# Introductory Mathematics for the Life Sciences

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1 Numbers 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Real numbers 1 1.3 Modulus 3 1.4 Functions with multiple operations 4 1.5 Commutative and associative laws of addition and multiplication 5 Summary 7 End of unit questions 8 2 Fractions, Percentages and Ratios 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Fractions—rational and irrational numbers 9 2.3 Factorisation and equivalent fractions 11 2.4 Addition and subtraction of fractions 14 2.5 Multiplication of fractions 15 2.6 Division of fractions 15 2.7 Percentages 16 2.8 Ratios 19 Summary 21 End of unit questions 22 3 Basic Algebra and Measurement 25 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 Measurement 25 3.3 Algebraic notation 28 3.3.1 Addition 29 3.3.2 Subtraction 29 3.3.3 Multiplication 30 3.3.4 Division 30 3.3.5 Brackets 30 3.4 Substitution 31 3.5 Factorising simple formulae 32 3.6 Algebraic fractions 33 6 CONTENTS 3.6.1 Multiplication and division of algebraic fractions 34 3.6.2 Addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions 34 3.7 Transposing formulae 35 3.8 Inequalities 38 3.8.1 Intervals 39 3.9 Applications in biological science 40 3.9.1 Equilibrium constants—an example of algebraic fraction 41 Summary 42 End of unit questions 43 4 Powers and Scientific Notation 47 4.1 Introduction 47 4.2 Powers 47 4.3 Multiplication and division using powers 51 4.4 Powers of powers 53 4.5 Fractional indices 53 4.6 Indices and biology 54 Summary 56 End of unit questions 57 5 Concentration and Accuracy 59 5.1 Introduction 59 5.2 Concentration, volume and amount 59 5.2.1 Percentage weight/volume 60 5.2.2 Percentage volume/volume 60 5.2.3 Percentage weight/weight 61 5.2.4 Moles and molarity 63 5.3 Accuracy: significant figures and decimal places 66 5.3.1 Significant figures 66 5.3.2 Decimal places 68 5.3.3 Accuracy 69 Summary 71 End of unit questions 71 6 Tables, Charts and Graphs 73 6.1 Introduction 73 6.2 Raw data and frequency tables 73 6.2.1 Table preparation 74 6.2.2 Frequency tables 78 6.3 Charts, diagrams and plots 81 6.3.1 Pictograms 81 6.3.2 Pie charts 82 CONTENTS 7

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Introductory Mathematics for the Life Sciences 10积分/C币 立即下载
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10积分/C币 立即下载