声学手册,Master handbook of Acoustics(fifth edition)

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Master handbook of Acoustics(fifth edition),声学手册,一本已经出版了5个版本的图书,经典,有价值。
About the authors F. Alton Everest was a leading acoustics consultant He was cofounder and director of the science film Production division of the moody Institute of Science and was also section chief of the Subsea Sound Research section of the University of California. Ken C. pohlmann is well known as an audio educator consultant, and author. he is professor emeritus at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, consultant for many audio manufacturers and car makers and author of numerous articles and books including Principles of Digital audio Contributions are included from Peter D'Antonio Geoff Goacher and Doug Plum aster handbook of acoustics E Alton everest Ken C pohlman Fifth edition Mc Graw New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto The McGraw Hill companies Copyright o 2009, 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher ISBN:978-0-07-160333-1 MHID:0-07-160333-6 The material in this e Book also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-160332-4, MHID: 0-07-160332-8 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. 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Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract tort or otherwise Dedicated to the memory of f. Alton Everest This page intentionally left blank Contents Introducti 1 Fundamentals of sound The sine wave d in med Particle m Propagation of sound Speed of sound ·垂 Waⅴ elene nd f Compl Harmonics e ls 1233456789224 Octaⅴes ·番 Spectrum 111 Electrical, Mechanical, and Acoustical analogs 17 2 Sound levels and the decibel 19 Ratios versus differences 19 E xpressin ambers 20 Logarithms 21 Decibels 21 Reference levels 23 Logarithmic and Exponential Forms Compared 24 Acoustic power 25 Using decibels 27 Example 1: Sound-Pressure Level 28 Example 2: Loudspeaker SPL 28 Example 3: Microphone specifications 28 Example 4: Line A. pilfer 29 Example 5: General-Purpose Amplifier 29 Example 6: Concert Hall 29 Example 7: Combining Decibels 30 Measuring Sound-Pressure Level 30 Sine-Wave measurements 31 3 Sound in the free field 33 The free field 33 Sound Divergence 33 Sound intensity in the Free field 34 Contents Sound pressure in the free field 35 Examples: Free-Field Sound Divergence 36 ound Fields in Enclosed spaces 37 Hemispherical Field and propagation 4 The Perception of Sound 39 tivity of the ear Ear Anatomy 40 The Outer ear 41 Directional Cues: An Experiment 41 The ear canal 41 The Middle ear 42 The Inner ear 44 Stereocilia 45 Loudness versus Frequency 46 Loudness contro 48 Area of audibility 48 Loudness versus sound-Pressure level 49 Loudness and bandwidth 51 Loudness of Impulses 53 Audibility of loudness Changes 54 Pitch versus frequency 54 An Experiment in Pitch 55 The Missing Fundamental 56 Timbre versus spectrum Localization of sound sources 56 Binaural localization 58 Law of the first Wavefront The franssen effect 59 The Precedence effect 60 Perception of reflected Sound 61 The Cocktail-Party Effect 63 Aural nonlinearity 63 Subjective versus objective 64 Occupational and recreational deafness 65 Summary 5 Signals, Speech, Music, and noise ............ 69 Sound Spectrograph h 69 eec 70 Vocal tract Molding of Speech 73 Formation of Voiced Sounds 73 Formation of Unvoiced Sounds 74 Frequency Response of speech 74 Directionality of speech 75 Contents Music 76 String instruments 76 Wind Instruments 76 Nonharmonic overtones 77 Dynamic range of speech and music 77 Power in speech and musi 79 Frequency range of Speech and music 80 Auditory Area of Speech and M usIc 80 oise 80 Noise measurements 83 Random noise 83 White and pink noise 84 Signal Distortion 86 Harmonic distortion 87 Resonance audio filte 6 Reflection 95 Specular reflections 95 Flutter echoes 97 Doubling of Pressure at Reflection 97 Reflections from Convex Surfaces Reflections from Concave Surfaces Reflections from Parabolic surfaces Whispering Galleries Standing Waves 100 The Corner reflector 01 Mean Free Path 102 Perception of Sound reflections 103 The Effect of Single Reflections .103 Perception of Spaciousness, Images and echoes 104 Effect of Angle of Incidence, Signal Type, and Spectrum on audibility of reflection 105 7 Diffraction 107 Wavefront Propagation and Diffraction 107 Wavelength and diffraction 107 Diffraction of Sound by obstacles 108 Diffraction of Sound by apertures 111 Diffraction of Sound by a slit Diffraction by the Zone plate 113 Diffraction around the human head 113 Diffraction by loudspeaker Cabinet edges 113 Diffraction by various Objects 115

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