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python3.6.5参考手册 chm

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Python Documentation contents
What’s New in Python
What’s New In Python 3.6
Summary – Release highlights 
New Features
PEP 498: Formatted string literals 
PEP 526: Syntax for variable annotations 
PEP 515: Underscores in Numeric Literals 
PEP 525: Asynchronous Generators 
PEP 530: Asynchronous Comprehensions 
PEP 487: Simpler customization of class creation 
PEP 487: Descriptor Protocol Enhancements 
PEP 519: Adding a file syste
                            m path protocol 
PEP 495: Local Time Disambiguation 
PEP 529: Change Windows filesystem encoding to UTF-8 
PEP 528: Change Windows console encoding to UTF-8 
PEP 520: Preserving Class Attribute Definition Order 
PEP 468: Preserving Keyword Argument Order 
New dict implementation 
PEP 523: Adding a frame evaluation API to CPython 
PYTHONMALLOC environment variable 
DTrace and SystemTap probing support 
Other Language Changes 
New Modules
secrets 
Improved Modules
array 
ast 
asyncio 
binascii 
cmath 
collections 
concurrent.futures 
contextlib 
datetime 
decimal 
distutils 
email 
encodings 
enum 
faulthandler 
fileinput 
hashlib 
http.client 
idlelib and IDLE 
importlib 
inspect 
json 
logging 
math 
multiprocessing 
os 
pathlib 
pdb 
pickle 
pickletools 
pydoc 
random 
re 
readline 
rlcompleter 
shlex 
site 
sqlite3 
socket 
socketserver 
ssl 
statistics 
struct 
subprocess 
sys 
telnetlib 
time 
timeit 
tkinter 
traceback 
tracemalloc 
typing 
unicodedata 
unittest.mock 
urllib.request 
urllib.robotparser 
venv 
warnings 
winreg 
winsound 
xmlrpc.client 
zipfile 
zlib 
Optimizations 
Build and C API Changes 
Other Improvements 
Deprecated
New Keywords 
Deprecated Python behavior 
Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods
asynchat 
asyncore 
dbm 
distutils 
grp 
importlib 
os 
re 
ssl 
tkinter 
venv 
Deprecated functions and types of the C API 
Deprecated Build Options 
Removed
API and Feature Removals 
Porting to Python 3.6
Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior 
Changes in the Python API 
Changes in the C API 
CPython bytecode changes 
Notable changes in Python 3.6.2
New make regen-all build target 
Removal of make touch build target 
Notable changes in Python 3.6.5 
What’s New In Python 3.5
Summary – Release highlights 
New Features
PEP 492 - Coroutines with async and await syntax 
PEP 465 - A dedicated infix operator for matrix multiplication 
PEP 448 - Additional Unpacking Generalizations 
PEP 461 - percent formatting support for bytes and bytearray 
PEP 484 - Type Hints 
PEP 471 - os.scandir() function – a better and faster directory iterator 
PEP 475: Retry system calls failing with EINTR 
PEP 479: Change StopIteration handling inside generators 
PEP 485: A function for testing approximate equality 
PEP 486: Make the Python Launcher aware of virtual environments 
PEP 488: Elimination of PYO files 
PEP 489: Multi-phase extension module initialization 
Other Language Changes 
New Modules
typing 
zipapp 
Improved Modules
argparse 
asyncio 
bz2 
cgi 
cmath 
code 
collections 
collections.abc 
compileall 
concurrent.futures 
configparser 
contextlib 
csv 
curses 
dbm 
difflib 
distutils 
doctest 
email 
enum 
faulthandler 
functools 
glob 
gzip 
heapq 
http 
http.client 
idlelib and IDLE 
imaplib 
imghdr 
importlib 
inspect 
io 
ipaddress 
json 
linecache 
locale 
logging 
lzma 
math 
multiprocessing 
operator 
os 
pathlib 
pickle 
poplib 
re 
readline 
selectors 
shutil 
signal 
smtpd 
smtplib 
sndhdr 
socket 
ssl
Memory BIO Support 
Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation Support 
Other Changes 
sqlite3 
subprocess 
sys 
sysconfig 
tarfile 
threading 
time 
timeit 
tkinter 
traceback 
types 
unicodedata 
unittest 
unittest.mock 
urllib 
wsgiref 
xmlrpc 
xml.sax 
zipfile 
Other module-level changes 
Optimizations 
Build and C API Changes 
Deprecated
New Keywords 
Deprecated Python Behavior 
Unsupported Operating Systems 
Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods 
Removed
API and Feature Removals 
Porting to Python 3.5
Changes in Python behavior 
Changes in the Python API 
Changes in the C API 
What’s New In Python 3.4
Summary – Release Highlights 
New Features
PEP 453: Explicit Bootstrapping of PIP in Python Installations
Bootstrapping pip By Default 
Documentation Changes 
PEP 446: Newly Created File Descriptors Are Non-Inheritable 
Improvements to Codec Handling 
PEP 451: A ModuleSpec Type for the Import System 
Other Language Changes 
New Modules
asyncio 
ensurepip 
enum 
pathlib 
selectors 
statistics 
tracemalloc 
Improved Modules
abc 
aifc 
argparse 
audioop 
base64 
collections 
colorsys 
contextlib 
dbm 
dis 
doctest 
email 
filecmp 
functools 
gc 
glob 
hashlib 
hmac 
html 
http 
idlelib and IDLE 
importlib 
inspect 
ipaddress 
logging 
marshal 
mmap 
multiprocessing 
operator 
os 
pdb 
pickle 
plistlib 
poplib 
pprint 
pty 
pydoc 
re 
resource 
select 
shelve 
shutil 
smtpd 
smtplib 
socket 
sqlite3 
ssl 
stat 
struct 
subprocess 
sunau 
sys 
tarfile 
textwrap 
threading 
traceback 
types 
urllib 
unittest 
venv 
wave 
weakref 
xml.etree 
zipfile 
CPython Implementation Changes
PEP 445: Customization of CPython Memory Allocators 
PEP 442: Safe Object Finalization 
PEP 456: Secure and Interchangeable Hash Algorithm 
PEP 436: Argument Clinic 
Other Build and C API Changes 
Other Improvements 
Significant Optimizations 
Deprecated
Deprecations in the Python API 
Deprecated Features 
Removed
Operating Systems No Longer Supported 
API and Feature Removals 
Code Cleanups 
Porting to Python 3.4
Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior 
Changes in the Python API 
Changes in the C API 
Changed in 3.4.3
PEP 476: Enabling certificate verification by default for stdlib http clients 
What’s New In Python 3.3
Summary – Release highlights 
PEP 405: Virtual Environments 
PEP 420: Implicit Namespace Packages 
PEP 3118: New memoryview implementation and buffer protocol documentation
Features 
API changes 
PEP 393: Flexible String Representation
Functionality 
Performance and resource usage 
PEP 397: Python Launcher for Windows 
PEP 3151: Reworking the OS and IO exception hierarchy 
PEP 380: Syntax for Delegating to a Subgenerator 
PEP 409: Suppressing exception context 
PEP 414: Explicit Unicode literals 
PEP 3155: Qualified name for classes and functions 
PEP 412: Key-Sharing Dictionary 
PEP 362: Function Signature Object 
PEP 421: Adding sys.implementation
SimpleNamespace 
Using importlib as the Implementation of Import
New APIs 
Visible Changes 
Other Language Changes 
A Finer-Grained Import Lock 
Builtin functions and types 
New Modules
faulthandler 
ipaddress 
lzma 
Improved Modules
abc 
array 
base64 
binascii 
bz2 
codecs 
collections 
contextlib 
crypt 
curses 
datetime 
decimal
Features 
API changes 
email
Policy Framework 
Provisional Policy with New Header API 
Other API Changes 
ftplib 
functools 
gc 
hmac 
http 
html 
imaplib 
inspect 
io 
itertools 
logging 
math 
mmap 
multiprocessing 
nntplib 
os 
pdb 
pickle 
pydoc 
re 
sched 
select 
shlex 
shutil 
signal 
smtpd 
smtplib 
socket 
socketserver 
sqlite3 
ssl 
stat 
struct 
subprocess 
sys 
tarfile 
tempfile 
textwrap 
threading 
time 
types 
unittest 
urllib 
webbrowser 
xml.etree.ElementTree 
zlib 
Optimizations 
Build and C API Changes 
Deprecated
Unsupported Operating Systems 
Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods 
Deprecated functions and types of the C API 
Deprecated features 
Porting to Python 3.3
Porting Python code 
Porting C code 
Building C extensions 
Command Line Switch Changes 
What’s New In Python 3.2
PEP 384: Defining a Stable ABI 
PEP 389: Argparse Command Line Parsing Module 
PEP 391: Dictionary Based Configuration for Logging 
PEP 3148: The concurrent.futures module 
PEP 3147: PYC Repository Directories 
PEP 3149: ABI Version Tagged .so Files 
PEP 3333: Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0.1 
Other Language Changes 
New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules
email 
elementtree 
functools 
itertools 
collections 
threading 
datetime and time 
math 
abc 
io 
reprlib 
logging 
csv 
contextlib 
decimal and fractions 
ftp 
popen 
select 
gzip and zipfile 
tarfile 
hashlib 
ast 
os 
shutil 
sqlite3 
html 
socket 
ssl 
nntp 
certificates 
imaplib 
http.client 
unittest 
random 
poplib 
asyncore 
tempfile 
inspect 
pydoc 
dis 
dbm 
ctypes 
site 
sysconfig 
pdb 
configparser 
urllib.parse 
mailbox 
turtledemo 
Multi-threading 
Optimizations 
Unicode 
Codecs 
Documentation 
IDLE 
Code Repository 
Build and C API Changes 
Porting to Python 3.2 
What’s New In Python 3.1
PEP 372: Ordered Dictionaries 
PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator 
Other Language Changes 
New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules 
Optimizations 
IDLE 
Build and C API Changes 
Porting to Python 3.1 
What’s New In Python 3.0
Common Stumbling Blocks
Print Is A Function 
Views And Iterators Instead Of Lists 
Ordering Comparisons 
Integers 
Text Vs. Data Instead Of Unicode Vs. 8-bit 
Overview Of Syntax Changes
New Syntax 
Changed Syntax 
Removed Syntax 
Changes Already Present In Python 2.6 
Library Changes 
PEP 3101: A New Approach To String Formatting 
Changes To Exceptions 
Miscellaneous Other Changes
Operators And Special Methods 
Builtins 
Build and C API Changes 
Performance 
Porting To Python 3.0 
What’s New in Python 2.7
The Future for Python 2.x 
Changes to the Handling of Deprecation Warnings 
Python 3.1 Features 
PEP 372: Adding an Ordered Dictionary to collections 
PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator 
PEP 389: The argparse Module for Parsing Command Lines 
PEP 391: Dictionary-Based Configuration For Logging 
PEP 3106: Dictionary Views 
PEP 3137: The memoryview Object 
Other Language Changes
Interpreter Changes 
Optimizations 
New and Improved Modules
New module: importlib 
New module: sysconfig 
ttk: Themed Widgets for Tk 
Updated module: unittest 
Updated module: ElementTree 1.3 
Build and C API Changes
Capsules 
Port-Specific Changes: Windows 
Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X 
Port-Specific Changes: FreeBSD 
Other Changes and Fixes 
Porting to Python 2.7 
New Features Added to Python 2.7 Maintenance Releases
PEP 434: IDLE Enhancement Exception for All Branches 
PEP 466: Network Security Enhancements for Python 2.7 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.6
Python 3.0 
Changes to the Development Process
New Issue Tracker: Roundup 
New Documentation Format: reStructuredText Using Sphinx 
PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement
Writing Context Managers 
The contextlib module 
PEP 366: Explicit Relative Imports From a Main Module 
PEP 370: Per-user site-packages Directory 
PEP 371: The multiprocessing Package 
PEP 3101: Advanced String Formatting 
PEP 3105: print As a Function 
PEP 3110: Exception-Handling Changes 
PEP 3112: Byte Literals 
PEP 3116: New I/O Library 
PEP 3118: Revised Buffer Protocol 
PEP 3119: Abstract Base Classes 
PEP 3127: Integer Literal Support and Syntax 
PEP 3129: Class Decorators 
PEP 3141: A Type Hierarchy for Numbers
The fractions Module 
Other Language Changes
Optimizations 
Interpreter Changes 
New and Improved Modules
The ast module 
The future_builtins module 
The json module: JavaScript Object Notation 
The plistlib module: A Property-List Parser 
ctypes Enhancements 
Improved SSL Support 
Deprecations and Removals 
Build and C API Changes
Port-Specific Changes: Windows 
Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X 
Port-Specific Changes: IRIX 
Porting to Python 2.6 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.5
PEP 308: Conditional Expressions 
PEP 309: Partial Function Application 
PEP 314: Metadata for Python Software Packages v1.1 
PEP 328: Absolute and Relative Imports 
PEP 338: Executing Modules as Scripts 
PEP 341: Unified try/except/finally 
PEP 342: New Generator Features 
PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement
Writing Context Managers 
The contextlib module 
PEP 352: Exceptions as New-Style Classes 
PEP 353: Using ssize_t as the index type 
PEP 357: The ‘__index__’ method 
Other Language Changes
Interactive Interpreter Changes 
Optimizations 
New, Improved, and Removed Modules
The ctypes package 
The ElementTree package 
The hashlib package 
The sqlite3 package 
The wsgiref package 
Build and C API Changes
Port-Specific Changes 
Porting to Python 2.5 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.4
PEP 218: Built-In Set Objects 
PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers 
PEP 289: Generator Expressions 
PEP 292: Simpler String Substitutions 
PEP 318: Decorators for Functions and Methods 
PEP 322: Reverse Iteration 
PEP 324: New subprocess Module 
PEP 327: Decimal Data Type
Why is Decimal needed? 
The Decimal type 
The Context type 
PEP 328: Multi-line Imports 
PEP 331: Locale-Independent Float/String Conversions 
Other Language Changes
Optimizations 
New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules
cookielib 
doctest 
Build and C API Changes
Port-Specific Changes 
Porting to Python 2.4 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.3
PEP 218: A Standard Set Datatype 
PEP 255: Simple Generators 
PEP 263: Source Code Encodings 
PEP 273: Importing Modules from ZIP Archives 
PEP 277: Unicode file name support for Windows NT 
PEP 278: Universal Newline Support 
PEP 279: enumerate() 
PEP 282: The logging Package 
PEP 285: A Boolean Type 
PEP 293: Codec Error Handling Callbacks 
PEP 301: Package Index and Metadata for Distutils 
PEP 302: New Import Hooks 
PEP 305: Comma-separated Files 
PEP 307: Pickle Enhancements 
Extended Slices 
Other Language Changes
String Changes 
Optimizations 
New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules
Date/Time Type 
The optparse Module 
Pymalloc: A Specialized Object Allocator 
Build and C API Changes
Port-Specific Changes 
Other Changes and Fixes 
Porting to Python 2.3 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.2
Introduction 
PEPs 252 and 253: Type and Class Changes
Old and New Classes 
Descriptors 
Multiple Inheritance: The Diamond Rule 
Attribute Access 
Related Links 
PEP 234: Iterators 
PEP 255: Simple Generators 
PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers 
PEP 238: Changing the Division Operator 
Unicode Changes 
PEP 227: Nested Scopes 
New and Improved Modules 
Interpreter Changes and Fixes 
Other Changes and Fixes 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.1
Introduction 
PEP 227: Nested Scopes 
PEP 236: __future__ Directives 
PEP 207: Rich Comparisons 
PEP 230: Warning Framework 
PEP 229: New Build System 
PEP 205: Weak References 
PEP 232: Function Attributes 
PEP 235: Importing Modules on Case-Insensitive Platforms 
PEP 217: Interactive Display Hook 
PEP 208: New Coercion Model 
PEP 241: Metadata in Python Packages 
New and Improved Modules 
Other Changes and Fixes 
Acknowledgements 
What’s New in Python 2.0
Introduction 
What About Python 1.6? 
New Development Process 
Unicode 
List Comprehensions 
Augmented Assignment 
String Methods 
Garbage Collection of Cycles 
Other Core Changes
Minor Language Changes 
Changes to Built-in Functions 
Porting to 2.0 
Extending/Embedding Changes 
Distutils: Making Modules Easy to Install 
XML Modules
SAX2 Support 
DOM Support 
Relationship to PyXML 
Module changes 
New modules 
IDLE Improvements 
Deleted and Deprecated Modules 
Acknowledgements 
Changelog
Python 3.6.5 final?
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Python 3.6.5 release candidate 1?
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Python 3.6.4 final? 
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The Python Tutorial
1. Whetting Your Appetite 
2. Using the Python Interpreter
2.1. Invoking the Interpreter
2.1.1. Argument Passing 
2.1.2. Interactive Mode 
2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environment
2.2.1. Source Code Encoding 
3. An Informal Introduction to Python
3.1. Using Python as a Calculator
3.1.1. Numbers 
3.1.2. Strings 
3.1.3. Lists 
3.2. First Steps Towards Programming 
4. More Control Flow Tools
4.1. if Statements 
4.2. for Statements 
4.3. The range() Function 
4.4. break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops 
4.5. pass Statements 
4.6. Defining Functions 
4.7. More on Defining Functions
4.7.1. Default Argument Values 
4.7.2. Keyword Arguments 
4.7.3. Arbitrary Argument Lists 
4.7.4. Unpacking Argument Lists 
4.7.5. Lambda Expressions 
4.7.6. Documentation Strings 
4.7.7. Function Annotations 
4.8. Intermezzo: Coding Style 
5. Data Structures
5.1. More on Lists
5.1.1. Using Lists as Stacks 
5.1.2. Using Lists as Queues 
5.1.3. List Comprehensions 
5.1.4. Nested List Comprehensions 
5.2. The del statement 
5.3. Tuples and Sequences 
5.4. Sets 
5.5. Dictionaries 
5.6. Looping Techniques 
5.7. More on Conditions 
5.8. Comparing Sequences and Other Types 
6. Modules
6.1. More on Modules
6.1.1. Executing modules as scripts 
6.1.2. The Module Search Path 
6.1.3. “Compiled” Python files 
6.2. Standard Modules 
6.3. The dir() Function 
6.4. Packages
6.4.1. Importing * From a Package 
6.4.2. Intra-package References 
6.4.3. Packages in Multiple Directories 
7. Input and Output
7.1. Fancier Output Formatting
7.1.1. Old string formatting 
7.2. Reading and Writing Files
7.2.1. Methods of File Objects 
7.2.2. Saving structured data with json 
8. Errors and Exceptions
8.1. Syntax Errors 
8.2. Exceptions 
8.3. Handling Exceptions 
8.4. Raising Exceptions 
8.5. User-defined Exceptions 
8.6. Defining Clean-up Actions 
8.7. Predefined Clean-up Actions 
9. Classes
9.1. A Word About Names and Objects 
9.2. Python Scopes and Namespaces
9.2.1. Scopes and Namespaces Example 
9.3. A First Look at Classes
9.3.1. Class Definition Syntax 
9.3.2. Class Objects 
9.3.3. Instance Objects 
9.3.4. Method Objects 
9.3.5. Class and Instance Variables 
9.4. Random Remarks 
9.5. Inheritance
9.5.1. Multiple Inheritance 
9.6. Private Variables 
9.7. Odds and Ends 
9.8. Iterators 
9.9. Generators 
9.10. Generator Expressions 
10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library
10.1. Operating System Interface 
10.2. File Wildcards 
10.3. Command Line Arguments 
10.4. Error Output Redirection and Program Termination 
10.5. String Pattern Matching 
10.6. Mathematics 
10.7. Internet Access 
10.8. Dates and Times 
10.9. Data Compression 
10.10. Performance Measurement 
10.11. Quality Control 
10.12. Batteries Included 
11. Brief Tour of the Standard Library — Part II
11.1. Output Formatting 
11.2. Templating 
11.3. Working with Binary Data Record Layouts 
11.4. Multi-threading 
11.5. Logging 
11.6. Weak References 
11.7. Tools for Working with Lists 
11.8. Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic 
12. Virtual Environments and Packages
12.1. Introduction 
12.2. Creating Virtual Environments 
12.3. Managing Packages with pip 
13. What Now? 
14. Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution
14.1. Tab Completion and History Editing 
14.2. Alternatives to the Interactive Interpreter 
15. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations
15.1. Representation Error 
16. Appendix
16.1. Interactive Mode
16.1.1. Error Handling 
16.1.2. Executable Python Scripts 
16.1.3. The Interactive Startup File 
16.1.4. The Customization Modules 
Python Setup and Usage
1. Command line and environment
1.1. Command line
1.1.1. Interface options 
1.1.2. Generic options 
1.1.3. Miscellaneous options 
1.1.4. Options you shouldn’t use 
1.2. Environment variables
1.2.1. Debug-mode variables 
2. Using Python on Unix platforms
2.1. Getting and installing the latest version of Python
2.1.1. On Linux 
2.1.2. On FreeBSD and OpenBSD 
2.1.3. On OpenSolaris 
2.2. Building Python 
2.3. Python-related paths and files 
2.4. Miscellaneous 
2.5. Editors and IDEs 
3. Using Python on Windows
3.1. Installing Python
3.1.1. Supported Versions 
3.1.2. Installation Steps 
3.1.3. Removing the MAX_PATH Limitation 
3.1.4. Installing Without UI 
3.1.5. Installing Without Downloading 
3.1.6. Modifying an install 
3.1.7. Other Platforms 
3.2. Alternative bundles 
3.3. Configuring Python
3.3.1. Excursus: Setting environment variables 
3.3.2. Finding the Python executable 
3.4. Python Launcher for Windows
3.4.1. Getting started
3.4.1.1. From the command-line 
3.4.1.2. Virtual environments 
3.4.1.3. From a script 
3.4.1.4. From file associations 
3.4.2. Shebang Lines 
3.4.3. Arguments in shebang lines 
3.4.4. Customization
3.4.4.1. Customization via INI files 
3.4.4.2. Customizing default Python versions 
3.4.5. Diagnostics 
3.5. Finding modules 
3.6. Additional modules
3.6.1. PyWin32 
3.6.2. cx_Freeze 
3.6.3. WConio 
3.7. Compiling Python on Windows 
3.8. Embedded Distribution
3.8.1. Python Application 
3.8.2. Embedding Python 
3.9. Other resources 
4. Using Python on a Macintosh
4.1. Getting and Installing MacPython
4.1.1. How to run a Python script 
4.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI 
4.1.3. Configuration 
4.2. The IDE 
4.3. Installing Additional Python Packages 
4.4. GUI Programming on the Mac 
4.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac 
4.6. Other Resources 
The Python Language Reference
1. Introduction
1.1. Alternate Implementations 
1.2. Notation 
2. Lexical analysis
2.1. Line structure
2.1.1. Logical lines 
2.1.2. Physical lines 
2.1.3. Comments 
2.1.4. Encoding declarations 
2.1.5. Explicit line joining 
2.1.6. Implicit line joining 
2.1.7. Blank lines 
2.1.8. Indentation 
2.1.9. Whitespace between tokens 
2.2. Other tokens 
2.3. Identifiers and keywords
2.3.1. Keywords 
2.3.2. Reserved classes of identifiers 
2.4. Literals
2.4.1. String and Bytes literals 
2.4.2. String literal concatenation 
2.4.3. Formatted string literals 
2.4.4. Numeric literals 
2.4.5. Integer literals 
2.4.6. Floating point literals 
2.4.7. Imaginary literals 
2.5. Operators 
2.6. Delimiters 
3. Data model
3.1. Objects, values and types 
3.2. The standard type hierarchy 
3.3. Special method names
3.3.1. Basic customization 
3.3.2. Customizing attribute access
3.3.2.1. Customizing module attribute access 
3.3.2.2. Implementing Descriptors 
3.3.2.3. Invoking Descriptors 
3.3.2.4. __slots__
3.3.2.4.1. Notes on using __slots__ 
3.3.3. Customizing class creation
3.3.3.1. Metaclasses 
3.3.3.2. Determining the appropriate metaclass 
3.3.3.3. Preparing the class namespace 
3.3.3.4. Executing the class body 
3.3.3.5. Creating the class object 
3.3.3.6. Metaclass example 
3.3.4. Customizing instance and subclass checks 
3.3.5. Emulating callable objects 
3.3.6. Emulating container types 
3.3.7. Emulating numeric types 
3.3.8. With Statement Context Managers 
3.3.9. Special method lookup 
3.4. Coroutines
3.4.1. Awaitable Objects 
3.4.2. Coroutine Objects 
3.4.3. Asynchronous Iterators 
3.4.4. Asynchronous Context Managers 
4. Execution model
4.1. Structure of a program 
4.2. Naming and binding
4.2.1. Binding of names 
4.2.2. Resolution of names 
4.2.3. Builtins and restricted execution 
4.2.4. Interaction with dynamic features 
4.3. Exceptions 
5. The import system
5.1. importlib 
5.2. Packages
5.2.1. Regular packages 
5.2.2. Namespace packages 
5.3. Searching
5.3.1. The module cache 
5.3.2. Finders and loaders 
5.3.3. Import hooks 
5.3.4. The meta path 
5.4. Loading
5.4.1. Loaders 
5.4.2. Submodules 
5.4.3. Module spec 
5.4.4. Import-related module attributes 
5.4.5. module.__path__ 
5.4.6. Module reprs 
5.5. The Path Based Finder
5.5.1. Path entry finders 
5.5.2. Path entry finder protocol 
5.6. Replacing the standard import system 
5.7. Special considerations for __main__
5.7.1. __main__.__spec__ 
5.8. Open issues 
5.9. References 
6. Expressions
6.1. Arithmetic conversions 
6.2. Atoms
6.2.1. Identifiers (Names) 
6.2.2. Literals 
6.2.3. Parenthesized forms 
6.2.4. Displays for lists, sets and dictionaries 
6.2.5. List displays 
6.2.6. Set displays 
6.2.7. Dictionary displays 
6.2.8. Generator expressions 
6.2.9. Yield expressions
6.2.9.1. Generator-iterator methods 
6.2.9.2. Examples 
6.2.9.3. Asynchronous generator functions 
6.2.9.4. Asynchronous generator-iterator methods 
6.3. Primaries
6.3.1. Attribute references 
6.3.2. Subscriptions 
6.3.3. Slicings 
6.3.4. Calls 
6.4. Await expression 
6.5. The power operator 
6.6. Unary arithmetic and bitwise operations 
6.7. Binary arithmetic operations 
6.8. Shifting operations 
6.9. Binary bitwise operations 
6.10. Comparisons
6.10.1. Value comparisons 
6.10.2. Membership test operations 
6.10.3. Identity comparisons 
6.11. Boolean operations 
6.12. Conditional expressions 
6.13. Lambdas 
6.14. Expression lists 
6.15. Evaluation order 
6.16. Operator precedence 
7. Simple statements
7.1. Expression statements 
7.2. Assignment statements
7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements 
7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements 
7.3. The assert statement 
7.4. The pass statement 
7.5. The del statement 
7.6. The return statement 
7.7. The yield statement 
7.8. The raise statement 
7.9. The break statement 
7.10. The continue statement 
7.11. The import statement
7.11.1. Future statements 
7.12. The global statement 
7.13. The nonlocal statement 
8. Compound statements
8.1. The if statement 
8.2. The while statement 
8.3. The for statement 
8.4. The try statement 
8.5. The with statement 
8.6. Function definitions 
8.7. Class definitions 
8.8. Coroutines
8.8.1. Coroutine function definition 
8.8.2. The async for statement 
8.8.3. The async with statement 
9. Top-level components
9.1. Complete Python programs 
9.2. File input 
9.3. Interactive input 
9.4. Expression input 
10. Full Grammar specification 
The Python Standard Library
1. Introduction 
2. Built-in Functions 
3. Built-in Constants
3.1. Constants added by the site module 
4. Built-in Types
4.1. Truth Value Testing 
4.2. Boolean Operations — and, or, not 
4.3. Comparisons 
4.4. Numeric Types — int, float, complex
4.4.1. Bitwise Operations on Integer Types 
4.4.2. Additional Methods on Integer Types 
4.4.3. Additional Methods on Float 
4.4.4. Hashing of numeric types 
4.5. Iterator Types
4.5.1. Generator Types 
4.6. Sequence Types — list, tuple, range
4.6.1. Common Sequence Operations 
4.6.2. Immutable Sequence Types 
4.6.3. Mutable Sequence Types 
4.6.4. Lists 
4.6.5. Tuples 
4.6.6. Ranges 
4.7. Text Sequence Type — str
4.7.1. String Methods 
4.7.2. printf-style String Formatting 
4.8. Binary Sequence Types — bytes, bytearray, memoryview
4.8.1. Bytes Objects 
4.8.2. Bytearray Objects 
4.8.3. Bytes and Bytearray Operations 
4.8.4. printf-style Bytes Formatting 
4.8.5. Memory Views 
4.9. Set Types — set, frozenset 
4.10. Mapping Types — dict
4.10.1. Dictionary view objects 
4.11. Context Manager Types 
4.12. Other Built-in Types
4.12.1. Modules 
4.12.2. Classes and Class Instances 
4.12.3. Functions 
4.12.4. Methods 
4.12.5. Code Objects 
4.12.6. Type Objects 
4.12.7. The Null Object 
4.12.8. The Ellipsis Object 
4.12.9. The NotImplemented Object 
4.12.10. Boolean Values 
4.12.11. Internal Objects 
4.13. Special Attributes 
5. Built-in Exceptions
5.1. Base classes 
5.2. Concrete exceptions
5.2.1. OS exceptions 
5.3. Warnings 
5.4. Exception hierarchy 
6. Text Processing Services
6.1. string — Common string operations
6.1.1. String constants 
6.1.2. Custom String Formatting 
6.1.3. Format String Syntax
6.1.3.1. Format Specification Mini-Language 
6.1.3.2. Format examples 
6.1.4. Template strings 
6.1.5. Helper functions 
6.2. re — Regular expression operations
6.2.1. Regular Expression Syntax 
6.2.2. Module Contents 
6.2.3. Regular Expression Objects 
6.2.4. Match Objects 
6.2.5. Regular Expression Examples
6.2.5.1. Checking for a Pair 
6.2.5.2. Simulating scanf() 
6.2.5.3. search() vs. match() 
6.2.5.4. Making a Phonebook 
6.2.5.5. Text Munging 
6.2.5.6. Finding all Adverbs 
6.2.5.7. Finding all Adverbs and their Positions 
6.2.5.8. Raw String Notation 
6.2.5.9. Writing a Tokenizer 
6.3. difflib — Helpers for computing deltas
6.3.1. SequenceMatcher Objects 
6.3.2. SequenceMatcher Examples 
6.3.3. Differ Objects 
6.3.4. Differ Example 
6.3.5. A command-line interface to difflib 
6.4. textwrap — Text wrapping and filling 
6.5. unicodedata — Unicode Database 
6.6. stringprep — Internet String Preparation 
6.7. readline — GNU readline interface
6.7.1. Init file 
6.7.2. Line buffer 
6.7.3. History file 
6.7.4. History list 
6.7.5. Startup hooks 
6.7.6. Completion 
6.7.7. Example 
6.8. rlcompleter — Completion function for GNU readline
6.8.1. Completer Objects 
7. Binary Data Services
7.1. struct — Interpret bytes as packed binary data
7.1.1. Functions and Exceptions 
7.1.2. Format Strings
7.1.2.1. Byte Order, Size, and Alignment 
7.1.2.2. Format Characters 
7.1.2.3. Examples 
7.1.3. Classes 
7.2. codecs — Codec registry and base classes
7.2.1. Codec Base Classes
7.2.1.1. Error Handlers 
7.2.1.2. Stateless Encoding and Decoding 
7.2.1.3. Incremental Encoding and Decoding
7.2.1.3.1. IncrementalEncoder Objects 
7.2.1.3.2. IncrementalDecoder Objects 
7.2.1.4. Stream Encoding and Decoding
7.2.1.4.1. StreamWriter Objects 
7.2.1.4.2. StreamReader Objects 
7.2.1.4.3. StreamReaderWriter Objects 
7.2.1.4.4. StreamRecoder Objects 
7.2.2. Encodings and Unicode 
7.2.3. Standard Encodings 
7.2.4. Python Specific Encodings
7.2.4.1. Text Encodings 
7.2.4.2. Binary Transforms 
7.2.4.3. Text Transforms 
7.2.5. encodings.idna — Internationalized Domain Names in Applications 
7.2.6. encodings.mbcs — Windows ANSI codepage 
7.2.7. encodings.utf_8_sig — UTF-8 codec with BOM signature 
8. Data Types
8.1. datetime — Basic date and time types
8.1.1. Available Types 
8.1.2. timedelta Objects 
8.1.3. date Objects 
8.1.4. datetime Objects 
8.1.5. time Objects 
8.1.6. tzinfo Objects 
8.1.7. timezone Objects 
8.1.8. strftime() and strptime() Behavior 
8.2. calendar — General calendar-related functions 
8.3. collections — Container datatypes
8.3.1. ChainMap objects
8.3.1.1. ChainMap Examples and Recipes 
8.3.2. Counter objects 
8.3.3. deque objects
8.3.3.1. deque Recipes 
8.3.4. defaultdict objects
8.3.4.1. defaultdict Examples 
8.3.5. namedtuple() Factory Function for Tuples with Named Fields 
8.3.6. OrderedDict objects
8.3.6.1. OrderedDict Examples and Recipes 
8.3.7. UserDict objects 
8.3.8. UserList objects 
8.3.9. UserString objects 
8.4. collections.abc — Abstract Base Classes for Containers
8.4.1. Collections Abstract Base Classes 
8.5. heapq — Heap queue algorithm
8.5.1. Basic Examples 
8.5.2. Priority Queue Implementation Notes 
8.5.3. Theory 
8.6. bisect — Array bisection algorithm
8.6.1. Searching Sorted Lists 
8.6.2. Other Examples 
8.7. array — Efficient arrays of numeric values 
8.8. weakref — Weak references
8.8.1. Weak Reference Objects 
8.8.2. Example 
8.8.3. Finalizer Objects 
8.8.4. Comparing finalizers with __del__() methods 
8.9. types — Dynamic type creation and names for built-in types
8.9.1. Dynamic Type Creation 
8.9.2. Standard Interpreter Types 
8.9.3. Additional Utility Classes and Functions 
8.9.4. Coroutine Utility Functions 
8.10. copy — Shallow and deep copy operations 
8.11. pprint — Data pretty printer
8.11.1. PrettyPrinter Objects 
8.11.2. Example 
8.12. reprlib — Alternate repr() implementation
8.12.1. Repr Objects 
8.12.2. Subclassing Repr Objects 
8.13. enum — Support for enumerations
8.13.1. Module Contents 
8.13.2. Creating an Enum 
8.13.3. Programmatic access to enumeration members and their attributes 
8.13.4. Duplicating enum members and values 
8.13.5. Ensuring unique enumeration values 
8.13.6. Using automatic values 
8.13.7. Iteration 
8.13.8. Comparisons 
8.13.9. Allowed members and attributes of enumerations 
8.13.10. Restricted subclassing of enumerations 
8.13.11. Pickling 
8.13.12. Functional API 
8.13.13. Derived Enumerations
8.13.13.1. IntEnum 
8.13.13.2. IntFlag 
8.13.13.3. Flag 
8.13.13.4. Others 
8.13.14. Interesting examples
8.13.14.1. Omitting values
8.13.14.1.1. Using auto 
8.13.14.1.2. Using object 
8.13.14.1.3. Using a descriptive string 
8.13.14.1.4. Using a custom __new__() 
8.13.14.2. OrderedEnum 
8.13.14.3. DuplicateFreeEnum 
8.13.14.4. Planet 
8.13.15. How are Enums different?
8.13.15.1. Enum Classes 
8.13.15.2. Enum Members (aka instances) 
8.13.15.3. Finer Points
8.13.15.3.1. Supported __dunder__ names 
8.13.15.3.2. Supported _sunder_ names 
8.13.15.3.3. Enum member type 
8.13.15.3.4. Boolean value of Enum classes and members 
8.13.15.3.5. Enum classes with methods 
8.13.15.3.6. Combining members of Flag 
9. Numeric and Mathematical Modules
9.1. numbers — Numeric abstract base classes
9.1.1. The numeric tower 
9.1.2. Notes for type implementors
9.1.2.1. Adding More Numeric ABCs 
9.1.2.2. Implementing the arithmetic operations 
9.2. math — Mathematical functions
9.2.1. Number-theoretic and representation functions 
9.2.2. Power and logarithmic functions 
9.2.3. Trigonometric functions 
9.2.4. Angular conversion 
9.2.5. Hyperbolic functions 
9.2.6. Special functions 
9.2.7. Constants 
9.3. cmath — Mathematical functions for complex numbers
9.3.1. Conversions to and from polar coordinates 
9.3.2. Power and logarithmic functions 
9.3.3. Trigonometric functions 
9.3.4. Hyperbolic functions 
9.3.5. Classification functions 
9.3.6. Constants 
9.4. decimal — Decimal fixed point and floating point arithmetic
9.4.1. Quick-start Tutorial 
9.4.2. Decimal objects
9.4.2.1. Logical operands 
9.4.3. Context objects 
9.4.4. Constants 
9.4.5. Rounding modes 
9.4.6. Signals 
9.4.7. Floating Point Notes
9.4.7.1. Mitigating round-off error with increased precision 
9.4.7.2. Special values 
9.4.8. Working with threads 
9.4.9. Recipes 
9.4.10. Decimal FAQ 
9.5. fractions — Rational numbers 
9.6. random — Generate pseudo-random numbers
9.6.1. Bookkeeping functions 
9.6.2. Functions for integers 
9.6.3. Functions for sequences 
9.6.4. Real-valued distributions 
9.6.5. Alternative Generator 
9.6.6. Notes on Reproducibility 
9.6.7. Examples and Recipes 
9.7. statistics — Mathematical statistics functions
9.7.1. Averages and measures of central location 
9.7.2. Measures of spread 
9.7.3. Function details 
9.7.4. Exceptions 
10. Functional Programming Modules
10.1. itertools — Functions creating iterators for efficient looping
10.1.1. Itertool functions 
10.1.2. Itertools Recipes 
10.2. functools — Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects
10.2.1. partial Objects 
10.3. operator — Standard operators as functions
10.3.1. Mapping Operators to Functions 
10.3.2. Inplace Operators 
11. File and Directory Access
11.1. pathlib — Object-oriented filesystem paths
11.1.1. Basic use 
11.1.2. Pure paths
11.1.2.1. General properties 
11.1.2.2. Operators 
11.1.2.3. Accessing individual parts 
11.1.2.4. Methods and properties 
11.1.3. Concrete paths
11.1.3.1. Methods 
11.2. os.path — Common pathname manipulations 
11.3. fileinput — Iterate over lines from multiple input streams 
11.4. stat — Interpreting stat() results 
11.5. filecmp — File and Directory Comparisons
11.5.1. The dircmp class 
11.6. tempfile — Generate temporary files and directories
11.6.1. Examples 
11.6.2. Deprecated functions and variables 
11.7. glob — Unix style pathname pattern expansion 
11.8. fnmatch — Unix filename pattern matching 
11.9. linecache — Random access to text lines 
11.10. shutil — High-level file operations
11.10.1. Directory and files operations
11.10.1.1. copytree example 
11.10.1.2. rmtree example 
11.10.2. Archiving operations
11.10.2.1. Archiving example 
11.10.3. Querying the size of the output terminal 
11.11. macpath — Mac OS 9 path manipulation functions 
12. Data Persistence
12.1. pickle — Python object serialization
12.1.1. Relationship to other Python modules
12.1.1.1. Comparison with marshal 
12.1.1.2. Comparison with json 
12.1.2. Data stream format 
12.1.3. Module Interface 
12.1.4. What can be pickled and unpickled? 
12.1.5. Pickling Class Instances
12.1.5.1. Persistence of External Objects 
12.1.5.2. Dispatch Tables 
12.1.5.3. Handling Stateful Objects 
12.1.6. Restricting Globals 
12.1.7. Performance 
12.1.8. Examples 
12.2. copyreg — Register pickle support functions
12.2.1. Example 
12.3. shelve — Python object persistence
12.3.1. Restrictions 
12.3.2. Example 
12.4. marshal — Internal Python object serialization 
12.5. dbm — Interfaces to Unix “databases”
12.5.1. dbm.gnu — GNU’s reinterpretation of dbm 
12.5.2. dbm.ndbm — Interface based on ndbm 
12.5.3. dbm.dumb — Portable DBM implementation 
12.6. sqlite3 — DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite databases
12.6.1. Module functions and constants 
12.6.2. Connection Objects 
12.6.3. Cursor Objects 
12.6.4. Row Objects 
12.6.5. Exceptions 
12.6.6. SQLite and Python types
12.6.6.1. Introduction 
12.6.6.2. Using adapters to store additional Python types in SQLite databases
12.6.6.2.1. Letting your object adapt itself 
12.6.6.2.2. Registering an adapter callable 
12.6.6.3. Converting SQLite values to custom Python types 
12.6.6.4. Default adapters and converters 
12.6.7. Controlling Transactions 
12.6.8. Using sqlite3 efficiently
12.6.8.1. Using shortcut methods 
12.6.8.2. Accessing columns by name instead of by index 
12.6.8.3. Using the connection as a context manager 
12.6.9. Common issues
12.6.9.1. Multithreading 
13. Data Compression and Archiving
13.1. zlib — Compression compatible with gzip 
13.2. gzip — Support for gzip files
13.2.1. Examples of usage 
13.3. bz2 — Support for bzip2 compression
13.3.1. (De)compression of files 
13.3.2. Incremental (de)compression 
13.3.3. One-shot (de)compression 
13.4. lzma — Compression using the LZMA algorithm
13.4.1. Reading and writing compressed files 
13.4.2. Compressing and decompressing data in memory 
13.4.3. Miscellaneous 
13.4.4. Specifying custom filter chains 
13.4.5. Examples 
13.5. zipfile — Work with ZIP archives
13.5.1. ZipFile Objects 
13.5.2. PyZipFile Objects 
13.5.3. ZipInfo Objects 
13.5.4. Command-Line Interface
13.5.4.1. Command-line options 
13.6. tarfile — Read and write tar archive files
13.6.1. TarFile Objects 
13.6.2. TarInfo Objects 
13.6.3. Command-Line Interface
13.6.3.1. Command-line options 
13.6.4. Examples 
13.6.5. Supported tar formats 
13.6.6. Unicode issues 
14. File Formats
14.1. csv — CSV File Reading and Writing
14.1.1. Module Contents 
14.1.2. Dialects and Formatting Parameters 
14.1.3. Reader Objects 
14.1.4. Writer Objects 
14.1.5. Examples 
14.2. configparser — Configuration file parser
14.2.1. Quick Start 
14.2.2. Supported Datatypes 
14.2.3. Fallback Values 
14.2.4. Supported INI File Structure 
14.2.5. Interpolation of values 
14.2.6. Mapping Protocol Access 
14.2.7. Customizing Parser Behaviour 
14.2.8. Legacy API Examples 
14.2.9. ConfigParser Objects 
14.2.10. RawConfigParser Objects 
14.2.11. Exceptions 
14.3. netrc — netrc file processing
14.3.1. netrc Objects 
14.4. xdrlib — Encode and decode XDR data
14.4.1. Packer Objects 
14.4.2. Unpacker Objects 
14.4.3. Exceptions 
14.5. plistlib — Generate and parse Mac OS X .plist files
14.5.1. Examples 
15. Cryptographic Services
15.1. hashlib — Secure hashes and message digests
15.1.1. Hash algorithms 
15.1.2. SHAKE variable length digests 
15.1.3. Key derivation 
15.1.4. BLAKE2
15.1.4.1. Creating hash objects 
15.1.4.2. Constants 
15.1.4.3. Examples
15.1.4.3.1. Simple hashing 
15.1.4.3.2. Using different digest sizes 
15.1.4.3.3. Keyed hashing 
15.1.4.3.4. Randomized hashing 
15.1.4.3.5. Personalization 
15.1.4.3.6. Tree mode 
15.1.4.4. Credits 
15.2. hmac — Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication 
15.3. secrets — Generate secure random numbers for managing secrets
15.3.1. Random numbers 
15.3.2. Generating tokens
15.3.2.1. How many bytes should tokens use? 
15.3.3. Other functions 
15.3.4. Recipes and best practices 
16. Generic Operating System Services
16.1. os — Miscellaneous operating system interfaces
16.1.1. File Names, Command Line Arguments, and Environment Variables 
16.1.2. Process Parameters 
16.1.3. File Object Creation 
16.1.4. File Descriptor Operations
16.1.4.1. Querying the size of a terminal 
16.1.4.2. Inheritance of File Descriptors 
16.1.5. Files and Directories
16.1.5.1. Linux extended attributes 
16.1.6. Process Management 
16.1.7. Interface to the scheduler 
16.1.8. Miscellaneous System Information 
16.1.9. Random numbers 
16.2. io — Core tools for working with streams
16.2.1. Overview
16.2.1.1. Text I/O 
16.2.1.2. Binary I/O 
16.2.1.3. Raw I/O 
16.2.2. High-level Module Interface
16.2.2.1. In-memory streams 
16.2.3. Class hierarchy
16.2.3.1. I/O Base Classes 
16.2.3.2. Raw File I/O 
16.2.3.3. Buffered Streams 
16.2.3.4. Text I/O 
16.2.4. Performance
16.2.4.1. Binary I/O 
16.2.4.2. Text I/O 
16.2.4.3. Multi-threading 
16.2.4.4. Reentrancy 
16.3. time — Time access and conversions
16.3.1. Functions 
16.3.2. Clock ID Constants 
16.3.3. Timezone Constants 
16.4. argparse — Parser for command-line options, arguments and sub-commands
16.4.1. Example
16.4.1.1. Creating a parser 
16.4.1.2. Adding arguments 
16.4.1.3. Parsing arguments 
16.4.2. ArgumentParser objects
16.4.2.1. prog 
16.4.2.2. usage 
16.4.2.3. description 
16.4.2.4. epilog 
16.4.2.5. parents 
16.4.2.6. formatter_class 
16.4.2.7. prefix_chars 
16.4.2.8. fromfile_prefix_chars 
16.4.2.9. argument_default 
16.4.2.10. allow_abbrev 
16.4.2.11. conflict_handler 
16.4.2.12. add_help 
16.4.3. The add_argument() method
16.4.3.1. name or flags 
16.4.3.2. action 
16.4.3.3. nargs 
16.4.3.4. const 
16.4.3.5. default 
16.4.3.6. type 
16.4.3.7. choices 
16.4.3.8. required 
16.4.3.9. help 
16.4.3.10. metavar 
16.4.3.11. dest 
16.4.3.12. Action classes 
16.4.4. The parse_args() method
16.4.4.1. Option value syntax 
16.4.4.2. Invalid arguments 
16.4.4.3. Arguments containing - 
16.4.4.4. Argument abbreviations (prefix matching) 
16.4.4.5. Beyond sys.argv 
16.4.4.6. The Namespace object 
16.4.5. Other utilities
16.4.5.1. Sub-commands 
16.4.5.2. FileType objects 
16.4.5.3. Argument groups 
16.4.5.4. Mutual exclusion 
16.4.5.5. Parser defaults 
16.4.5.6. Printing help 
16.4.5.7. Partial parsing 
16.4.5.8. Customizing file parsing 
16.4.5.9. Exiting methods 
16.4.6. Upgrading optparse code 
16.5. getopt — C-style parser for command line options 
16.6. logging — Logging facility for Python
16.6.1. Logger Objects 
16.6.2. Logging Levels 
16.6.3. Handler Objects 
16.6.4. Formatter Objects 
16.6.5. Filter Objects 
16.6.6. LogRecord Objects 
16.6.7. LogRecord attributes 
16.6.8. LoggerAdapter Objects 
16.6.9. Thread Safety 
16.6.10. Module-Level Functions 
16.6.11. Module-Level Attributes 
16.6.12. Integration with the warnings module 
16.7. logging.config — Logging configuration
16.7.1. Configuration functions 
16.7.2. Configuration dictionary schema
16.7.2.1. Dictionary Schema Details 
16.7.2.2. Incremental Configuration 
16.7.2.3. Object connections 
16.7.2.4. User-defined objects 
16.7.2.5. Access to external objects 
16.7.2.6. Access to internal objects 
16.7.2.7. Import resolution and custom importers 
16.7.3. Configuration file format 
16.8. logging.handlers — Logging handlers
16.8.1. StreamHandler 
16.8.2. FileHandler 
16.8.3. NullHandler 
16.8.4. WatchedFileHandler 
16.8.5. BaseRotatingHandler 
16.8.6. RotatingFileHandler 
16.8.7. TimedRotatingFileHandler 
16.8.8. SocketHandler 
16.8.9. DatagramHandler 
16.8.10. SysLogHandler 
16.8.11. NTEventLogHandler 
16.8.12. SMTPHandler 
16.8.13. MemoryHandler 
16.8.14. HTTPHandler 
16.8.15. QueueHandler 
16.8.16. QueueListener 
16.9. getpass — Portable password input 
16.10. curses — Terminal handling for character-cell displays
16.10.1. Functions 
16.10.2. Window Objects 
16.10.3. Constants 
16.11. curses.textpad — Text input widget for curses programs
16.11.1. Textbox objects 
16.12. curses.ascii — Utilities for ASCII characters 
16.13. curses.panel — A panel stack extension for curses
16.13.1. Functions 
16.13.2. Panel Objects 
16.14. platform — Access to underlying platform’s identifying data
16.14.1. Cross Platform 
16.14.2. Java Platform 
16.14.3. Windows Platform
16.14.3.1. Win95/98 specific 
16.14.4. Mac OS Platform 
16.14.5. Unix Platforms 
16.15. errno — Standard errno system symbols 
16.16. ctypes — A foreign function library for Python
16.16.1. ctypes tutorial
16.16.1.1. Loading dynamic link libraries 
16.16.1.2. Accessing functions from loaded dlls 
16.16.1.3. Calling functions 
16.16.1.4. Fundamental data types 
16.16.1.5. Calling functions, continued 
16.16.1.6. Calling functions with your own custom data types 
16.16.1.7. Specifying the required argument types (function prototypes) 
16.16.1.8. Return types 
16.16.1.9. Passing pointers (or: passing parameters by reference) 
16.16.1.10. Structures and unions 
16.16.1.11. Structure/union alignment and byte order 
16.16.1.12. Bit fields in structures and unions 
16.16.1.13. Arrays 
16.16.1.14. Pointers 
16.16.1.15. Type conversions 
16.16.1.16. Incomplete Types 
16.16.1.17. Callback functions 
16.16.1.18. Accessing values exported from dlls 
16.16.1.19. Surprises 
16.16.1.20. Variable-sized data types 
16.16.2. ctypes reference
16.16.2.1. Finding shared libraries 
16.16.2.2. Loading shared libraries 
16.16.2.3. Foreign functions 
16.16.2.4. Function prototypes 
16.16.2.5. Utility functions 
16.16.2.6. Data types 
16.16.2.7. Fundamental data types 
16.16.2.8. Structured data types 
16.16.2.9. Arrays and pointers 
17. Concurrent Execution
17.1. threading — Thread-based parallelism
17.1.1. Thread-Local Data 
17.1.2. Thread Objects 
17.1.3. Lock Objects 
17.1.4. RLock Objects 
17.1.5. Condition Objects 
17.1.6. Semaphore Objects
17.1.6.1. Semaphore Example 
17.1.7. Event Objects 
17.1.8. Timer Objects 
17.1.9. Barrier Objects 
17.1.10. Using locks, conditions, and semaphores in the with statement 
17.2. multiprocessing — Process-based parallelism
17.2.1. Introduction
17.2.1.1. The Process class 
17.2.1.2. Contexts and start methods 
17.2.1.3. Exchanging objects between processes 
17.2.1.4. Synchronization between processes 
17.2.1.5. Sharing state between processes 
17.2.1.6. Using a pool of workers 
17.2.2. Reference
17.2.2.1. Process and exceptions 
17.2.2.2. Pipes and Queues 
17.2.2.3. Miscellaneous 
17.2.2.4. Connection Objects 
17.2.2.5. Synchronization primitives 
17.2.2.6. Shared ctypes Objects
17.2.2.6.1. The multiprocessing.sharedctypes module 
17.2.2.7. Managers
17.2.2.7.1. Customized managers 
17.2.2.7.2. Using a remote manager 
17.2.2.8. Proxy Objects
17.2.2.8.1. Cleanup 
17.2.2.9. Process Pools 
17.2.2.10. Listeners and Clients
17.2.2.10.1. Address Formats 
17.2.2.11. Authentication keys 
17.2.2.12. Logging 
17.2.2.13. The multiprocessing.dummy module 
17.2.3. Programming guidelines
17.2.3.1. All start methods 
17.2.3.2. The spawn and forkserver start methods 
17.2.4. Examples 
17.3. The concurrent package 
17.4. concurrent.futures — Launching parallel tasks
17.4.1. Executor Objects 
17.4.2. ThreadPoolExecutor
17.4.2.1. ThreadPoolExecutor Example 
17.4.3. ProcessPoolExecutor
17.4.3.1. ProcessPoolExecutor Example 
17.4.4. Future Objects 
17.4.5. Module Functions 
17.4.6. Exception classes 
17.5. subprocess — Subprocess management
17.5.1. Using the subprocess Module
17.5.1.1. Frequently Used Arguments 
17.5.1.2. Popen Constructor 
17.5.1.3. Exceptions 
17.5.2. Security Considerations 
17.5.3. Popen Objects 
17.5.4. Windows Popen Helpers
17.5.4.1. Constants 
17.5.5. Older high-level API 
17.5.6. Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module
17.5.6.1. Replacing /bin/sh shell backquote 
17.5.6.2. Replacing shell pipeline 
17.5.6.3. Replacing os.system() 
17.5.6.4. Replacing the os.spawn family 
17.5.6.5. Replacing os.popen(), os.popen2(), os.popen3() 
17.5.6.6. Replacing functions from the popen2 module 
17.5.7. Legacy Shell Invocation Functions 
17.5.8. Notes
17.5.8.1. Converting an argument sequence to a string on Windows 
17.6. sched — Event scheduler
17.6.1. Scheduler Objects 
17.7. queue — A synchronized queue class
17.7.1. Queue Objects 
17.8. dummy_threading — Drop-in replacement for the threading module 
17.9. _thread — Low-level threading API 
17.10. _dummy_thread — Drop-in replacement for the _thread module 
18. Interprocess Communication and Networking
18.1. socket — Low-level networking interface
18.1.1. Socket families 
18.1.2. Module contents
18.1.2.1. Exceptions 
18.1.2.2. Constants 
18.1.2.3. Functions
18.1.2.3.1. Creating sockets 
18.1.2.3.2. Other functions 
18.1.3. Socket Objects 
18.1.4. Notes on socket timeouts
18.1.4.1. Timeouts and the connect method 
18.1.4.2. Timeouts and the accept method 
18.1.5. Example 
18.2. ssl — TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects
18.2.1. Functions, Constants, and Exceptions
18.2.1.1. Socket creation 
18.2.1.2. Context creation 
18.2.1.3. Random generation 
18.2.1.4. Certificate handling 
18.2.1.5. Constants 
18.2.2. SSL Sockets 
18.2.3. SSL Contexts 
18.2.4. Certificates
18.2.4.1. Certificate chains 
18.2.4.2. CA certificates 
18.2.4.3. Combined key and certificate 
18.2.4.4. Self-signed certificates 
18.2.5. Examples
18.2.5.1. Testing for SSL support 
18.2.5.2. Client-side operation 
18.2.5.3. Server-side operation 
18.2.6. Notes on non-blocking sockets 
18.2.7. Memory BIO Support 
18.2.8. SSL session 
18.2.9. Security considerations
18.2.9.1. Best defaults 
18.2.9.2. Manual settings
18.2.9.2.1. Verifying certificates 
18.2.9.2.2. Protocol versions 
18.2.9.2.3. Cipher selection 
18.2.9.3. Multi-processing 
18.2.10. LibreSSL support 
18.3. select — Waiting for I/O completion
18.3.1. /dev/poll Polling Objects 
18.3.2. Edge and Level Trigger Polling (epoll) Objects 
18.3.3. Polling Objects 
18.3.4. Kqueue Objects 
18.3.5. Kevent Objects 
18.4. selectors — High-level I/O multiplexing
18.4.1. Introduction 
18.4.2. Classes 
18.4.3. Examples 
18.5. asyncio — Asynchronous I/O, event loop, coroutines and tasks
18.5.1. Base Event Loop
18.5.1.1. Run an event loop 
18.5.1.2. Calls 
18.5.1.3. Delayed calls 
18.5.1.4. Futures 
18.5.1.5. Tasks 
18.5.1.6. Creating connections 
18.5.1.7. Creating listening connections 
18.5.1.8. Watch file descriptors 
18.5.1.9. Low-level socket operations 
18.5.1.10. Resolve host name 
18.5.1.11. Connect pipes 
18.5.1.12. UNIX signals 
18.5.1.13. Executor 
18.5.1.14. Error Handling API 
18.5.1.15. Debug mode 
18.5.1.16. Server 
18.5.1.17. Handle 
18.5.1.18. Event loop examples
18.5.1.18.1. Hello World with call_soon() 
18.5.1.18.2. Display the current date with call_later() 
18.5.1.18.3. Watch a file descriptor for read events 
18.5.1.18.4. Set signal handlers for SIGINT and SIGTERM 
18.5.2. Event loops
18.5.2.1. Event loop functions 
18.5.2.2. Available event loops 
18.5.2.3. Platform support
18.5.2.3.1. Windows 
18.5.2.3.2. Mac OS X 
18.5.2.4. Event loop policies and the default policy 
18.5.2.5. Event loop policy interface 
18.5.2.6. Access to the global loop policy 
18.5.2.7. Customizing the event loop policy 
18.5.3. Tasks and coroutines
18.5.3.1. Coroutines
18.5.3.1.1. Example: Hello World coroutine 
18.5.3.1.2. Example: Coroutine displaying the current date 
18.5.3.1.3. Example: Chain coroutines 
18.5.3.2. InvalidStateError 
18.5.3.3. TimeoutError 
18.5.3.4. Future
18.5.3.4.1. Example: Future with run_until_complete() 
18.5.3.4.2. Example: Future with run_forever() 
18.5.3.5. Task
18.5.3.5.1. Example: Parallel execution of tasks 
18.5.3.6. Task functions 
18.5.4. Transports and protocols (callback based API)
18.5.4.1. Transports
18.5.4.1.1. BaseTransport 
18.5.4.1.2. ReadTransport 
18.5.4.1.3. WriteTransport 
18.5.4.1.4. DatagramTransport 
18.5.4.1.5. BaseSubprocessTransport 
18.5.4.2. Protocols
18.5.4.2.1. Protocol classes 
18.5.4.2.2. Connection callbacks 
18.5.4.2.3. Streaming protocols 
18.5.4.2.4. Datagram protocols 
18.5.4.2.5. Flow control callbacks 
18.5.4.2.6. Coroutines and protocols 
18.5.4.3. Protocol examples
18.5.4.3.1. TCP echo client protocol 
18.5.4.3.2. TCP echo server protocol 
18.5.4.3.3. UDP echo client protocol 
18.5.4.3.4. UDP echo server protocol 
18.5.4.3.5. Register an open socket to wait for data using a protocol 
18.5.5. Streams (coroutine based API)
18.5.5.1. Stream functions 
18.5.5.2. StreamReader 
18.5.5.3. StreamWriter 
18.5.5.4. StreamReaderProtocol 
18.5.5.5. IncompleteReadError 
18.5.5.6. LimitOverrunError 
18.5.5.7. Stream examples
18.5.5.7.1. TCP echo client using streams 
18.5.5.7.2. TCP echo server using streams 
18.5.5.7.3. Get HTTP headers 
18.5.5.7.4. Register an open socket to wait for data using streams 
18.5.6. Subprocess
18.5.6.1. Windows event loop 
18.5.6.2. Create a subprocess: high-level API using Process 
18.5.6.3. Create a subprocess: low-level API using subprocess.Popen 
18.5.6.4. Constants 
18.5.6.5. Process 
18.5.6.6. Subprocess and threads 
18.5.6.7. Subprocess examples
18.5.6.7.1. Subprocess using transport and protocol 
18.5.6.7.2. Subprocess using streams 
18.5.7. Synchronization primitives
18.5.7.1. Locks
18.5.7.1.1. Lock 
18.5.7.1.2. Event 
18.5.7.1.3. Condition 
18.5.7.2. Semaphores
18.5.7.2.1. Semaphore 
18.5.7.2.2. BoundedSemaphore 
18.5.8. Queues
18.5.8.1. Queue 
18.5.8.2. PriorityQueue 
18.5.8.3. LifoQueue
18.5.8.3.1. Exceptions 
18.5.9. Develop with asyncio
18.5.9.1. Debug mode of asyncio 
18.5.9.2. Cancellation 
18.5.9.3. Concurrency and multithreading 
18.5.9.4. Handle blocking functions correctly 
18.5.9.5. Logging 
18.5.9.6. Detect coroutine objects never scheduled 
18.5.9.7. Detect exceptions never consumed 
18.5.9.8. Chain coroutines correctly 
18.5.9.9. Pending task destroyed 
18.5.9.10. Close transports and event loops 
18.6. asyncore — Asynchronous socket handler
18.6.1. asyncore Example basic HTTP client 
18.6.2. asyncore Example basic echo server 
18.7. asynchat — Asynchronous socket command/response handler
18.7.1. asynchat Example 
18.8. signal — Set handlers for asynchronous events
18.8.1. General rules
18.8.1.1. Execution of Python signal handlers 
18.8.1.2. Signals and threads 
18.8.2. Module contents 
18.8.3. Example 
18.9. mmap — Memory-mapped file support 
19. Internet Data Handling
19.1. email — An email and MIME handling package
19.1.1. email.message: Representing an email message 
19.1.2. email.parser: Parsing email messages
19.1.2.1. FeedParser API 
19.1.2.2. Parser API 
19.1.2.3. Additional notes 
19.1.3. email.generator: Generating MIME documents 
19.1.4. email.policy: Policy Objects 
19.1.5. email.errors: Exception and Defect classes 
19.1.6. email.headerregistry: Custom Header Objects 
19.1.7. email.contentmanager: Managing MIME Content
19.1.7.1. Content Manager Instances 
19.1.8. email: Examples 
19.1.9. email.message.Message: Representing an email message using the compat32 API 
19.1.10. email.mime: Creating email and MIME objects from scratch 
19.1.11. email.header: Internationalized headers 
19.1.12. email.charset: Representing character sets 
19.1.13. email.encoders: Encoders 
19.1.14. email.utils: Miscellaneous utilities 
19.1.15. email.iterators: Iterators 
19.2. json — JSON encoder and decoder
19.2.1. Basic Usage 
19.2.2. Encoders and Decoders 
19.2.3. Exceptions 
19.2.4. Standard Compliance and Interoperability
19.2.4.1. Character Encodings 
19.2.4.2. Infinite and NaN Number Values 
19.2.4.3. Repeated Names Within an Object 
19.2.4.4. Top-level Non-Object, Non-Array Values 
19.2.4.5. Implementation Limitations 
19.2.5. Command Line Interface
19.2.5.1. Command line options 
19.3. mailcap — Mailcap file handling 
19.4. mailbox — Manipulate mailboxes in various formats
19.4.1. Mailbox objects
19.4.1.1. Maildir 
19.4.1.2. mbox 
19.4.1.3. MH 
19.4.1.4. Babyl 
19.4.1.5. MMDF 
19.4.2. Message objects
19.4.2.1. MaildirMessage 
19.4.2.2. mboxMessage 
19.4.2.3. MHMessage 
19.4.2.4. BabylMessage 
19.4.2.5. MMDFMessage 
19.4.3. Exceptions 
19.4.4. Examples 
19.5. mimetypes — Map filenames to MIME types
19.5.1. MimeTypes Objects 
19.6. base64 — Base16, Base32, Base64, Base85 Data Encodings 
19.7. binhex — Encode and decode binhex4 files
19.7.1. Notes 
19.8. binascii — Convert between binary and ASCII 
19.9. quopri — Encode and decode MIME quoted-printable data 
19.10. uu — Encode and decode uuencode files 
20. Structured Markup Processing Tools
20.1. html — HyperText Markup Language support 
20.2. html.parser — Simple HTML and XHTML parser
20.2.1. Example HTML Parser Application 
20.2.2. HTMLParser Methods 
20.2.3. Examples 
20.3. html.entities — Definitions of HTML general entities 
20.4. XML Processing Modules
20.4.1. XML vulnerabilities 
20.4.2. The defusedxml and defusedexpat Packages 
20.5. xml.etree.ElementTree — The ElementTree XML API
20.5.1. Tutorial
20.5.1.1. XML tree and elements 
20.5.1.2. Parsing XML 
20.5.1.3. Pull API for non-blocking parsing 
20.5.1.4. Finding interesting elements 
20.5.1.5. Modifying an XML File 
20.5.1.6. Building XML documents 
20.5.1.7. Parsing XML with Namespaces 
20.5.1.8. Additional resources 
20.5.2. XPath support
20.5.2.1. Example 
20.5.2.2. Supported XPath syntax 
20.5.3. Reference
20.5.3.1. Functions 
20.5.3.2. Element Objects 
20.5.3.3. ElementTree Objects 
20.5.3.4. QName Objects 
20.5.3.5. TreeBuilder Objects 
20.5.3.6. XMLParser Objects 
20.5.3.7. XMLPullParser Objects 
20.5.3.8. Exceptions 
20.6. xml.dom — The Document Object Model API
20.6.1. Module Contents 
20.6.2. Objects in the DOM
20.6.2.1. DOMImplementation Objects 
20.6.2.2. Node Objects 
20.6.2.3. NodeList Objects 
20.6.2.4. DocumentType Objects 
20.6.2.5. Document Objects 
20.6.2.6. Element Objects 
20.6.2.7. Attr Objects 
20.6.2.8. NamedNodeMap Objects 
20.6.2.9. Comment Objects 
20.6.2.10. Text and CDATASection Objects 
20.6.2.11. ProcessingInstruction Objects 
20.6.2.12. Exceptions 
20.6.3. Conformance
20.6.3.1. Type Mapping 
20.6.3.2. Accessor Methods 
20.7. xml.dom.minidom — Minimal DOM implementation
20.7.1. DOM Objects 
20.7.2. DOM Example 
20.7.3. minidom and the DOM standard 
20.8. xml.dom.pulldom — Support for building partial DOM trees
20.8.1. DOMEventStream Objects 
20.9. xml.sax — Support for SAX2 parsers
20.9.1. SAXException Objects 
20.10. xml.sax.handler — Base classes for SAX handlers
20.10.1. ContentHandler Objects 
20.10.2. DTDHandler Objects 
20.10.3. EntityResolver Objects 
20.10.4. ErrorHandler Objects 
20.11. xml.sax.saxutils — SAX Utilities 
20.12. xml.sax.xmlreader — Interface for XML parsers
20.12.1. XMLReader Objects 
20.12.2. IncrementalParser Objects 
20.12.3. Locator Objects 
20.12.4. InputSource Objects 
20.12.5. The Attributes Interface 
20.12.6. The AttributesNS Interface 
20.13. xml.parsers.expat — Fast XML parsing using Expat
20.13.1. XMLParser Objects 
20.13.2. ExpatError Exceptions 
20.13.3. Example 
20.13.4. Content Model Descriptions 
20.13.5. Expat error constants 
21. Internet Protocols and Support
21.1. webbrowser — Convenient Web-browser controller
21.1.1. Browser Controller Objects 
21.2. cgi — Common Gateway Interface support
21.2.1. Introduction 
21.2.2. Using the cgi module 
21.2.3. Higher Level Interface 
21.2.4. Functions 
21.2.5. Caring about security 
21.2.6. Installing your CGI script on a Unix system 
21.2.7. Testing your CGI script 
21.2.8. Debugging CGI scripts 
21.2.9. Common problems and solutions 
21.3. cgitb — Traceback manager for CGI scripts 
21.4. wsgiref — WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation
21.4.1. wsgiref.util – WSGI environment utilities 
21.4.2. wsgiref.headers – WSGI response header tools 
21.4.3. wsgiref.simple_server – a simple WSGI HTTP server 
21.4.4. wsgiref.validate — WSGI conformance checker 
21.4.5. wsgiref.handlers – server/gateway base classes 
21.4.6. Examples 
21.5. urllib — URL handling modules 
21.6. urllib.request — Extensible library for opening URLs
21.6.1. Request Objects 
21.6.2. OpenerDirector Objects 
21.6.3. BaseHandler Objects 
21.6.4. HTTPRedirectHandler Objects 
21.6.5. HTTPCookieProcessor Objects 
21.6.6. ProxyHandler Objects 
21.6.7. HTTPPasswordMgr Objects 
21.6.8. HTTPPasswordMgrWithPriorAuth Objects 
21.6.9. AbstractBasicAuthHandler Objects 
21.6.10. HTTPBasicAuthHandler Objects 
21.6.11. ProxyBasicAuthHandler Objects 
21.6.12. AbstractDigestAuthHandler Objects 
21.6.13. HTTPDigestAuthHandler Objects 
21.6.14. ProxyDigestAuthHandler Objects 
21.6.15. HTTPHandler Objects 
21.6.16. HTTPSHandler Objects 
21.6.17. FileHandler Objects 
21.6.18. DataHandler Objects 
21.6.19. FTPHandler Objects 
21.6.20. CacheFTPHandler Objects 
21.6.21. UnknownHandler Objects 
21.6.22. HTTPErrorProcessor Objects 
21.6.23. Examples 
21.6.24. Legacy interface 
21.6.25. urllib.request Restrictions 
21.7. urllib.response — Response classes used by urllib 
21.8. urllib.parse — Parse URLs into components
21.8.1. URL Parsing 
21.8.2. Parsing ASCII Encoded Bytes 
21.8.3. Structured Parse Results 
21.8.4. URL Quoting 
21.9. urllib.error — Exception classes raised by urllib.request 
21.10. urllib.robotparser — Parser for robots.txt 
21.11. http — HTTP modules
21.11.1. HTTP status codes 
21.12. http.client — HTTP protocol client
21.12.1. HTTPConnection Objects 
21.12.2. HTTPResponse Objects 
21.12.3. Examples 
21.12.4. HTTPMessage Objects 
21.13. ftplib — FTP protocol client
21.13.1. FTP Objects 
21.13.2. FTP_TLS Objects 
21.14. poplib — POP3 protocol client
21.14.1. POP3 Objects 
21.14.2. POP3 Example 
21.15. imaplib — IMAP4 protocol client
21.15.1. IMAP4 Objects 
21.15.2. IMAP4 Example 
21.16. nntplib — NNTP protocol client
21.16.1. NNTP Objects
21.16.1.1. Attributes 
21.16.1.2. Methods 
21.16.2. Utility functions 
21.17. smtplib — SMTP protocol client
21.17.1. SMTP Objects 
21.17.2. SMTP Example 
21.18. smtpd — SMTP Server
21.18.1. SMTPServer Objects 
21.18.2. DebuggingServer Objects 
21.18.3. PureProxy Objects 
21.18.4. MailmanProxy Objects 
21.18.5. SMTPChannel Objects 
21.19. telnetlib — Telnet client
21.19.1. Telnet Objects 
21.19.2. Telnet Example 
21.20. uuid — UUID objects according to RFC 4122
21.20.1. Example 
21.21. socketserver — A framework for network servers
21.21.1. Server Creation Notes 
21.21.2. Server Objects 
21.21.3. Request Handler Objects 
21.21.4. Examples
21.21.4.1. socketserver.TCPServer Example 
21.21.4.2. socketserver.UDPServer Example 
21.21.4.3. Asynchronous Mixins 
21.22. http.server — HTTP servers 
21.23. http.cookies — HTTP state management
21.23.1. Cookie Objects 
21.23.2. Morsel Objects 
21.23.3. Example 
21.24. http.cookiejar — Cookie handling for HTTP clients
21.24.1. CookieJar and FileCookieJar Objects 
21.24.2. FileCookieJar subclasses and co-operation with web browsers 
21.24.3. CookiePolicy Objects 
21.24.4. DefaultCookiePolicy Objects 
21.24.5. Cookie Objec                        
...展开收缩
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weixin_39344493 2018-06-15 17:36:45
真的无法打开,点击无反应
lmh1472 2018-06-06 17:27:08
下载了,无法打开文件呀,浪费5分
 
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