Handbook of Natural Language Processing Second Edition Chapman & Hall

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Handbook of Natural Language Processing Second Edition Chapman & Hall Crc Machine Learning & Pattern Recognition Chapman and Hall CRC 2010
Haldane: Where is the bedeutung of a proposition in your system, Turing? It is worth talking in terms of a universal grammar in mind, but it is also possible to construct meaning less propositions Turing: For example? Haldane: Red thoughts walk peacefully This is an example of a proposition which is formulated correctly, according to the rules of the english grammar. If your theory is correct, then i was able to construct such a proposition since I was able to activate the English version of the universal grammar in. my mind, the semantic content of which equals to zero. Where can I find in your theory that this proposition makes no sense? Turing: It is very simple, i do not knou from the book The Cambridge quintett, John Casti, 1998 however, the"system "is(as regards logic)a free play with symbols according to(logically arbitrarily given rules of the game. All this applies as much(and in the same manner) to the thinking in daily life as to a more consciously and systematically constructed thinking in the sciences -Albert Einstein, On Remarks of B. Russell's Theory ofKnowledge, Ideas and Opinions, New York, 1954 Natural Language Processing Semantic Aspects Epaminondas Kapetanios University of Westminster Faculty of Science and Technology London, uK Doina tatar Babes-Bolyai University Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science Cluj-Napoca, Romania Christian sacarea Babes-Bolyai University Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science Cluj-Napoca, Romania (CRC) CRC Press Boca raton London New york CRC Press is an imprint cf the Taylor francis Group, an informa business A SCIENCE PUBLISHERS BOOK CRC Press Taylor Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway nw, suite 300 Boca raton fl 33487-2742 o 2014 by Taylor Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor Francis group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version date: 20131021 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-8497-6(eBook -PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information stor- age or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Forpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthisworkpleaseaccesswww.copy- rightcom(http://www.copyright.com/)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenter,Inc.(ccc),222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that pro vides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a pho tocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe Visit the Taylor francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the crc Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com Preface Communication has always played a pivotal role in the evolution of human culture, societies and civilisation. From symbols, cave paintings, petroglyphs, pictograms, ideograms and alphabet based forms of writing, to computerised forms of communication, such as the Web, search engines, email, mobile phones, VoIP Internet telephony television and digital media, communication technologies have been evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems. Despite the emergence of a variety of communication means and technologies, natural language, or ordinary language, signed written or spoken, remained the main means of communication among humans with the processing of natural language being an innate facility adhered to human intellect. With the rise of computers however, natural language has been contrasted with artificial or constructed languages, such as Python, Java, C++, a computer programming language, or controlled languages for querying and search, in that natural languages contribute to the understanding of human intelligence. Nonetheless, the rise of social networks, e. g Facebook, Twitter, did not replace natural language as one of the main means of information and communication in todav's human civilisation What proved, however, to be an innate ability of humans from an early age to engage in speech repetition, language understanding and, therefore, so quickly acquire a spoken vocabulary from the pronunciation of words spoken around them, turned out to he a challenge for computing devices as symbol manipulators following a predefined set of instructions. Given the overwhelming amount of text based data and information generated and consumed daily, which is also boosted by the speedy pace of technologica advances, effective solutions have been sought after, in accordance with many academic, industrial and scholar activities, in order to computationally improve natural language processing and vi Natural language Processing: Semantic Aspects understanding with the purpose to make meaningful information and communication stand out in an amalgamation of humans and machines Hence, it is not surprising that many books and research publications, around this topic, saw the light of this world amid all technological advances, which have been primarily geared towards faster communication rather than a qualitative one. The main tenor, what so ever, has been given through the lenses of text analytics, text mining, natural languages and information systems information retrieval, as well as knowledge representation, artificia intelligence and machine learning. In all these contributions,a rather mathematical and statistical approach to natural language processing and understanding, than a pure linguistics based one prevails, particularly when it comes to semantics and pragmatics based processing of text based data and information As having a long standing contribution to computational natural language processing and understanding as well as to the underpinning mathematics, the authors epitomise, in this book their experience and knowledge in a series of classic research areas at the cross-roads of natural language processing with information retrieval and search, text mining, knowledge representation, formal concept analysis and further mathematical aspects, with a particular emphasis on semantic aspects. To this extent, the book is, by no means, an exhaustive reference list of related work, or a handbook for natural language processing however, it does provide a roadmap for those aspiring to contribute to world knowledge in the area through the lenses of semantic computing. Besides, the book aspires to guide all those academics, scholars and researchers who wish to engage in this world knowledge contribution, through the major challenges and bumpy road ahead, as well as througl a methodological baseline based on algorithmic and mathematical thinking, which underpins any serious attempt in computational approaches In this context, the first part of the book (Part D introduces the reader into the main key challenges when it comes to representing and extracting meaning with such a symbol based system called natural language. The second part (Part It discusses those mathematical aspects, which are considered fundamental for semantics based natural language processing From a didactical point of view, some traditional mathematical concepts such as Lattice Theory, upon which Formal Concept Analysis is based, are Preface vii being addressed in order to provide a second thought about the recurrent problems mainly caused by the shortly lived memory of classical studies in the field. Part Iii embarks on the knowledge representation aspects related with natural language processing in the favour of measuring similarity among words, the pivotal role of semantics in query languages, as well as attempts to specify universal grammar for natural languages in the context of multi- lingual querying. Finally, part iv discusses knowledge extraction aspects related with natural language processing such as word sense disambiguation, text segmentation and summarisation, text entailment, named entity recognition Epaminondas Kapetanios Doina tatar Christian Sacarea Contents reface PART I: Introduction 1. The Nature of language 1.1 Syntax versus Semantics 3 1.2 Meaning and Context 1.3 The Symbol grounding Problem PART I: Mathematics 2. Relations 19 2.1 Operations with relations 22 2.2 Homogenous Relations 25 2. 3 Order relations 32 2.4 Lattices. Complete Lattices 34 2.5 Graphical Representation of Ordered Sets 36 2.6 Closure Systems. Galois Connections 38 3. Algebraic Structures 43 3.1 Functions 43 3.2 Binary operations 46 3.3 Associative Operations. Semigroups 47 3.4 Neutral elements. Monoids 49 3.5 Morphisms 50 3.6 Invertible Elements. Groups 54 3. 7 Subgroups 58 3. 8 Group Morphisms 61 3.9 Congruence relations 64 3.10 Rings and Fields 65

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friskit 根本就不是第二版啊。。。
2016-09-17
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smile_goat 不错,讲的很详细,思维清晰
2015-07-17
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罐罐猪 Great book for semantic analysis of NL.
2015-06-27
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