光子学:现代通讯光电子(第6版)英文

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(The Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering) Amnon Yariv, Pochi Yeh - Photonics_ optical electronics in modern communications-Oxford University Press, USA (2006).pdf 《光子学:现代通信光电子学(第6版)》主要讲述激光物理学领域的各种现象和器件的基本原理。《光子学:现代通信光电子学(第6版)》共分18章,阐述了适用于光通信和电子学的物理基础和工作原理,包括光学共振腔、各种激光器、波导、光纤、光栅和光子晶体;涵盖了光网络中光的传输、调制、放大和检测,以及光纤中的光学非线性效应等。《光子学:现代通信光电子学(第6版)》中采用了电磁场理论、麦克斯韦方程组和电磁波传输方法,同时在每章中都附有大量习题和生动实例。
Photonics Optical Electronics in Modern Communications SIXTH EDITION Amnon Yariv California Institute of Technology Pochi Yeh University of california, Santa Barbara New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2007 Oxford University Press, Inc, publishes works that further Oxford University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship and education Oxford New york Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright o 2007 by Oxford University Press, Inc Published by Oxford University Press, I 198 Madison Avenue. New York New York 10016 http://www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of oxford University press electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data Yariv. Amnon Photonics: optical electronics in modern communications/Amnon Yariv Pochi Yeh.-6th ed p. cm.(The Oxford series in electrical and computer er neerin Rev. ed of: Optical electronics in modern communications. 5th ed. c1997 Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN-13:978-0-195179460 ISBN0-19517946-3 1. Photonics. I. Yeh, Pochi. IL. Yariv, Amnon Optical electronics in modern communications. Ill. Title. Iv. Series TA1520.Y372006 621.3827—dc22 2005047270 Printing number: 987654321 Printed in the United States of america on acid-free paper Contents Preface xi Chapter 1 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves 1 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Maxwell,s equations and boundary conditions 1 1. 2 Energy Density and poynting Vector 4 1.3 Monochromatic Fields and Complex-Function Formalism 6 1.4 Wave Equations and monochromatic Plane Waves 8 1.5 Chromatic Dispersion and Group Velocity 13 1.6 Polarization States and Representations(Stokes Parameters and Poincare Sphere) 19 1. Ele tic pr Anisotropic Media( Crystals) 30 1.8 Plane Waves in Uniaxially Anisotropic Media--Phase Retardation 36 1.9 Jones matrix Method 41 1. 10 Elementary Theory of Coherence 56 Problems 59 References 65 Chapter 2 Rays and Optical Beams 66 2.0 Introduction 66 2. 1 Ray Matrices 66 2.2 Skew Rays and reentrant rays 72 2.3 Rays in Lenslike Media 73 2.4 Wave Equation in Quadratic Index Media and Beams 77 2.5 Gaussian Beams in Homogeneous Media 79 2.6 Fundamental Gaussian Beam in a Lenslike Medium-The ABCd Law 83 2.7 Gaussian Beams in Lens Waveguide 87 2.8 High-Order Gaussian Beam Modes in a Homogeneous Medium 88 2.9 Gaussian Beam Modes in Quadratic Index Media 91 2. 10 Propagation in Media with a Quadratic Gain Profile 95 2. 11 Elliptic Gaussian Beams 97 2.12 Beam Propagation and Diffraction Integral 99 Problems 106 References 109 Chapter 3 Guided Waves in Dielectric Slabs and Fibers 110 3.0 Introduction 110 3. 1 TE and TM Confined Modes in Symmetric Slab Waveguides 110 vi Contents 3.2 TE and TM Confined Modes in Asymmetric Slab Waveguides 118 3.3 Step-Index Circular Dielectric Waveguides(Linearly Polarized Modes in Optical Fibers) 126 3.4 Effective Index Theory 137 3.5 Waveguide dispersion in Optical Fibers 140 3.6 Attenuation in Silica Fibers 145 Problems 149 References 153 Additional Reading 155 Chapter 4 Optical Resonators 156 4.0 Introduction 156 4. 1 Fabry-Perot Etalon 160 4.2 Fabry-Perot Etalons as Optical Spectrum Analyzers 170 4.3 Optical Resonators with Spherical Mirrors 172 4.4 Mode stability Criteria 176 4.5 Modes in a generalized resonator-Self-Consistent Method 178 4.6 Resonance Frequencies of Optical Resonators 180 4.7 Losses in Optical Resonators 183 4.8 Ring Resonators 184 4.9 Multicavity Etalons 194 4.10 Mode Matching and coupling loss 204 Problems 206 References 209 Additional reading 210 Chapter 5 Interaction of radiation and atomic Systems 211 5.0 Introduction 211 5.1 Atomic Transitions and electromagnetic Waves 211 5.2 Atomic Polarizability and Dielectric Constant 213 5.3 Classical electron model 214 5.4 Dispersion and Complex Refractive Index 216 5.5 Lineshape Function--Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Broadening 221 5.6 Induced Transitions-Absorption and Amplification 225 5.7 Gain Saturation in Homogeneous Laser Media 230 5.8 Gain Saturation in Inhomogeneous Laser Media 232 Problems 235 References 236 Chapter 6 Theory of Laser Oscillation and Some Specific Laser Systems 237 6.0 Introduction 237 6.1 Fabry-Perot Laser 237 6.2 Oscillation Frequency 242 Contents vii 6.3 Three-and Four-Level Lasers 244 6.4 Power in Laser Oscillators 246 6.5 Optimum Output Coupling in Laser Oscillators 248 6.6 Multimode Laser Oscillation and Mode Locking 251 6.7 Mode Locking in Homogeneously Broadened Laser Systems 265 6.8 Pulse Length Measurement and Narrowing of Chirped Pulses 273 6.9 Giant Pulse(o-Switched) Lasers 281 6. 10 Hole Burning and the Lamb Dip in Doppler-Broadened Gas Lasers 287 6. 11 Some Specific Laser Systems 290 6. 12 Frequency Comb and Optical Frequency Metrology 303 Problems 308 References 309 Additional reading 312 Chapter 7 Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion in Fibers 313 0 Introduction 313 7.1 Chromatic Dispersion in Optical Transmission Systems 313 7.2 Optical Pulse spreading in dispersive media 317 7.3 Polarization Effects in Optical Fibers 322 7. 4 Pri l States of Polarization 325 7.5 Vector Analysis of Polarization Mode Dispersion 329 7.6 High-Order Pmd and c s346 Problems 350 References 353 Chapter 8 Nonlinear Optics 354 8.0 Introduction 354 8. 1 On the physical Origin of nonli y gl near Polarization 354 8.2 Second-Order Nonlinear Phenomena-General Methodology 355 8.3 Electromagnetic Formulation and Optical Second-Harmonic Generation 358 8. 4 Other Second-Order nonlinear Processes 369 8.5 Quasi Phase matching 377 8.6 Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Processes 380 8.7 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering 387 8.8 Four-Wave mixing and phase conjugation 392 8.9 Frequency Tuning in Parametric Oscillation 399 Problems 402 References 404 Chapter 9 Electro-optic Modulation of Laser Beams 406 9.0 Introd 406 9. 1 Linear Electro-optic Effect 406 9.2 Electro-optic Modulation--Phase, Amplitude 418 Contents 9.3 High-Frequency Modulation Considerations 427 9.4 Electroabsorption and electroabsorption Modulators 431 9.5 Electro-optical Effect in Liquid Crystals 434 9.6 Acousto-optic Effect(Photoelastic Effect)440 9.7 Scattering of light by Sound 446 9.8 Bragg Diffraction-Coupled-Wave Analysis 450 9.9 Bragg Cells and Beam Deflectors 458 Problems 461 References 463 Chapter 10 Noise in Optical Detection and Generation 465 10.0 Introduction 465 10.1 Limitations due to noise power 466 10.2 Noise--Basic Definitions and Theorems 469 10.3 Spectral Density Function of a Train of Randomly Occurring Events 471 10.4 Shot Noise 473 10.5 Johnson Noise 475 10.6 Spontaneous Emission Noise in Laser Oscillators 479 10.7 Phasor derivation of laser linewidth 484 10.8 Coherence and Interference 491 10.9 Error Probability in a Binary Pulse Code Modulation System 496 Problems 499 eferences 500 Chapter 11 Detection of Optical Radiation 501 11.0 Introduction 501 11.1 Optically Induced Transition Rates 501 11.2 Photomultiplier 503 11.3 Noise Mechanisms in Photomultipliers 505 11. 4 Heterodyne Detection with Photomultipliers 507 11.5 Photoconductive Detectors 511 11.6 The p-n Junction 517 11.7 Semiconductor Photodiodes 521 11. 8 Avalanche Photodiode 529 11.9 Power Fluctuation Noise in Lasers 532 Problems 536 References 537 Additional reading 538 Chapter 12 Wave Propagation in Periodic Media 539 12.0 Introduction 539 12.1 Periodic Media 539 Contents i 12.2 Periodic Layered Media-Bloch Waves 545 12.3 Bragg Reflectors 555 12. 4 Coupled-Wave Analysis 560 12.5 Periodic Waveguides 573 12.6 Spectral Filters and Fiber Bragg Gratings 582 12.7 Chirped and Tapered Index Gratings 587 12.8 2-D and 3-D Periodic Media(Photonic Crystals)594 Problems 600 References 601 Chapter 13 Waveguide Coupling 602 13.0 Introduction 602 13.1 General Properties of Modes 602 13.2 Dielectric Perturbation Theory and Mode Coupling 607 13.3 Coupling of Two Parallel Waveguides-Directional Coupler 611 13.4 Coupling of N Parallel Identical Waveguides--Supermodes 618 13.5 Phase Matching and Frequency Selective Coupling--Multiplexing 622 13.6 Mode Converters 626 Problems 630 References 632 Chapter 14 Nonlinear Optical Effects in Fibers 633 4.0 Introduction 633 14.1 Kerr Effect and Self-Phase Modulation 633 14.2 Cross-Phase Modulation--Polarization 637 14.3 Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing 641 14.4 Partially Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing 653 14.5 Optical Solitons 663 Problems 670 References 671 Chapter 15 Semiconductor Lasers--Theory and Applications 673 15.0 Introduction 673 15.1 Some semiconductor Physics Background 674 15.2 Gain and Absorption in Semiconductor (Laser)Media 680 15.3 GaAs/Ga,_ Al. As Lasers 686 15.4 Some Real Laser Structures 691 15.5 Direct-Current Modulation of Semiconductor Lasers 696 15.6 Gain Suppression and Frequency Chirp in Current-Modulated Semiconductor Lasers 700 15.7 Integrated Optoelectronics 709 Problems 711 References 712 x Contents Chapter 16 Advanced Semiconductor Lasers 714 16.0 Introduction 714 16.1 Carriers in Quantum Wells(Advanced Topic)715 16.2 Gain in Quantum Well Lasers 720 16.3 Distributed Feedback Lasers 724 16.4 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers 738 Problems 746 References 746 Chapter 17 Optical Amplifiers 748 17.0 Introduction 748 17.1 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers 749 17.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers 752 17.3 Amplified Spontaneous Emission 755 17.4 Optical Amplification in Fiber Links 761 17.5 Raman Optical Amplifiers 767 Problems 774 References 776 Chapter 18 Classical Treatment of Quantum Noise and Squeezed States 778 18.0 Introduction 778 18.1 The Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Noise 778 18.2 Squeezing of Optical Fields 787 Problems 795 References 796 Appendix a Wave Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates and Bessel Functions 797 Appendix b Exact Solutions of the Step-Index Circular Waveguide 802 Appendix c Kramers-Kronig Relations 812 Appendix d transformation of a Coherent Electromagnetic Field by a Thin Lens 817 Appendixe Fermi level and Its Temperature Dependence 820 Appendix F Electro-optic Effect in Cubic 43m Crystals 823 Appendixg Conversion for Power Units and Attenuation Units 827 Author Index 828 Subject Index 830

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