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c99标准文档(ISO-IEC-9899-1999)

c99标准文档(ISO-IEC-9899-1999)
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C标准文档(内含C89/C90,C99,C11标准文档

C语言标准文档,包含C89/C90,C99,C11标准文档,最全的标准文档

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C语言 核心技术 C99 版本 (中文版) 1999年发布的C语言国际标准

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C99(C语言的官方标准第二版)

C99标准是 ISO/IEC 9899:1999 - Programming languages -- C 的简称,是C语言的官方标准第二版。1999年12月1日,国际标准化组织(ISO)和国际电工委员会(IEC)旗下的C语言标准委员会(ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG14)正式发布了这个标准文件。

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C99 规范 标准

c99标准.ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) Contents Foreword ............................. xi Introduction ............................ xiv 1. Scope ............................. 1 2. Normative references ....................... 2 3. Terms, definitions, and symbols ................... 3 4. Conformance .......................... 7 5. Environment .......................... 9 5.1 Conceptual models ..................... 9 5.1.1 Translation environment ................ 9 5.1.2 Execution environments ................ 11 5.2 Environmental considerations ................. 17 5.2.1 Character sets .................... 17 5.2.2 Character display semantics .............. 19 5.2.3 Signals and interrupts ................. 20 5.2.4 Environmental limits ................. 20 6. Language ............................ 29 6.1 Notation .......................... 29 6.2 Concepts ......................... 29 6.2.1 Scopes of identifiers ................. 29 6.2.2 Linkages of identifiers ................. 30 6.2.3 Name spaces of identifiers ............... 31 6.2.4 Storage durations of objects .............. 32 6.2.5 Types ....................... 33 6.2.6 Representations of types ................ 37 6.2.7 Compatible type and composite type ........... 40 6.3 Conversions ........................ 42 6.3.1 Arithmetic operands ................. 42 6.3.2 Other operands ................... 46 6.4 Lexical elements ...................... 49 6.4.1 Keywords ...................... 50 6.4.2 Identifiers ...................... 51 6.4.3 Universal character names ............... 53 6.4.4 Constants ...................... 54 6.4.5 String literals .................... 62 6.4.6 Punctuators ..................... 63 6.4.7 Header names .................... 64 6.4.8 Preprocessing numbers ................ 65 6.4.9 Comments ..................... 66 6.5 Expressions ........................ 67 Contents iii ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) .ISO/IEC 6.5.1 Primary expressions ................. 69 6.5.2 Postfix operators ................... 69 6.5.3 Unary operators ................... 78 6.5.4 Cast operators .................... 81 6.5.5 Multiplicative operators ................ 82 6.5.6 Additive operators .................. 82 6.5.7 Bitwise shift operators ................. 84 6.5.8 Relational operators .................. 85 6.5.9 Equality operators .................. 86 6.5.10 Bitwise AND operator ................. 87 6.5.11 Bitwise exclusive OR operator ............. 88 6.5.12 Bitwise inclusive OR operator .............. 88 6.5.13 Logical AND operator ................. 89 6.5.14 Logical OR operator ................. 89 6.5.15 Conditional operator ................. 90 6.5.16 Assignment operators ................. 91 6.5.17 Comma operator ................... 94 6.6 Constant expressions ..................... 95 6.7 Declarations ........................ 97 6.7.1 Storage-class specifiers ................ 98 6.7.2 Type specifiers .................... 99 6.7.3 Type qualifiers .................... 108 6.7.4 Function specifiers .................. 112 6.7.5 Declarators ..................... 114 6.7.6 Type names ..................... 122 6.7.7 Type definitions ................... 123 6.7.8 Initialization .................... 125 6.8 Statements and blocks .................... 131 6.8.1 Labeled statements .................. 131 6.8.2 Compound statement ................. 132 6.8.3 Expression and null statements ............. 132 6.8.4 Selection statements ................. 133 6.8.5 Iteration statements .................. 135 6.8.6 Jump statements ................... 136 6.9 External definitions ..................... 140 6.9.1 Function definitions .................. 141 6.9.2 External object definitions ............... 143 6.10 Preprocessing directives ................... 145 6.10.1 Conditional inclusion ................. 147 6.10.2 Source file inclusion ................. 149 6.10.3 Macro replacement .................. 151 6.10.4 Line control ..................... 158 6.10.5 Error directive .................... 159 6.10.6 Pragma directive ................... 159 Contents .ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) 6.10.7 Null directive .................... 160 6.10.8 Predefined macro names ................ 160 6.10.9 Pragma operator ................... 161 6.11 Future language directions .................. 163 6.11.1 Floating types .................... 163 6.11.2 Linkages of identifiers ................. 163 6.11.3 External names ................... 163 6.11.4 Character escape sequences .............. 163 6.11.5 Storage-class specifiers ................ 163 6.11.6 Function declarators ................. 163 6.11.7 Function definitions .................. 163 6.11.8 Pragma directives .................. 163 6.11.9 Predefined macro names ................ 163 7. Library ............................. 164 7.1 Introduction ........................ 164 7.1.1 Definitions of terms .................. 164 7.1.2 Standard headers ................... 165 7.1.3 Reserved identifiers .................. 166 7.1.4 Use of library functions ................ 166 7.2 Diagnostics <assert.h> .................. 169 7.2.1 Program diagnostics ................. 169 7.3 Complex arithmetic <complex.h> .............. 170 7.3.1 Introduction ..................... 170 7.3.2 Conventions ..................... 171 7.3.3 Branch cuts ..................... 171 7.3.4 The CX_LIMITED_RANGEpragma ........... 171 7.3.5 Trigonometric functions ................ 172 7.3.6 Hyperbolic functions ................. 174 7.3.7 Exponential and logarithmic functions .......... 176 7.3.8 Power and absolute-value functions ........... 177 7.3.9 Manipulation functions ................ 178 7.4 Character handling <ctype.h> ................ 181 7.4.1 Character classification functions ............ 181 7.4.2 Character case mapping functions ............ 184 7.5 Errors <errno.h> ..................... 186 7.6 Floating-point environment <fenv.h> ............. 187 7.6.1 The FENV_ACCESSpragma .............. 189 7.6.2 Floating-point exceptions ............... 190 7.6.3 Rounding ...................... 192 7.6.4 Environment .................... 194 7.7 Characteristics of floating types <float.h> ........... 196 7.8 Format conversion of integer types <inttypes.h> ........ 197 7.8.1 Macros for format specifiers .............. 197 7.8.2 Functions for greatest-width integer types ......... 198 Contents ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) .ISO/IEC 7.9 Alternative spellings <iso646.h> ............... 201 7.10 Sizes of integer types <limits.h> .............. 202 7.11 Localization <locale.h> .................. 203 7.11.1 Locale control .................... 204 7.11.2 Numeric formatting convention inquiry .......... 205 7.12 Mathematics <math.h> ................... 211 7.12.1 Treatment of error conditions .............. 213 7.12.2 The FP_CONTRACTpragma .............. 214 7.12.3 Classification macros ................. 215 7.12.4 Trigonometric functions ................ 217 7.12.5 Hyperbolic functions ................. 220 7.12.6 Exponential and logarithmic functions .......... 222 7.12.7 Power and absolute-value functions ........... 227 7.12.8 Error and gamma functions ............... 229 7.12.9 Nearest integer functions ................ 230 7.12.10 Remainder functions ................. 234 7.12.11 Manipulation functions ................ 235 7.12.12 Maximum, minimum, and positive difference functions ... 237 7.12.13 Floating multiply-add ................. 238 7.12.14 Comparison macros .................. 239 7.13 Nonlocal jumps <setjmp.h> ................ 242 7.13.1 Save calling environment ............... 242 7.13.2 Restore calling environment .............. 243 7.14 Signal handling <signal.h> ................. 245 7.14.1 Specify signal handling ................ 246 7.14.2 Send signal ..................... 247 7.15 Variable arguments <stdarg.h> ............... 248 7.15.1 Variable argument list access macros ........... 248 7.16 Boolean type and values <stdbool.h> ............ 252 7.17 Common definitions <stddef.h> ............... 253 7.18 Integer types <stdint.h> .................. 254 7.18.1 Integer types .................... 254 7.18.2 Limits of specified-width integer types .......... 256 7.18.3 Limits of other integer types .............. 258 7.18.4 Macros for integer constants .............. 259 7.19 Input/output <stdio.h> .................. 261 7.19.1 Introduction ..................... 261 7.19.2 Streams ...................... 263 7.19.3 Files ........................ 265 7.19.4 Operations on files .................. 267 7.19.5 File access functions ................. 269 7.19.6 Formatted input/output functions ............ 273 7.19.7 Character input/output functions ............. 294 7.19.8 Direct input/output functions .............. 299 Contents .ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) 7.19.9 File positioning functions ............... 300 7.19.10 Error-handling functions ................ 303 7.20 General utilities <stdlib.h> ................ 305 7.20.1 Numeric conversion functions .............. 306 7.20.2 Pseudo-random sequence generation functions ....... 311 7.20.3 Memory management functions ............. 312 7.20.4 Communication with the environment .......... 314 7.20.5 Searching and sorting utilities .............. 317 7.20.6 Integer arithmetic functions .............. 319 7.20.7 Multibyte/wide character conversion functions ....... 320 7.20.8 Multibyte/wide string conversion functions ........ 322 7.21 String handling <string.h> ................. 324 7.21.1 String function conventions ............... 324 7.21.2 Copying functions .................. 324 7.21.3 Concatenation functions ................ 326 7.21.4 Comparison functions ................. 327 7.21.5 Search functions ................... 329 7.21.6 Miscellaneous functions ................ 332 7.22 Type-generic math <tgmath.h> ............... 334 7.23 Date and time <time.h> .................. 337 7.23.1 Components of time ................. 337 7.23.2 Time manipulation functions .............. 338 7.23.3 Time conversion functions ............... 340 7.24 Extended multibyte and wide character utilities <wchar.h> ..... 347 7.24.1 Introduction ..................... 347 7.24.2 Formatted wide character input/output functions ...... 348 7.24.3 Wide character input/output functions .......... 366 7.24.4 General wide string utilities .............. 370 7.24.5 Wide character time conversion functions ......... 384 7.24.6 Extended multibyte/wide character conversion utilities .... 385 7.25 Wide character classification and mapping utilities <wctype.h> ... 392 7.25.1 Introduction ..................... 392 7.25.2 Wide character classification utilities ........... 393 7.25.3 Wide character case mapping utilities ........... 398 7.26 Future library directions ................... 400 7.26.1 Complex arithmetic <complex.h> ........... 400 7.26.2 Character handling <ctype.h> ............ 400 7.26.3 Errors <errno.h> ................. 400 7.26.4 Format conversion of integer types <inttypes.h> .... 400 7.26.5 Localization <locale.h> .............. 400 7.26.6 Signal handling <signal.h> ............. 400 7.26.7 Boolean type and values <stdbool.h> ......... 400 7.26.8 Integer types <stdint.h> .............. 400 7.26.9 Input/output <stdio.h> ............... 401 Contents vii ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) .ISO/IEC 7.26.10 General utilities <stdlib.h> ............. 401 7.26.11 String handling <string.h> ............. 401 7.26.12 Extended multibyte and wide character utilities <wchar.h> .................... 401 7.26.13 Wide character classification and mapping utilities <wctype.h> .................... 401 Annex A (informative) Language syntax summary ............ 402 A.1 Lexical grammar ...................... 402 A.2 Phrase structure grammar ................... 408 A.3 Preprocessing directives ................... 415 Annex B (informative) Library summary ................ 417 B.1 Diagnostics <assert.h> .................. 417 B.2 Complex <complex.h> ................... 417 B.3 Character handling <ctype.h> ................ 419 B.4 Errors <errno.h> ..................... 419 B.5 Floating-point environment <fenv.h> ............. 419 B.6 Characteristics of floating types <float.h> ........... 420 B.7 Format conversion of integer types <inttypes.h> ........ 420 B.8 Alternative spellings <iso646.h> ............... 421 B.9 Sizes of integer types <limits.h> .............. 421 B.10 Localization <locale.h> .................. 421 B.11 Mathematics <math.h> ................... 421 B.12 Nonlocal jumps <setjmp.h> ................ 426 B.13 Signal handling <signal.h> ................. 426 B.14 Variable arguments <stdarg.h> ............... 426 B.15 Boolean type and values <stdbool.h> ............ 426 B.16 Common definitions <stddef.h> ............... 427 B.17 Integer types <stdint.h> .................. 427 B.18 Input/output <stdio.h> .................. 427 B.19 General utilities <stdlib.h> ................ 429 B.20 String handling <string.h> ................. 431 B.21 Type-generic math <tgmath.h> ............... 432 B.22 Date and time <time.h> .................. 432 B.23 Extended multibyte/wide character utilities <wchar.h> ...... 433 B.24 Wide character classification and mapping utilities <wctype.h> ...435 Annex C (informative) Sequence points ................. 437 Annex D (normative) Universal character names for identifiers ....... 438 Annex E (informative) Implementation limits .............. 440 Annex F (normative) IEC 60559 floating-point arithmetic .......... 442 F.1 Introduction ........................ 442 F.2 Types ........................... 442 F.3 Operators and functions ................... 443 viii Contents .ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) F.4 Floating to integer conversion ................. 445 F.5 Binary-decimal conversion .................. 445 F.6 Contracted expressions .................... 446 F.7 Floating-point environment .................. 446 F.8 Optimization ........................ 449 F.9 Mathematics <math.h> ................... 452 Annex G (informative) IEC 60559-compatible complex arithmetic ...... 465 G.1 Introduction ........................ 465 G.2 Types ........................... 465 G.3 Conventions ........................ 465 G.4 Conversions ........................ 466 G.5 Binary operators ...................... 466 G.6 Complex arithmetic <complex.h> .............. 470 G.7 Type-generic math <tgmath.h> ............... 478 Annex H (informative) Language independent arithmetic .......... 479 H.1 Introduction ........................ 479 H.2 Types ........................... 479 H.3 Notification ........................ 483 Annex I (informative) Common warnings ................ 485 Annex J (informative) Portability issues ................. 487 J.1 Unspecified behavior ..................... 487 J.2 Undefined behavior ..................... 490 J.3 Implementation-defined behavior ................ 503 J.4 Locale-specific behavior ................... 510 J.5 Common extensions ..................... 511 Bibliography ........................... 514 Index .............................. 517 Contents ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E) .ISO/IEC Contents .ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (E)

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