操作系统概念 龙书学习指导 第九版 非扫描

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操作系统概念经典龙书,看自来很泛,这份学习指导来自作者网站,站在作者的角度来学习操作系统概念需要把握的内容,助你学习操作系统概念一课,文档是英文原版的
Preface This volume is an instructor's manual for the Seventh Edition of Operating System Concepts, by abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, and Greg gagne It consists of answers to the exercises in the parent text Although we have tried to produce an instructors manual that will aid all of the users of our book as much as possible, there can always be im provements (improved answers, additional questions, sample test questions programming projects alternative orders of presentation of the material, addi- tional references, and so on ) We invite you to help us in improving this manual If you have better solutions to the exercises or other items which would be of use with Operating-System Concepts, we invite you to send them to us for con Sideration in later editions of this manual. All contributions will, of course, be properly credited to their contributor Internet electronic mail should be addressed to os-book@cs. yale. edu Physical mail may be sent to Avi Silberschatz, Department nof Computer Sci ence, Yale University 51 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT06520, USA A s P.B. G ConenTs Chapter 1 Introdue Chapter 2 Operating-System Structures Chapter 3 Processes 15 Chapter 4 Threads 23 Chapter 5 CPU Scheduling 7 Chapter 6 Process Synchronization Chapt r 7 Deadlocks 47 Chapter 8 Memory Management 55 Chapter 9 virtual memory........... ∴.61 Chapter10File- Systems Interface.………… 71 Chapter 11 File-Systems Implementation 75 hapter 12 Mass Storage Sti 91 Chapter 13 I/o systems Chapter 14 protection Chapter 15 Security 105 Chapter 16 Network Structures.......... .,111 Chapter 17 Distributed Communication................ 117 Chapter 18 Distributed-File Systems................. 121 Chapter 19 Multimedia Systems ∴,,127 Chapter 20 Embedded Syster 131 Chapter 21 The Linux System 137 Chapter 22 Windows XP apl 145 Chapter23 Influential Operating Systems…………… 149 CHAPTER Chapter 1 introduces the general topic of operating systems and a handful of important concepts(multiprogramming time sharing, distributed system, and so on). The purpose is to show why operating systems are what they are b showing how they developed. In operating systems, as in much of computer science, we are led to the present by the paths we took in the past, and we can better understand both the present and the future by understanding the past Additional work that might be considered is learning about the particular systems that the students will have access to at your institution This is still just a general overview, as specific interfaces are considered in Chapter 3 Exercises 1.1 In a multiprogramming and time-sharing environment, several users share the system simultaneously. This situation can result in various security problems a. What are two such problems? b. Can we ensure the same degree of security in a time-shared ma- chine as in a dedicated machine? Explain your answer A ns wer a. Stealing or copying one' s programs or data; using system re sources(CPU, memory, disk space, peripherals)without proper accounting. b. Probably not, since any protection scheme devised by humans can inevitably be broken by a human, and the more complex the scheme, the more difficult it is to feel confident of its correct implementation Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 The issue of resource utilization shows up in different forms in differ- ent types of operating systems. List what resources must be managed carefully in the following settings a. Mainframe or minicomputer systems b. Workstations connected to servers c. Handheld computers Answer: a. Mainframes: memory and CPU resources, storage, network band width b. Workstations: memory and cPu resouces C. Handheld computers: power consumption, memory resources 1. 3 Under what circumstances would a user be better off using a time sharing system rather than a pC or single-user workstation Answer: When there are few other users the task is large and the hardware is fast, time-sharing makes sense. The full power of the system can be brought to bear on the user's problem. The problem can be solved faster than on a personal computer. Another case occurs when lots of other users need resources at the same time a personal computer is best when the job is small enough to be exe- cuted reasonably on it and when performance is sufficient to execute the program to the users satisfaction 1.4 Which of the functionalities listed below need to be supported by the operating system for the following two settings: (a) handheld devices and (b) real-time systems a. Batch programming b.Ⅴ irtual memory ime sharir Answer: For real-time systems, the operating system needs to support virtual memory and time sharing in a fair manner. For handheld systems the operating system needs to provide virtual memory, but does not need to provide time-sharing. Batch programming is not necessary in both settings 1.5 Describe the differences between symmetric and asymmetric multipro- cessing. What are three advantages and one disadvantage of multipro cessor systems? Answer: Symmetric multiprocessing treats all processors as equals, and 1/0 can be processed on any CPU Asymmetric multiprocessing has one master cpu and the remainder cpus are slaves. The master distributes tasks among the slaves, and I/o is usually done by the master only Multiprocessors can save money by not duplicating power supplies, housings, and peripherals. They can execute programs more quickly and can have increased reliability. They are also more complex in both ardware and software than uniprocessor systems exercises 1.6 How do clustered systems differ from multiprocessor systems? What is required for two machines belonging to a cluster to cooperate to provide a highly available service? Answer: Clustered systems are typically constructed by combining multiple computers into a single system to perform a computational task distributed across the cluster multiprocessor systems on the other hand could be a single physical entity comprising of multiple CPUs. A clustered system is less tightly coupled than a multiprocessor system Clustered systems communicate using messages, while processors in a multiprocessor system could communicate using shared memory In order for two machines to provide a highly available service the state on the two machines should be replicated and should be consistently updated. When one of the machines fail, the other could then take-over the functionality of the failed machine 1.7 Distinguish between the client-server and peer-to-peer models of dis- tributed systems Answer: The client-server model firmly distinguishes the roles of the client and server. Under this model, the client requests services that are provided by the server. The peer-to-peer model doesnt have such strict roles. In fact, all nodes in the system are considered peers and thus may act as either clients or servers-or both. a node may request a service from another peer, or the node may in fact provide such a service to other peers in the system For example, let's consider a system of nodes that share cooking recipes Under the client-server model, all recipes are stored with the server. If a client wishes to access a recipe, it must request the recipe from the specified server. Using the peer-to-peer model, a peer node could ask other peer nodes for the specified recipe. The node(or perhaps nodes with the requested recipe could provide it to the requesting node. Notice how each peer may act as both a client(i.e. it may request recipes)and as a server(it may provide recipes. 1.8 Consider a computing cluster consisting of two nodes running a database Describe two ways in which the cluster software can manage access to the data on the disk. Discuss the benefits and disadvantages of each Answer: Consider the following two alternatives: asymmetric cluster ing and parallel clustering With asymmetric clustering one host runs the database application with the other host simply monitoring it. If the server fails, the monitoring host becomes the active server. This is appropriate for providing redundancy. However, it does not utilize the potential processing power of both hosts. With parallel clustering, the database application can run in parallel on both hosts. The difficulty implementing parallel clusters is providing some form of distributed locking mechanism for files on the shared disk 1.9 How are network computers different from traditional personal com puters? Describe some usage scenarios in which it is advantageous to use network computers Answer: A network computer relies on a centralized computer for most of its services. It can therefore have a minimal operating system Chapter 1 Introduction to manage its resources. a personal computer on the other hand has to be capable of providing all of the required functionality in a stand- lone manner without relying on a centralized manner. Scenarios where administrative costs are high and where sharing leads to more efficient use of resources are precisely those settings where network computers are preferred 1.10 What is the purpose of interrupts? What are the differences between a trap and an interrupt? Can traps be generated intentionally by a user program? If so, for what purpose? Answer: An interrupt is a hardware-generated change-of-flow within the system. An interrupt handler is summoned to deal with the cause of the interrupt; control is then returned to the interrupted context and instruction. A trap is a software-generated interrupt. An interrupt can be used to signal the completion of an I/O to obviate the need for device polling. A trap can be used to call operating system routines or to catch arithmetic errors 1.11 Direct memory access is used for high-speed I/o devices in order to avoid increasing the cpus execution load a. How does the cpu interface with the device to coordinate the transfer? b. How does the cpu know when the memory operations are com- plete? C. The CPU is allowed to execute other programs while the DMA controller is transferring data. Does this process interfere with the execution of the user programs? If so, describe what forms of interference are caused Answer: The CPu can initiate a dma operation by writing values into special registers that can be independently accessed by the device The device initiates the corresponding operation once it receives a com- mand from the Cpu. when the device is finished with its operation, it interrupts the cpu to indicate the completion of the operation Both the device and the cpu can be accessing memory simultaneously The memory controller provides access to the memory bus in a fair manner to these two entities. A CPU might therefore be unable to issue memory operations at peak speeds since it has to compete with the device in order to obtain access to the memory bus 1.12 Some computer systems do not provide a privileged mode of operation in hardware. Is it possible to construct a secure operating system for these computer systems? Give arguments both that it is and that it is not possible Answer: An operating system for a machine of this type would need to remain in control (or monitor mode) at all times. This could be accom- plished by two methods a. Software interpretation of all user programs (like some BASIC, Java, and LiSP systems, for example). The software interpreter would provide, in software, what the hardware does not provide

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