 36 Citrus Fruit, Bananas, and Subtropical Fruit COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT 37. Vegetables Chapter 10. Insulation Systems for Refrigerant Piping(TC 10.3) 38. Fruil Juice Concentrates and Chilled juice Products Refrigeranl-Conlrol device B 12. Lubricants in Refrigerant Systems Processed, Precooked, and prepared Foods 13. Secondary Coolants in Refrigeration Systems 41. Bakery Products 14. Forced-Circulation Air Coolers 42 Chocolates Candies. Nuts. Dried fruits and dried 5. Retail Food Store Refrigeration and equipme Vegetable 16. Food Service and General Commercial refi on Equipment INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Household refrigerators and freezers Chapter 4 Ice Manufacture 18. Absorption Equipment Ice rinks 4 Concrete Dams and Subsur face Soils FOOD COOLING AND STORAGE 46. Refrigeration in the Chemical Industr zapper 19 Thermal Properties of Foods 20. Cooling and Freezing Times of Foods LOW-TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS 21. Commodity Storagc Requirements Cryogenics 22. Food Microbiology and refrigeration 48. Ultralow-Temperature Refrigeration 23. Refrigerated- Facility design 49. Biomedical Applications of Cryogenic Refrigeration 24. Refrigerated-Facility Load GENERAL REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT Chapter 50. Terminology of Refrigeration Chapter 25. Cargo Containers, Rail Cars, Trailers, and Trucks 51. Codes and Standards 2009 FUNDAMENTALS PRINCIPLES 21 Duct Design Chapter I. Psychrometric Pipe si 2. Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycle Insulation for Mechanical Systems 3. Fluid flow 24. Airflow Around Buildings Heal Transfer Two-Phase Flow BUILDING ENVELOPE 6. Mass transfer Chapter 25. Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building 7. Fundamentals of Control Assemblies Fundamentals Sound and vibration 26 Heat. Air and moisture Control in building Assemblies-Material Properties INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY leat. Air and Moisture Control in building Chapter 9. Thermal Comfort Asscmblics-Examplcs 10. Indoor Environmental llealth 11 Air Contaminants MATERIALS 12. Odors Chapter 28. Combustion and fuels 3. Indoor Environmental Modeling Refrigerants 30. Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants LOAD AND ENERGY CALCULATIONS 3 Physical Properties of Secondary Coolants(Brines) Chapter 14. Climatic Design Information 32. Sorbents and desiccant Fenestration Physical Properties of Materials 16. Ventilation and infiltrate 17. Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations GENERAL 18. Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Chapter 34. Energy Resources 35 Sustainabili 19. Energy Estimating and Modeling methods Measurement and instruments .bbreviations and Symbo HVAC DESIGN 8. Units and conversions Chapter 20. Space Air Diflusion 39. Codes and Standards 2012 ASHRAE HANDBOOK Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Si Edition ASHRAE. 1791 Tullie Circle. N E. Atlanta GA 30329 www.ashrae.org C 2012 ASHRAE. All rights reserved DEDICATED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE PROFESSION AND ITS ALLIED INDUSTRIES No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means--electronic, photocopying, recording or other--without permission in writing from ASHRAE Volunteer members of AshRaE Technical Committees and others compi led the infor- mation in this handbook, and it is generally reviewed and updated every four years. Com ments, criticisms, and suggestions regarding the subject matter are invited. Any errors or omissions in the data should be brought to the attention of the editor. Additions and correc tions to Handbook volumes in print will be published in the handbook published the year following their verification and, as soon as verified on the ashrae internet Web site DISCLAIMER ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but AsHRAF has not investigated and AshRaE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by AShRaE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like ashrae does not warrant that the information in this publication is free of errors. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user ISBN978-1-936504-26-8 ISSN ISSN 1930-7705 The paper for this book was manufactured in an acid-and elemental-chlorine-free process with pulp obtained from sources using sustainable forestry practices. The printing used soy-based inks CONTENTS Contributors ASHRAE Technical Committees, Task Groups, and Technical Resource groups ASHRAE Research: Improving the Quality of life Preface AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SYSTEMS Chapter 1. HVAC System Analysis and Selection(tC 9.1, Large Building Air-Conditioning Systems) 2. Decentralized Cooling and Heating (tc 9. 1) 3. Central Cooling and Heating(tc 9. 1) 4. Air Handling and Distribution (tc9. 1) 5. In-Room Terminal Systems(tC9.1) 6. Panel Heating and Cooling (TC 6.5, Radiant Heating and Cooling) 7. Combined Heat and power Systems(tc l 10, Cogeneration Systems) 8. Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling(tC 1.10 9. Applied Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Systems TC 6.8, Geothermal Heat Pump and Energy Recovery Applications) 10. Small Forced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems (C 6.3, Central Forced Air Heating and Cooling Systems) 11. Steam Systems(tC 6.1, Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems 12. District Heating and Cooling(TC 6.2, District Energy 13. Hydronic Heating and Cooling(TC 6.1 14. Condenser Water Systems(tC 6.1) 15. Medium-and High-Temperature Water Heating(tc 6.1) 16. Infrared Radiant Heating(tC 6.5) 17. Ultraviolet Lamp Systems(TC 2.9, Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment 8. Variable-Refrigerant-Flow Systems [TC 8.7, Variable Refrigerant FlOw(VRF) AIR-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter 19. Duct Construction(TC 5.2, Duct Design) 20. Room Air Distribution Equipment(tc 5.3, Room Air Distribution) 21. Fans(TC 5.1, Fans) 22. Humidifiers (TC 5.11, Humidifying Equipment) 23. Air-Cooling and dehumidifying Coils(tC8.4, Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Transfer Equipment 24. Desiccant Dehumidification and Pressure-Drying Equipment (tC8.12, Desiccant Dehumidification Equipment and Components) 25. Mechanical Dehumidifiers and related components (TC8.10, Mechanical Dehumidification Equipment and Heat Pipes) 26. Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Equipment (tC 5.5, Air-to-Air Energy Recovery 27. Air-Heating Coils(TC 8. 4) 28. Unit Ventilators, Unit Heaters, and Makeup Air Units (TC 6. 1 and TC 5.8, Industrial Ventilation) 29. Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants(TC 2.4, Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant Removal Equipment) 30. Industrial Gas Cleaning and Air pollution Control Equipment [TC 5.4, Industrial Process Air Cleaning(Air Pollution Control] HEATING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter 31. Automatic Fuel-Burning Systems(TC 6.10, Fuels and Combustion) 32. Boilers (TC 6.1) 33. Furnaces(TC 6.3) 34. Residential In-Space Heating Equipment (TC 6.5) 35. Chimney, Vent, and Fireplace Systems(tC 6.10 36. Hydronic Heat-Distributing Units and Radiators tC 6.1) 37. Solar Energy Equipment (tc 6.7, Solar Energy Utilization) COOLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter 38 Compressors(TC 8.1, Positive Displacement Compressors, and TC 8.2, Centrifugal Machines) 39. Condensers(TC 8.4, TC 8.5, Liquid-LO-Relrigerant Heat Exchangers, and TC 8.6, Cooling Towers and Evaporative Condensers 40. Cooling Towers(TC8.6) 41. Evaporative Air-Cooling Equipment (TC 5.7, Evaporative Cooling) 42. Liquid Coolers(tc8.5 43. Liquid-Chilling Systems (tC8.1 and TC8.2) GENERAL COMPONENTS 44. Centrifugal Pumps(Tc6.1) 45. Motors, Motor Controls, and Variable-Speed Drives TC 1 11. Electric Motors and Motor Control) 46. Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings(TC 6.1) 47. Valves(tc 6.1 48. Heat Exchangers(tC 6.1) PACKAGED, UNITARY, AND SPLIT-SYSTEM EQUIPMENT Chapter 49. Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (tc 8.11, Unitary and room air Conditioners and Heat Pumps) 50. Room Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners( 8. 11) GENERAL 51. Thermal Storage (TC 6.9, Thermal Storage) 52 Codes and standards Additions and Corrections Index Composite index to the 2009 Fundamentals 2010 Refrigeration, 201 1 HVAC Applications, and 2012 HVAC Systems and Equipment volumes Comment Pages CONTRIBUTORS In addition to the Technical Committees, the following individuals contributed significantly to this volumc. The appropriate chaptcr numbcrs follow cach contributor's namc Harvey brickman(1) Don Bahnfleth(15) Tenison Stone(20) Tishman Realty and Construction Bahnfleth Group Advisors, LLC Honeywell Dennis J. Wessel(I) Katja D. Auer(17) Mike Brendel (21) Karpinski engineering Xanatos Lau industries/ruskin Stephen W. Duda(2) Jaak Geboers(17) Joseph Brooks(21) ross baruzzini inc Philips lighting BV AMCA International John L Kuempel, Jr ( 2) Stephen B. Martin, Jr(17) Franco Cincotti(21) Debra-Kuempel CDC/NIOSH Comefri USA John I. Vucci(2) Dean A. Saputa (17) Chuck Coward(21) University of maryland UV Resources Waddell Engineering K. Quinn Hart ( 3) Richard L. vincent(17 Zach Gamache(21) dquartcrs U.S. Air Forcc Enginccr Support Mount Sinai School of Medicine Trane Company William K. Klock(3) Department of Community Medicine John Murphy (21) EEA ConSulting Engineers David L. Witham (17) Jogram, Inc Lynn Werman(3) Ultra violet Devices. Inc Brian Reynolds (21) Jeff Traylor (4) Chris bellshaw(18 Trane Ce Emcor Facilities services Daikin AC(Americas, Inc Greg Sanchez(21) Hollace Bailey(5) Brian Bogdan(18) MTA-New York City Transit) Bailey engineering Corporation LG Electronics usa. inc Zhiping Wang (21) Sarah E Maston (5 Oswaldo D.S. Bueno(18) Morrison products RDK Engineers, Inc Oswaldo buneo engenharia Scott Eliason(22) Howard J McKe(5) John Cummings(18) DRI-STEEM Corporation Building smart software LG Electronics USA. Inc Matthew Nowak(22) Gene Strehlow(5) Yvette Daniel(18) Armstrong International, Inc Johnson Controls Inc Mitsubishi electric electronics usA. inc Daryl Stauffer(22) John s. Andrepont( 8) (18) Carel USA llc The Cool Solutions Company Electric power esearch Institute Steve Brickley(24) DharamⅤ. Punwani(8) Paul Doppel (18) Muntcrs Corporation Avalon Consulting, Inc Mitsubishi electric electronics uSA. Inc William C. Griffiths(24 Annette Dwyer(8, 22) Dave Heckler(l 8 Huinidily Control Consulting Munters Corporation Comfort Supply, Inc Stanley slabinski (24) Scott Hutto(9) Dominic Kolandayan(18) Kathabar Dehumidification Systems Georgia Power Company Daikin AC(Americas), Inc Richard Wolcott(24) oyd( 9) David Markus(18 RMW ASSOciates. Ltd Hawaiian Electric Co. Inc Carrier Corporation Ronnie Moffit (24, 26) Frank Pucciano(9) Norm Maxwell (18 Trane Company E ntal Air Quality John Bloemer(25 Jeff Smith(9) Dermot McMorrow(18) Aprilaire, Inc Georgia Power Company Mitsubishi electric sales canada Ralph Kittler (25) John Andrews (10) Andrew Moore(18) Lawrence Brand (10, 33) Mitsubishi electric electronics USA. Inc Ness Lakdawala(25) Gas Technology Institute Rob Skorupsky(18) Dectron Internationale. Inc Charles Gaston(10, 33) Hitachi America. Ltd Harry milliken(25) Penn state York Paul A solberg (18) Desert -Aire. Ine Rex Scare (11, 36) Trane Company Prakash Dashila(26) Armstrong International, Inc Heather Tullis(18) Univcrsity of Tcnncsscc 〔 ary Phetteplace(12) LG Electronics uSA. Inc Gursaran D Mathur(26, 41) G WA Research Herman Bells(19) Calsonic Kansei north america Jim Young(12) Craig P. Wray (19, 21 Scott Fisher(28) ITW Insulation Systems Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory State Farm Insurance Steve Tredinnick(12, 14) Darren Alexander(20) John McKernan(28) Syska Hennessy Group TWA Panel Systems, Int U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mark C. Hegberg(13,36, 40) Byron Hagan(20) Eric Brodsky(29) Apollo valve Nailor Industries Research Products Corporation Carolyn (Gemma) Kerr(29) Elena g. Dascalaki (37) Michael Wegenka(43) Phil Maybee (29 National Observatory of AThens Trane Co The Filter Man. Ltd Khalid Nagidi(37) Ken Fonstad (45) Stephen Nicholas (29) Luke O'Dea(37) ABB. Inc Uni-Solar United Solar o Robert burkhead (30) Alexander D Leyderman(38, 43) Tom Lowery(45) Schneider electric Blue heaven technologies Fairchild controls Matt Kalis (30) Mark Huber(40) William Oh (45) Donaldson o apco Electro Static Technology--ITW Wayne Lawton (30) Dick LeClaire(40) Adam willwerth (45) Merrick co SPX Cooling technolo Electro Static Technology--ITw Andrew B. Dubel (32 Russ Lindemann(40 Lizardo Engineering Lorenzo Cremaschi(49, 50) Baltimore aircoil Company Oklahoma State University Evans Lizards (32) Frank Morrison(40) Lizardo engineering Baltimore aircoil co Lucas Hyman(5D) Douglas Pavone(32) Patricia Thomas graef (41) Goss e Lizards Engineering Munters Corporation Jeff Malpass(51) David Shepard (32 Clifford Mike Scofield (41) Crom Engineering Construction Services G.A. Fleet Associates Inc Conservation Mechanical Systems Brian Silvetti(51 Charles w. adams (33) Andreas Knopfler(42) A O. SInith Corporation Wieland-Werke ag Constantinos A Balaras(37) James Bogart (42 Maurice Wildin (51) of athe Alcoil USA. llc University of new mexico Charles J Cromer (37) Justin P. Kauffman (43) Robert willis(51) Florida Solar Encrgy Centcr Johnson controls Icc Encrgy ASHRAE HANDBOOK COMMITTEE Rex e. noble chair 2012 HVAC Systems and Equipment Volume Subcommittee: Cynthia A Callaway, Chair David A. John Thomas m. lawrence Russelle. lindemann Harris m. sheinman Forrest s. yount ASHRAE HANDBOOK STAFF W. Stephen Comstock, Publisher Director of publications and education Mark s. owen editor Heather E. Kennedy. managing editor Nancy F. Thysell, Typographer/ Page Designer David Soltis, Group Manager and Jayne E. Jackson, Publications Traffic Administrator Publishing sery

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