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In praise of X3d There will be no problem understanding these concise, clear, comprehen sible background concepts for readers new to Extensible 3D(X3D) There are many notes and examples that compare X3D to Virtual Reality modeling Language(VRML) features. Don Brutzman and Leonard daly clearly and thoroughly illustrate each logical concept and feature of X3D with diagrams, tables, code snippets, screenshots of 3D objects/environments, and example scenes, while making use of the very latest specifications and implementations. Their approach contributes greatly to an easy and in-depth understanding of the X3d language This book is the ultimate introductory guide to X3D! Dr Vladimir Geroimenko, University of Plymouth, School of Computing Communications and Electronics, Plymouth, UK This book is required reading for anybody interested in Web3D. The authors are well known and respected in the X3D community as pio neers. Their writing style is concise and engaging set at an appropriate level to encourage understanding, and uses the concepts being intro duced. Their"Hints and warnings"sections provide added value above what is available from X3D specification documents. Hard to achieve in a reference manual! Professor Nigel W. John, School of Computer Science, University of Wales, bangor How many times have we heard "The ISO specification is hard to read, do you have something more approachable?"This book is the answer. It provides a detailed explanation of each node in the Immersive profile and gives many reusable examples. After reading this book you'll be well prepared to develop your own X3D content Alan hudson President Web3D Consortium. Yumetech Inc This is a much-needed book about the x3d standard and X3d content development. The book follows the structure of the X3D standard spec fications which helps readers understand and apply the X3d standard It can also be used as a reference material in virtual reality and graphics related courses -Professor Denis Gracanin, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web authors DON BRUTZMAN Naval postgraduate school, mon lia, USa d LEONARD DALY Daly realism, Los Angeles, California, USA AMSTERDAM· BOSTON· HEIDELBERO· LONDON NEW YORK· OXFORD· PARIS· SAN DIEGO fine SAN fraNCISCO. SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO ELSEVIER Morgan Kaufmann Is an Imprint of Elsevier MORGAN KAUFMANN PUBLISHERS Publisher: Denise E M. Penrose Publishing Services Manager: George Morrison Senior Project Manager: Brandy lilly Assistant editor: Michelle Ward Cover Image: Christian Greuel/Planet 9 Text Design: Frances Baca Composition: SPI India Illustration: Graphic World Illustration Studio Copyeditor: Graphic World Publishing Services Proofreader: Graphic World Publishing Services Indexer: Graphic World Publishing Services Interior printer: Hing Yip Printing Co. Ltd Cover printer: Hing Yip Printing Co Ltd Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is an imprint of elsevier 500 Sansome Street Suite 400. San francisco, Ca 94111 This book is printed on acid-free paper o 2007 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks or registered trademarks. In all instances in which Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is aware of a claim, the product names appear in initial capital or all capital letters. Readers, however, should contact the appropriate companics for morc complctc information regarding trademarks and registration No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means-electronic, mechanical, photocopying, scanning, or otherwise-without prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science Technology rights Department in Oxford,uk:phone(+44)1865843830,fax:(+44)1865853333, Youmayalsocompleteyourrequeston-lineviatheelsevierhomepage(,by selecting“ Support& Contact”then“ Copyright and permission” and then“ Obtaining Permissions.” Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Application submitted ISBN-13:978-0-12-088500-8 ISBN-10:0-12-088500-X For information on all Morgan Kaufmann publications, Printed in china 0708091011 54321 Working together to grow libraries in developing countries ELSEVIER BOOK AID International abre foundation Dedication We dedicate this book to our families with grateful thanks for their patient support and love -Don Brutzman and Leonard daly This page intentionally left blank Contents Preface XIX Goals ,1X Motivation Reader background Software support Book structure XXI 5.1 Typographic conventions......…….xxi 5.2. Chapter organization 6. Chapter descriptions XⅩ11 6.1 pter top 6.2. Appendices....... ..... XXIV 6.3 How to use this book Contributor list About the authors CHAPTER 1 Technical overview Introduction once 2 2.1. Historical background: VRML, ISO and the Web3D Consortium 2.2 X3D browsers 2.3. X3D specifications 5 2.4 cene grap Contents F1 e structure 10 2.5.1 File header...,,,,,,,,,,,, 2.5.2 X3D header statement 10 2.5.3 Profile statements ..,.,12 2.5.4 Component statements............14 2.5.5 Meta statements .,,,,,,,,,,15 2.5.6 ene grap 18 2.6 Field types 18 2.7, Abstract node types 20 File encodings: XML, ClassicVRML, and Compressed 20 2.8.1. Extensible Markup language(XML encoding: x3d files .,,21 XML motivations ,,22 XML design for X3D ,,,,24 XML validation.,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,25 2.8.2. ClassicVRML encoding:. x3dv files .,,.27 2.8.3 Binary encoding:. x3db files......... 29 2.9 Hello world example using X3D-Edit and an X3D browser .32 Summary .35 3.1. Key ideas 35 3.2. Next chapters 35 CHAPTER 2 Geometry Nodes, Part 1: Primitives........37 What this chapter covers ,,,37 Concepts 鲁鲁 .,38 2.1. Purpose and common functionality 38 2.2 Common field 40 2.2.1. 40 Abstract node types ,,,,,,,,.41 2.3.1 X3 DShape node type 41 2.3.2 X3D Geometry Node type.... ,,,,,,,,.41 2.3.3 X3D FontStyle Node type 41 4. Hints and warnings 41 ode descriptions ..,,,.42 ape node 42 3.1.1 Hints and warnings 42 Contents 3.2 Box node 44 46 3.2.2 Hints and warnings 46 Cone node e鲁鲁 春鲁 ,,,,,,,,,46 3.3.1 bottomRadius and height .48 3.3.2. bottom and side 48 3.4 Cylinder node .,49 3.4.1. radius and height...........49 3.4.2. bottom, side, and top 50 3.4.3. Hints and warnings............50 3.5 S phere node· ,50 3.6 Text node ,,,.,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,54 3.7 FontStyle node Summary 2 4.1 Key id 62 4.2 Related nodes and concepts 4.3 Next chapter 63 CHaPTeR 3 Grouping nodes 65 What this chapter covers oncept 2.1. Purpose and common functionalit ·垂 66 2.2. Units of measurement and coordinate systems 2.3. Coordinate system detail ·垂 .,.,69 2.4 DEF and use 71 2.5 Abstract node type X3 D ChildNode type 2.5.2. X3D Boundedobject type 73 2.5.3. X3DGrouping Node type · 2.5.4. X3 INfo Node type ,,,,,,,,,,74 2.5.5 X3DUrlO bject abstract interface........75 Node descriptions Group and Static Group nodes 75 Transform node 77 Inline node 82 3.4 LOD nod 85 3.5 Switch node 89

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