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robot cognition and navigation,机器人感知与导航
Srikanta patnaik Robot Cognition and Navigation An Experiment with Mobile robots With 95 Figures, and 7 Tables P ringer auth Srikanta patnaik Interscience Institute of Management Technology Baranga-Khurda road P.O. Kantabada Bhubaneswar-752054 India srikantapatnaik@interscience. in Managing editors Prof Dov M. Gabbay Augustus de morgan Professor of logic Department of Computer Science, King,s College London Strand London wc2r 2ls, uK Prof Dr Jorg Siekmann Forschungsbereich Deduktions-und Multiagentensysteme, DFKI Stuhlsatzenweg 3, Geb. 43, 66123 Saarbrucken, Germany Library of Congress Control Number: 2007928310 ACM Computing classification: 1.2,, 1.5 ISSN1611-2482 IsBn 978-3-540-23446-3 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broad casting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. Springer is a part of Springer Science+ Business Media er. com C Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 Printed in germany The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarkS, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use Typesetting: by the author Production: Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd, Puducherry, India Cover Design: KuinkelLopka, Heidelberg Printed on acid-free paper 45/3180/Integra 54 32 10 To my wife Priti and my sons Sritam and priyam Preface This book is meant for graduate and undergraduate students. It contains eighteen chapters, covering robot simulation, experiments and modelling of mobile robots. It starts with the cybernetic view of robot cognition and perception. Chapter 2 discusses map building, which is necessary for the robot to sense and represent its surrounding. Chapter 3 describes path planning in a static environment and a path planning technique using quad- trees. Chapter 4 discusses robot navigation using genetic algorithm tech- niques Chapter 5 briefly covers the robot programming package along with hardware details for the robot experiments. Socket programming and the multithreading concept are also briefly explained for robot programming Chapter 6 covers a client-server program for robot parameter display Chapter 7 covers the BotSpeak program and Chap 8 covers gripper pro- grams. Chapter 9 covers the program for Sonar reading display chapter 10 covers the robot program for wandering within the environment and Chap 11 describes the program for tele-operation. A complete navigation pro gram has been explained in Chap. 12 utilizing all the functions of the ear- lier chapters Chapter 13 describes the techniques for imaging geometry Image for- mation and the camera perspective matrix in 3D is covered in the chapter Chapter 14 describes the program for image capture through the robot's stereo camera. Chapter 15 describes the minimal representation of a 2D line, a 3D line and a 3D plane. The chapter also describes the techniques for reconstruction of 3D points, 3D lines and 3d planes using the Kalman filter. A correspondence problem has also been highlighted in the chapter The program for 3D perception using the Kalman filter is given in Chap 16. Chapter 17 describes robot perception for non-planar surfaces. In Chap. 18, a real-time application of the mobile robot is given The detailed source codes of various programs mentioned in the book areavailableinthewebsite(http://www.springer.com/3-540-23446-2) Acknowledgements The author gratefully acknowledges the contribution of many people without whom this publication might not have been possible. First of all, he wishes to thank his undergraduate students doing their final semester project under his guidance in the Electronics and Telecommunication En gineering Department of U C.E., Burla during the periods 2001-2002, 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The author would like to convey special thanks to his students Deb Prakash, Priyanka, Sarada Prasanna, Vidyasa gar, Amaresh and Bismaya The author would like to thank his teacher, Prof. K. C. mohapatra, who inspired his writing skill, which later enabled him to write this book. He remembers his onetime project supervisor Dr. Rutuparna Panda of the Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Department of U CE Burla, for his constructive criticism, which helped him develop the habit of checking a thought twice before planning. The author is greatly indebted to his Phd guide, Dr. Amit Konar, and Prof. A K Mandal of Jadavpur Uni versity, due to whom he conceived the idea of writing a book in this area The author wants to convey special thanks to his colleagues Dr. brajamo han Otta and mr. Rabinarayan Rath, for their personal support and helf The author is indebted to prof. ratikanta mishra Vice-Chancellor of Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela, for his constant help support and encouragement during the compilation of the book. The author owes deep gratitude to Prof. Sukadev Nanda, Vice-Chancellor of F. M University, Balasore, for his help and administrative support for the writ- ing and completion of this project The author sincerely thanks the all India council for Technical educa tion, New Delhi, for the project grant towards the TaPtEC project entitled Building Cognition for Mobile robots for procuring the mobile robot Pio neer DX-2. from Activ Media robotics llC. usa. the author also ac knowledges the support of the University Grant Commission's major re- search project entitled Machine learning and Perception Using Cognitive Methods through which many experiments could be conducted X Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Ingeborg mayer and ronan nugent of Springer for their kind cooperation in connection with writing this book The author wishes to express his deep gratitude to his parents, who always stood by him throughout his life. Last but not least, the author wishes to thank his wife priti for her tolerance and forbearance of his indifference to family life and her assistance in many ways for the successful completion of the book. He also conveys special thanks to his sons Sritam and Priyam for their sacrifice and tolerance during the writing of the book India, February 2007 Srikanta patnaik Contents Cybernetic view of robot cognition and Perception .coocoo.1 1. 1 Introduction to the Model of Cognition 1.1.1 Various States of Cognition 1. 2 Cycles of Cognition.... 1.2 Visual Perception 7 1.2.1 HumanⅤ isual system.…....7 1. 2.2 Vision for mobile robots 1.3 Visual recognition 10 1.3.1 Template Matching…… 1.3.2 Feature-Based Model 1. 3. 3 Fourier model 12 3.4 Structural model 12 1.3. 5 The Computational theory of marr..........13 4 Machine Learning 1.4.1 Properties and issues in machine Learning....... 13 1.4.2 Classification of Machine Learning 15 5 Soft Computing Tools and robot Cognition…………………17 1.5. 1 Modeling Cognition Using ANN 17 1.5.2 Fuzzy Logic in robot Cognition………………….19 1.5.3 Genetic Algorithms in Robot Cognition 19 1.6 Summary 20 2 Map building………………… 2. 1 Introduction 21 2.2 Constructing a 2D World Map 22 2.2. 1 Data Structure for Map building 22 2.2.2 Explanation of the Algorithm 26 2.2.3 An Illustration of Procedure Traverse Boundary. 27 2.2.4 An Illustration of Procedure Map Building...29 2.2.5 Robot Simulation 2.3 Execution of the Map Building Progra…………3 2.4 Summary…… 38 XII Contents Path Planning………,,…,,…,…,………….39 3.1 Introduction… .39 3.2 Representation of the robot's Environment 39 3. 2.1 GVD USing Cellular Automata..... 40 3.3 Path Optimization by the Quadtree Approach 41 3.3. 1 Introduction to the Quadtree 41 3.3.2 Definition 42 3.3. 3 Generation of the Quadtree 42 3.4 Neighbor-Finding algorithms for the Quadtree 47 3.5TheA* Algorithm for Selecting the Best Neighbor………52 3.6 Execution of the Quadtree-Based Path Planner program...54 3.7 Summary 58 Navigation Using a Genetic algorithm . 4.1 Introduction 59 4.2 Genetic Algorithms .60 4.2. 1 Encoding of a Chromosome 61 4.2.2 Crossover 62 4.2 3 Mutation 62 4.2.4 Parameters of a ga 63 4.2.5 Selection 63 4. 3 Navigation by a genetic algorithm ............ 64 4.3. 1 Formulation of Navigation 64 4.4 Execution of the GA-Based Navigation Program .67 4.5 Replanning by Temporal Associative Memory....... 68 4.5.1 Introduction to TAM 68 4.5.2 Encoding and decoding Process in a Temporal memory .70 4.5.3 An Example in a Semi-dynamic Environment 71 4.5.4 Implications of results 74 4.6 Summary 75 5 Robot programming packages……………,……………77 5.1 Introduction .7 5.2 Robot hardware and Software resources 78 5.2. 1 Components 5. 3 ARIA ∴79 5.3.1 ARIA Client-Server. ...............................................80 5.3.2 Robot Communication 84 5.3.3 Opening the Connection…… 84 5.3.4 ArRobot 85 5.3.5 Range devices 87 53. 6 Commands and Actions 88

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robot cognition and navigation

robot cognition and navigation,机器人感知与导航

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